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D E K S A W UY YOIOLOG B IE V RE R FO I .. T BIOMOLECULES Building Block Carbohydr Simple ate

sugars Protein Amino acids Uses Ready source of Glucose energy Glycogen Cellulose Starch Lipid Fatty Acids Example Test s

Transport Speed up reactions Immunity Cell communicati on Enzymes (-ase) Hemoglobi n Antibodies Protein hormones (insulin) Back up Fats, oils energy source In membrane

STARCH turns purple in iodine SUGARS react with Benedicts Solution Reacts with Biuret Solution Leaves oily spot on brown paper bag CELLS PROKARYOTIC Prokaryotic cells have DNA and ribosomes, but they have no internal membranes! (They don't

have a nucleus) They have ribosomes to make proteins These are the simplest cells Examples are bacteria, like those that cause strep throat. EUKARYOTIC Eukaryotic cells have their DNA surrounded by a membrane. (They have a nucleus). Two examples shown are plant cells and animal cells, but fungi and protists are also eukaryotic Notice, plants have chloroplasts (for photosynthesis) and cell walls made of cellulose. Animal cells don't have these

parts. Also, plant cells have a larger vacuole for storage. Both plants and animals have mitochondria to make ATP. All eukaryotic cells have ribosomes to make protein These cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. CELL MEMBRANE The plasma membrane surrounds EVERY cell. It is made of lipid and protein It controls what goes in and out of a cell. Associated with HOMEOSTASIS CELL TRANSPORT E S E s te M i n

s o i Y e t c v i on a i t Z t c c re s a a N r n t re fo tio a e

c ac te h fi i t e tra c r n e p N i s I p b s u u e ed TE s bl g O e ed r a pe to sa an PR s ind reu ch of b re not de a re m a a re

a PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION CONVERTS SUNLIGHT TO CHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERTS ENERGY IN FOOD (GLUCOSE) TO ATP Cellular Respiration Takes place in mitochondrion Releases the energy stored in glucose AKA aerobic respiration (NEEDS oxygen) AEROBIC VS ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION AEROBIC RESPIRATION Requires oxygen

Makes A LOT of ATP Produces carbon dioxide and water Happens in mitochondrion ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Does not use oxygen Makes only 2 ATP Small amount of ATP Also called fermentation YEASTS make ethyl alcohol BACTERIA and MUSCLE CELLS (w/o O2) make LACTIC ACID Happens in cytoplasm (cytosol)

ATP CYCLE CLICK THE ICON FOR SOUND ASEXUAL VS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Creates identical copies (clones) Only involves MITOSIS ONE parent involved Common in bacteria and unicellular protists SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Adds genetic variation Involves meiosis and fertilization TWO parents involved Diploid and haploid

cells MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS MITOSIS One division 2n 2n (same number of chromosomes) Results in 2 genetically identical cells MEIOSIS Two divisions 2n n Half the number of chromosomes Results in 4 DIFFERENT haploid cells Forms gametes (egg and sperm) DNA DNA is a polymer of nucleotides.

A nucleotide is made up of three parts: a sugar, a phosphate and one of four bases In DNA, the bases are A, T, C, and G DNAs shape is a double helix The two strands are held together by HYDROGEN bonds A binds to T C binds with G DNA REPLICATION Process of DNA copying itself Steps DNA Unzips (Hydrogen bonds break) Each side acts as a template New DNA nucleotides are added according to base-pairing rules Two new molecules of DNA result each with one old and one new strand. Happens in INTERPHASE (before mitosis or meiosis) PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

Remember, genes are made of DNA and are in the nucleus Genes (DNA) contain the instruction for making a protein In transcription, DNA is used to make mRNA in the nucleus mRNA then leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome In translation, tRNA then brings amino acids in the proper order to make the protein on the ribosome. DNA mRNA protein Made of amino acids PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE PARTS? 1. DNA 2. mRNA 3. Nucleus 4. Cytoplasm 5. Ribosome 6. Codon 7. Anticodon 8. tRNA 9. Amino acid 10.Protein (polypeptide) READING THE CODON CHART Be sure to use mRNA You wont have to memorize this!

What amino acid is coded for by the DNA ATA GAG First convert DNA to mRNA ATA GAG UAU CUC UAU = tyr CUC = Leu GENETICS We have two genes for each trait this is our GENOTYPE One gene came from mom, one from dad If the genes are alike, the individual is homozygous (RR, rr) If the genes are different , they are heterozygous (Rr) Some genes are dominant and others are recessive We only show a recessive trait if we have no dominant gene RR and Rr would look dominant

rr would look recessive This diagram shows the cross between 2 heterozygous purple flowers Cross is: Bb x Bb Notice that 75% are purple and 25% white SEX LINKAGE Females are XX Males are XY Sex-linked traits are on X chromosome Trait is more common in MALES Examples are colorblindness and hemophilia (blood fails to clot) Males give X chromosomes to their daughters and Ys

to their sons Moms give Xs to both daughters and sons CODOMINANCE BLOOD TYPE Four blood types A, B, AB, O Three different alleles: A, B or neither A = AA or AO B = BB or BO AB = AB O = OO Agglutinog en = protein PEDIGREES Tracing traits through generations

Males are squares Females are circles Horizontal line means married Vertical line means children Filled in circle means the individual HAS the condition Can you identify the genotypes of individuals 4, 7, 12?

4 = Ee (parent 2 had to give an e) 7 = Ee (child is ee, so they had to have one e) 12 = ee (affected with recessive condition) 3 21s = Down Syndrome E ra P Y ar T ing O ow Y h R rt s A K cha A em g

n t en of om r ch o os m es XY = male

In humans, 22 pair of autosomes 1 pair of sex chromosomes XX = female XY = male Extra chromosomes a result of non-disjunction Chromosome pairs fail to separate in meiosis One example is DOWN SYNDROME (extra 21) Another example is KLINEFELTERS (XXY) GENETIC TECHNOLOGY DNA FINGERPRINTING TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS Organisms that have 2 different kinds of DNA Gene cloning Uses bacteria to make human proteins like

insulin Use gel electrophoresis to compare DNA fragments IF DNA matches, its from the same individual Evidence points to suspect 2 EVOLUTION CHANGE OVER TIME EVIDENCE NATURAL SELECTION Fossil evidence Credited to Charles Darwin Fossils found in sedimentary rock Lower level fossils are older and more PRIMITIVE

We can compare fossils to modern organisms Similar structure suggests common ancestor Biochemical evidence DNA and protein similarities suggest common ancestor Organisms in populations have variations that can be passed from generation to generation More organisms born that environment can support Organisms compete for resources Those organisms with favorable variations have more babies and the population evolves

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