World History One SOL review! - GO cHARGERS

World History One SOL review! Mind maps! Early Man and Early Civilization SOL #2-4 migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas Early humans were hunters and gatherers Homo Sapiens East Africa 100,000 to 400,000 years ago STANDARD WHI.2a Life in early huntergatherer

were nomadic, migrating in search of food, water, shelter invented the first tools, including simple weapons learned how to make and use fire lived in clans Early human societies, through the development of culture, began the process of overcoming the limits set by the STANDARD WHI.2b physical environment. created cave art.

Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) developed oral language developed agriculture (domesticated plants and animals) developed weaving skills Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) used advanced tools made pottery STANDARD WHI.2c The beginning of agriculture, including permanent settlements, was a major

Archaeologists continue to find and interpret evidence of early humans and their lives. apply scientific tests, such as carbon dating, to analyze fossils and artifacts study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, settlements, fossils, and artifacts Stonehenge is an example of an archaeological site in England STANDARD WHI.2d Archaeologists Aleppo and Jericho

are examples of early cities in the Fertile Crescent atalhyk is an example of a Neolithic settlement currently under excavation in Anatolia Mesopotamian civilization: Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys Egyptian civilization: Nile River Valley and Nile Delta River valley civilizations3500 to 500 B.C. [B.C.E.] STANDARD WHI.3a These river valleys offered rich soil and irrigation water for agriculture, and they tended to be in locations easily protected from invasion by

nomadic peoples. Indian civilization: Indus River Valley Chinese civilization: Huang He Valley During the New Stone Age, permanent settlements appeared in river valleys and around the Fertile Mesopotamian Civilization Egyptian civilization Chinese Indian civilization civilization

Indian Ocean Black Sea Fe rti th e Nile River Delta Eu p er Riv ris Tig ia am ot Mediterranean Sea op es M

le Cr es ce nt Asia Minor (Anatolia) hr at es Ri ve r iver Nile R Arabian Peninsula River valleys provided water and rich

soil for crops as well as protection fromNubia invasion. was located on the upper (southern) Nile River (Africa). Phoenicians settled along the Mediterranean coast (part of Fertile Crescent in Southwest Asia) STANDARD WHI.3a Other early civilizations (about 2000 to 500 B.C. [B.C.E.]) Hebrews settled between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley (part of Fertile Crescent in Southwest Asia).

Development of social patterns Hereditary rulers: Dynasties of kings, pharaohs River valleys were the Cradles of Civilization. Early civilizations Rigid class system where slavery was accepted STANDARD WHI.3b Development of political patterns Worlds first states (i.e., city-states, kingdoms, empires) Centralized government,

often based on religious authority Written law codes (e.g., Ten Commandments, Code of Hammurabi) Increasing trade along rivers and by sea (Phoenicians) Development of economic patterns Increasing agricultural surplus: Better tools, plows, irrigation STANDARD WHI.3b Use of metal (e.g., bronze, iron) tools and weapons Development of the worlds first cities Development of the practice of slavery within most cultures in the ancient

world, taking various forms River valleys were the Cradles of Civilization. Early civilizations Religion was a major part of life in all early civilizations. STANDARD WHI.3c Monotheism was practiced by the Hebrews. Development of religious traditions Polytheism was practiced by most early civilizations.

Abraham- Father of Judaism Moses- lead Hebrews on Exodus out of Egypt Jerusalem- Capital city- Temple to God Origins of Judaism STANDARD WHI.3d Torah, which contains the written records and beliefs of the Jews Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Judaism Belief in one God (monotheism) The monotheism of Abraham became the foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islamreligions

that changed the world. The Spread of Judaism Hebrews were Exileto Babylon the first to Diaspora- the spreading become monotheists. Ten Commandments, which state moral and religious conduct Pictograms: Earliest written symbols Cuneiform: Sumer Language and writing Hieroglyphics: Egypt STANDARD WHI.3e

Alphabet: Phoenicia Language and writing were important cultural Central Asian and Mesopotamian civilizations, Persia developed the largest empire in the world. Zoroastrianism was the main Persian religion, although other religions were tolerated STANDARD WHI. 4a Construction of road

system Practice of Zoroastrianism Religion of Persia Belief in two opposing forces in the universe- Good vs Evil Persian Empire Tolerance of conquered peoples Development of an imperial bureaucracy Physical barriers, such as the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, and the Indian Ocean, made invasion difficult. The Indus and Ganges were the important rivers in the Indian subcontinent. Harappa and MohenjoDaro- Earliest cities in India Physical geography of

