World War I

World War I 1914-1918 This war changed the face of Europe, bringing down old countries and creating new one

In the US, war lead to tighter government controls of economy, armed services, taxation, debt, use of women and minority workers, limits on civil rights Aftermath would be two decades of American isolation Turned US into worlds biggest economic power

Origins of the War in Europe Nationalism Economic rivalries and imperialism Alliance system

Militarism Nationalism Nationalism-pride in ones nation and belief in its superiority This led to rivalries between European Great Powers such as France

and Germany. Also led to ethnic groups demanding their own nation Austria Hungary threatened with dismemberment by ethnic groups demanding independence

Economic Rivalries and Imperialism Germany industrialized faster than any other country in Europe, threatened British Russian wanted to expand into Balkan area, this threatened AustriaHungary and Ottoman Turkey Just like we thought golden opportunity overseas, Europe saw golden

opportunity in its own continent German Emperor Keiser Wilhelm II Alliance System

Once Germany began increasing their power other countries got scared and decided to form alliances Germany-Austria France-Russia Great Britain-France

Militarism Countries competed to build largest military British had powerful navy and were suspicious of Germany growing navy

Germany worried about fighting war with Russia and France at once, built large army Flashpoint of the War Serb nationalist gained independence and had a mission to unite

other nearby ethnic groups-Russia supported them Aus-Hun wanted to limit Serbia and took Bosnia from the Ottomans 6/28/1914- Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austria Hungary was assassinated in Sarajevo by Slavic Nationalist

Ultimatum Aus-Hun team up with Germans (theyve always been friends, Germans believe Austrians are like brothers, share same language) Send letter to Serbia saying Aus-Hun had to do their own investigation and Serbia must prosecute anyone showing Anti-AusHun propaganda

and any internal terrorist including the Black Hand who claimed responsibility for assassination. Serbia agreed to everything but letting Aus come in an do their own investigation, asked Russia (common ally) to support them

Austria with a push from Germany declares war on Serbia Russia backs Serbia France pulled in with alliance with Russia When Germany marches through neutral friend Belgium, England enters war Schlieffen Plan

Central Powers-Germany, Aus-Hun, Ottoman Turkey Allied Powers- Britain, France, Russia German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg exclaimed that he could not believe that Britain and Germany would be going to war

over a mere "scrap of paper." Fighting in Europe New weapons-machine guns, poison gas, submarines, airplanes, tanks Trench Warfare

Naval Blockade Airplanes Trench Warfare German advanced through Belgium and northern France but machine

gun use from France stopped them from continuing Both sides dug trenches for 100s of miles Soldiers suffered ear damage from bombs, rats, lice, dampness, trench food, other diseases Trenches separated by barbed wire and land mines known as no

mans land Tanks were still new and unable to break through Poison gas-started to be used

From the trenches Whilst asleep during the night, we were frequently awakened by rats running over us. When this happened too often for my liking, I would lie on my back and wait for a rat to linger on my legs; then violently heave my legs upwards, throwing the rat into the air. Occasionally, I would hear a grunt when the rat landed on a fellow victim.

(R L Venables) If you have never had trench foot described to you, I will explain. Your feet swell to two to three times their normal size and go completely dead. You can stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If you are lucky enough not to lose your feet and the swelling starts to go down, it is then that the most indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and scream

with pain and many have had to have their feet and legs amputated. I was one of the lucky ones, but one more day in that trench and it may have been too late. (Harry Roberts) Poison gas (chlorine) was used for the first time at the Second Battle of Ypres in

April 1915. At around 17.00 hours on the 22nd April, French sentries in Ypres noticed a yellow-green cloud moving towards them - a gas delivered from pressurised cylinders dug into the German front line between Steenstraat and Langemarck. They thought that it was a smokescreen to disguise the movement forwards of German troops. As such, all troops in the area were ordered to the

firing line of their trench - right in the path of the chlorine. Its impact was immediate and devastating. The French and their Algerian comrades fled in terror. Their understandable reaction created an opportunity for the Germans to advance unhindered into the strategically important Ypres salient. But even the Germans were unprepared and surprised by the impact of chlorine and they

failed to follow up the success of the chlorine attack. Naval Blockade British large navy- blocked Germany from getting supplies shipped to

them from other countries Germany had submarines and did the same thing outside British waters Airplanes

