www.Apushreview.com AMERICAN HISTORY: CHAPTER 3 REVIEW VIDEO Society and Culture in Provincial America The Colonial Population Indentured servants: of Chesapeake immigrants in 17th century Served 4-5 years of labor in exchange for passage Factors that promoted indentured servants: Native population did not make good laborers Headright system

50 acres of land Decline of indentured servants: Indentured servants would become free Bacons Rebellion The Colonial Population Cont. Women and Families in the Colonies: Chesapeake: High mortality rate affected traditional families High birth rate for married women (every 2 years) New England: Family was more stable than South lower death rate

Close-knit families were common Puritanism played a large role in daily life Similarities?: Fewer rights then men Had many children Province of Ulster The Colonial Population Cont. Beginnings of Slavery: 11 million Africans were forced to come to the Americas Middle Passage Mid-1690s: Royal African Company of England lost their monopoly on the slave trade

Slave Codes: laws that regulated the behavior of slaves Marriage, reading, etc. Changing Sources of European Immigration: French, German, Irish, Scottish, etc. begin to emigrate in large numbers Edict of Nantes Allowed Huguenots (French Protestants) to practice their religions Germans settled in Pennsylvania Scotts-Irish settled in North Carolina, especially on the frontier Largest group in the 18th century The Colonial Economies Similarities between regions:

Farming was common throughout Trade with Natives Southern Economy: Tobacco in the Chesapeake: More tobacco = more land Demand caused problems of overproduction in 1640s GA and SC = rice Harsh conditions, many whites refused to do SC = indigo Important dye Farms and plantations dominated the South, so few cities developed

The Colonial Economies Cont. Northern Economic and Technological Life: Large-scale farming did not develop in NE Colder climate, rocky terrain Middle Colonies (NY, PA) produced wheat Commercial economy was important New industries grew by 1650s: Lumbering, mining, fishing, ship building The Rise of Colonial Commerce: Most colonists did not have specie (gold or silver)

Commerce based on barter Triangular Trade: Interaction between Europe, Africa, and the Americas British Navigation Acts required colonists to only trade with Britain Colonists got around these laws by SMUGGLING! Patterns of Society In England, most people did NOT own property; not the case in the colonies The Plantation: Started in the Chesapeake tobacco Plantations were far from towns -> different governments than in NE Large plantations may have provided schools and chapels

Plantation Slavery: Most slaves lived on large plantations Slaves developed a unique culture, religion, and family structure Stono Rebellion: SC 1739, 100 Africans revolted, stole weapons, killed many whites As a result, laws became more strict regulating slaves Most slaves resisted slavery by running away Patterns of Society Cont. The Puritan Community: Town played a large role in daily life Divided up land, provided fields Town meeting yearly elections (males, landowning, church members)

increased church membership, but sacrificed religious purity Salem Witch Trials Halfway Covenant Hysteria throughout MA Accused tended to be wealthier, widowed, and middle-ages Reflected religious and social tensions Most of the accused were independent which challenged Puritan society Patterns of Society Cont.

Cities: Philly and NY had over 25,000 by late 1700s Emerged as trading centers Established government New ideas emerged and spread Inequality: Wealthy had increased power in churches and society Men had more power than women Awakenings and Enlightenments Tensions between Protestants and Catholics (New France) RI: Jews could worship freely Westward expansion led to a decrease in power of church The Great Awakening:

1730s 1740s, everyone can develop a new relationship with God George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards Sinners In The Hands Of New Lights v. Old Lights An Angry God New sects, or branches, emerge The Enlightenment: Movement away from religion Reason, not faith, could find knowledge Helped undermine the power of traditional authority John Locke Awakenings and Enlightenments Cont. Education:

MA law required every town to have a public school (1647) Influence of close proximity and religion Literacy rates were high among white males In most (all) instances, slaves were prohibited from reading Prior to 1763, 4 out of 6 colleges were founded as schools for preachers The Spread of Science: Lightning Rod Inoculation of small pox Concepts of Law and Politics: John Peter Zenger Trial Criticism of government officials was legal, if they were true Colonial governments enjoyed self-government

Colonial legislatures were powerful Salutary Neglect colonists were left alone, as long as they were profitable Past Essay Topics Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the British colonies in North America. Assess the validity of this statement for the 1600s. (2005 Form B) Analyze the origins and development of slavery in Britains North American colonies in the period 1607 to 1776. (2011)

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