India STANDARD WHI.4b Indus River Valley civilization Mountain passes in the Hindu Kush provided migration routes into the Indian subcontinent. Classical Indian civilization began in the Indus River Valley, spread to the Ganges River Valley, and then spread throughout the Indian subcontinent. This spread continued with little interruption because of the geographic location. Ku

sh u Hi nd i R s u d In Hi m r e v Mo hen jo Har a

-Da ro- ppa ala ya s Ganges River Indian Ocean -Migration, assertion of -Golden Age of classical Indian dominance -Caste system, which influenced all social interactions and choices of occupations culture -Contributions: Mathematics (concept of zero), medical advances (setting bones),

astronomy (concept of a round earth), new textiles, literature Mauryan Empire - Asoka Continued political unification of much of India -Contributions: Spread of Buddhism, free hospitals, veterinary clinics, good roads - Aryans (Indo-Aryans) STANDARD WHI .4b Indo-Aryan people migrated into the area, creating a structured society (caste and Duringsystem) the Golden blending their Age

of classical beliefs with those of Indian culture, the indigenous Indian people made Gupta Empire Karma: Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences Hinduism Vedas and Upanishads: Sacred writings Reincarnation: Rebirth based upon karma STANDARD WHI.4c Spread along major trade

routes Belief in many forms of one God Hinduism was an important contribution of classical India. Hinduism influenced Indian society and culture Siddhartha Gautama in a part of India that is in present-day Nepal. Buddhism became a major faith when Asoka sent missionaries throughout Asia. Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)

STANDARD WHI.4d Eightfold Path to Enlightenment Asokas missionaries and their writings spread Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia. Buddhism Four Noble Truths China was governed by a succession of ruling families called dynasties. Chinese rulers were considered divine, but they served under a Mandate of Heaven only as long as their rule was just. Migratory invaders raided Chinese settlements from the north. Qin Shi Huangdi built the Great Wall as a line of defense against invasions.

Early China STANDARD WHI.4e The Silk Road facilitated trade and contact between China and other cultures as far away as Rome. Contributions of classical China Civil service system Paper Classical China Porcelain Silk was centered on the Huang He (Yellow River) and was geographically isolated. Invaders entered China

from the north. Impact of Taoism in forming Chinese culture and values Humility Simple life and inner peace Harmony with nature Impact of Confucianism in forming the social order in China Taoism STANDARD WHI.4f Confucianism Chinese culture began around 1500 B.C. (B.C.E.). Of Chinese

contributions to civilization, Confucianism and Taoism are among Yin and yang represented the most noted. opposites for Confucianism and Taoism. Chinese forms of Buddhism spread throughout Asia. Belief that humans are good, not bad Respect for elders Code of politeness (still used in Chinese society today) Emphasis on education Ancestor worship The Greeks! SOL #5 Aegean Sea Balkan and

Peloponnesus peninsula, Europe, Asia Minor Athens, Sparta, Troy Macedonia Physical geography of the Aegean Basin STANDARD WHI.5a Mediterranean Sea Black Sea, Dardanelles The physical geography of the Aegean Basin shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greek civilization.

ps ain l A nt ou M Black Sea les nel a d Dar Asia Minor is Tigr r Rive r Rive Nile Africa ia tam

Mediterranean Sea po so Me Aegean Sea Phoenicia Balkan Peninsula Hebr ews pe o r u E Eu ph Ri rat

ve es r Arabian Peninsula Asia Balkan peninsula Black Sea lle ne a d arTroy D Macedonia Aegean Sea Peloponnesus Athens peninsula Sparta

Mediterranean Sea s Asia Minor Mountainous terrain both helped and hindered the development of citystates. Political development Greek cities were designed to promote civic and commercial life. Colonization was prompted by overpopulation and the search for arable land. Agriculture (limited arable land) Commerce and the spread of Hellenic

culture STANDARD WHI.5a Economic and social development economic, social, and political development of Greek civilization. The expansion of Greek civilization through trade and colonization led to the spread of Hellenic culture across the Mediterranean and Black seas Shift from barter to money economy (coins) Based on polytheistic religion Greek mythology

Offered explanations of natural phenomena, Greek mythology human qualities, was and based on a life events polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics, and art in ancient Greece. Many of Western civilizations symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from Symbols and images in Western literature, art, and architecture

Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Aphrodite STANDARD WHI.5b King of gods Goddess Childbirth God light Goddess Hunt Goddess wisdom Goddess love Women and foreigners had no political rights. Citizens (free adult

males) had political rights and the responsibility of civic participation in government. STANDARD WHI.5c Social structure and citizenship in the Greek polis most democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision making. It became a foundation of modern