Airplanes for stated to be used for reconnaissance-to see what was happening on the battlefield below Airplanes engaged in dogfights duels in the sky America goes to War

Yes we were imperial but that doesnt mean we wanted to get involved in European drama Washington Farewell Address-stay out of Europe drama US was not a member of any alliance President Wilson gets reelect in 1916 with campaign slogan He kept

us out of war Pacifist-a person who believes that war and violence are unjustifiable Reasons Cultural Ties

German Atrocities and Allied Propaganda Isolation of the Central Powers German Submarine Warfare and the United States Cultural ties

Ancestral roots to British Common language, history Same political system-democracy German controlled by Kaiser-emperor Anti German militarism

German Atrocities and Propaganda Americans against German invasion of Belgium Schlieffen Plan called for quickest victory in France through Belgium, violated international law

American propaganda- yellow journalism Isolation of Central Powers Because of blockade, nothing German reached US, but trade with Britain and French trade increased 4x between 1914-1916

American bankers lend $2 billion to Allied powers and only 10% of that to Central US main source of supply for allied German Subs

To break British blockade, Germans used submarines The blockade was against international law, Germany was starving US used convoys- groups of ships sending supplies to England with US navy as protection German submarines-U-boats, small, no warning or rescue-against law

Germans did not intend to attack American ships, but Americans traveling on Allied ships would be effected Sinking of the Lusitania May 1915 5/7/1915- German sub shot a torpedo at the Lusitania off of IrelandBritish passenger ship sailing from NY

More than a thousand killed- 128 Americans 94 children Newspapers reported Germans said it had secretly hid weapons on ships President Wilson-protest but no war

Sussex Pledge 1916 After Germany sand French passenger ship Sussex, Wilson threatened Germany Germany pledge no more attacks on passenger ships without warning, only if US persuaded Britain to lift blockade

January 1917 Germany desperate from lack of supplies due to British blockade On other side, Russia and France almost defeated Germans thinking-lift the pledge and sink everything quickly and end

the war Against US policy freedom of the seas-neutral country allowed to ship non-military goods to all nations (who did this help more-England or Germany?)

Zimmerman Telegram, March 1917 Secret telegram discovered and decoded by British from German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmerman, promised return of NM, Ariz, Texas to Mexico in return for its alliance Telegram printed in newspapers 3/1/1917

March 1917 Wilson still not going to war unless overt acts German subs sank unarmed American ships Wilson ask congress for declaration of war 4/1917

Safe for Democracy To sell the war, tone changed from Freedom of the Seas to Safe for Democracy

America at War 1917-1918 Mobilization Selective Service Act Committee of Public Information War-Time Economy

Paying for the War Civil Rights on the Home Front Experiences of Women and Minorities Labor Shortage and Great Migration

Mobilization Mobilizing-bringing into use vast resources for a specific purpose (war) AEF-American Expeditionary Force-headed by General Pershing US not ready

Selective Service Act Conscription-compulsory military service (required) draft 10 million men registered- 3 million were drafted, 2 million volunteered

Conscientious objectors- people who refused to serve because of beliefs (pacifist), did non-combat roles (ex. Nursing) Committee of Public Information George Creel ran the CPI

Agency in charge of propaganda for the war War-Time Economy War saw expansion of federal government and its powers, laissez faire took a back seat to government partnerships with big business and organized labor

War Industries Board- Bernard Baruch Food Administration- Herbert Hoover-helped persuade the public to eat less for the troops Fuel Administration-regulated coal and gasoline Railroad Administration-William McAdoo, nationalized railroads

Emergency Ship Corporation-agenecy used to build ships to transport men War Labor Board-group used to mediate disputes between labor and owners. We cannot have strikes in the middle of a war!!!!!! Paying for the War

War cost $30 billion, 30 times what US made off of taxes Debt rose from $1 billion to $20 billion War bonds were used to pay for the war (Liberty Bonds) Bonds- a note sold by the government promising to pay interest to the holder of the bond

1/3 of money spent was lent to Allies- US became a creditor not a debtor (foreign countries owing US money Civil Rights War leads to reduction of individual rights for national security

Espionage Act 1917- allowed government to censor mail and arrest anyone interfering with the enforcement of the draft Sedition Act of 1918-crime to use disloyal or abusive language about the government, flag, or Constitution Government prosecuted 2,000 people

Socialist Party grew in opposition- June 1918- Eugene Debs gave antiwar speech and was arrested Charles Schenck-arrested for violating the Espionage Act for mailing leaflets advising men to resist draft Claimed freedom of speech

Schenck vs. US 1919- Supreme Court upheld arrest and limit on free speech- a clear and present danger Same with Debs vs US Experiences of Women and

Minorities Jeanette Rankin-first woman in Congress 1917 Women were split on the war but the big issue was suffrage Many women took mens jobs because of the labor shortage NAWSA-Nat. Amer. Woman Suffrage Assoc.

German Americans 1914 up to 25% of US population had German ancestry Leading foreign language (remember Haymarket poster) Fear of spies and CPI put out negative propaganda, German books taken out

of libraries and burned German food renamed hamburgers=liberty steaks German Amer. changed last names, had to be fingerprinted, take questionnaire, and oath of allegiance 4000 imprisoned as suspected spies and $200 million in assets seized by

government. Roger Prager- hanged for being German American Indians 6,000 volunteered and 6,000 drafted- 20% of all eligible males

Chcktaw soldiers sent messages by radio to prevent Germans from deciphering Purchased $15 million in war bonds Indian Citizenship Act of 1919-gave Indians who served right to citizenship

Jewish Americans Jewish discrimination led to Anti-Defamation League 3% of US pop was Jewish, but 5% of Army was Jewish American Jewish Joint Distribution raised $63 million

African Americans African Americans upset at Wilsons race relations. Marched in NYC protesting Jim Crow laws and lynchings 100,000 fought in France, some assigned directly to French

Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts-first Americans to receive French Croix de Guerre (Cross of War) medal Racist in Houston insulted A.A group of soldiers and they fired back at them killing 17, 13 soldiers were hanged After living in France, less racist, AA soldiers came back to protest

racism in US Hispanic Americans Shortage of farm workers made it easier for Mexicans to enter US Congress gave citizenship to Puerto Ricans who volunteered

Asian Americans Any who served could become citizens But the Immigration Act of 1917 stopped any future Japanese/Chinese immigration

Philippines were going to send 25,000 men to France but war ended beforehand Labor Shortage and Great Migration Women, African Americans, and other minorities took jobs in

factories, farms, and railroads Great Migration-African Americans began moving to the North after being recruited by factories Both North and South whites were not happy

Over There Allied Victory Socialist take over in Russia and they drop out of the war 2 million US troops reached Europe Germany surrendered on November 1918 Armistice-ceasefire

USA in war 1 year and lost 117,000 lives Wilson and the Treaty of Versailles Fourteen Points Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

Fourteen Points War was a crusade for democracy National self determination for European people Redraw map

Austria-Hungary split up Poland reunited New Diplomacy not militarism Freedom of the seas, reduce trade, reduce arms New international peace org- League of Nations

In order to get better peace terms, Germany overthrew Kaiser style government for more democratic gov Treaty of Versailles

Very harsh on Germany, Wilson protested, but Allies wanted revenge Germany lost territory to France and Poland, and any colonies Lost its navy, army reduced to police force War Guilt-signed document accepting blame for starting war Pay huge reparations-payment for damages

Austria Hungary-divided into small countries Ottoman overthrew emperor (Sultan)-Turkey became a republic League of Nations Versailles Treaty created League of Nations

Wilson needed support of 2/3 of Senate to approve treaty Senate objected to continue international involvement Senator Henry Cabot Lodge fought Wilson over League of Nations Wilson went all over the country making speeches, exhausted, suffered stroke, left him partially paralyzed

Senate rejected, signed treaty with Germany in 1921 US never joined League of Nation Florida Pensacola became big naval air base

Key West became a submarine base Tampa and Jacksonville built allied ships

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