Slaves had no political democracies. rights Stages in the evolution of Athenian government: Monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, democracy Origin of democratic principles: Direct democracy, public debate, duties of the citizen Oligarchy (rule by a small group) Rigid social structure Athens STANDARD WHI.5c Sparta Classical Athens Tyrants who the

worked for developed most reform: Draco, Solon democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision making. It became a foundation of modern democracies. Contrasting philosophies of government divided the Greek citystates of Athens (democracy) Militaristicand and Sparta (oligarchy).

aggressive society Persian wars united Athens and Sparta against the Persian Empire. Importance of Persian Wars (499449 B.C. [B.C.E.]) Athenian victories over the Persians at Marathon and Salamis left Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea STANDARD WHI.5d Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture. The Greeks defeated the

Persian empire and preserved their political independence. Competition between Sparta and Athens for STANDARD WHI.5d control of Greece helped cause the Peloponnesian War. Resulted in slowing of cultural advance and the weakening of political power Importance of Peloponnesian War (431 404 B.C. [B.C.E.]) Caused in part by competition for control

of the Greek world: Athens and the Delian League versus Sparta and the Peloponnesian League Pericles extended democracy; most adult males had an equal voice. Golden Age of Pericles (mostly occurring between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars) STANDARD WHI.5e Athenian culture during the classical era became one of the Pericles had Athens rebuilt after

destruction in the Persian Wars; the Parthenon is an example of this reconstruction. Parthenon 50 0 49 0 48 0 Pe rs i 49 an W 9 b. -449 ars c. Go l 47 0

46 0 de n A 46 ge 1 to of P 42 er 9 icl 45 0 es 44 0 43 0 42 0 Pe W lop ar o

43 nn 1- es 40 ia 4 n b. c. 41 0 The Fifth Century B.C. In Greece Drama: Aeschylus, Sophocles Poetry: Homer (Iliad and Odyssey) History: Herodotus, Thucydides Sculpture: Phidias

Contributions of Greek culture to Western civilization Architecture: Types of columns, including the Doric (Parthenon), Ionic, and Corinthian STANDARD WHI.5f Science: Archimedes, Hippocrates Athenian culture during the classical era became Philosophy:

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Mathematics: Euclid, Pythagoras Conquered most of Greece Philip II, King of Macedon Hellenistic Age STANDARD WHI.5g weakening of Greek defenses during the Peloponnesian Wars. Alexander the Great adopted Greek culture and spread Hellenistic influences throughout his vast empire

Blend of Greek and oriental elements Spread of Hellenistic culture through trade Extended Greek cultural influences Alexander the Great Established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India The Romans SOL #6 Rome: Centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin and distant from eastern Mediterranean powers Protection

TheAlps: city of Rome, with its central location on the Italian peninsula, was able to extend its influence over the entire Mediterranean Basin . The Italian peninsula was protected by the Italian Peninsula Locations and places STANDARD WHI.6a Mediterranean Sea: Protection, sea-borne commerce Roman mythology, like

Greek mythology, was based upon a . polytheistic Many of Western religion that was civilizations integral symbols,to culture, politics, metaphors, and art. words, and idealized images come from ancient Roman mythology. Roman mythology Explanations of

natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events Based on the Greek polytheistic religion Roman gods and goddesses STANDARD WHI.6b Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, and Venus Symbols and images in literature, art, and architecture Patricians: Powerful nobility (few in number) Social structure in the Roman Republic Plebeians: Majority of population

Slaves: Not based on race Citizenship STANDARD WHI.6c Although women, most aliens (nonRomans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Patrician and plebeian men Selected foreigners Rights and responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., taxes, military service)

. Representative democracy (Republic) STANDARD WHI.6c Assemblies The Senate (The governing body) Features of democracy Although women, most aliens (nonRomans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Roman Consuls Republic made

(leaders of senate1 major year term- strides there are 2) in the development of representative democracy, which became Laws of Rome codified a as foundation Twelve Tables of modern Rome and Carthage were in competition for trade. Three wars resulted in Roman victory, the

After the destruction of Carthage, victory over and expanded trade and Carthage wealth for the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the Mediterranea n basin, Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage (264146 b.c. [b.c.e.]) STANDARD WHI.6d Hannibal invaded the Italian Peninsula.

After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the Mediterranea n basin, leading to the Mediterranean basin diffusion of (Africa, Asia, Europe, Roman including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern culture. Mediterranean) STANDARD WHI.6d Evolution of the Roman

Empire and spread of Roman culture Western Europe (Gaul (By Julius Caesar) , British Isles (by Claudius) Spread of slavery in the agricultural system Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic STANDARD WHI.6.e Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment Devaluation of Roman currency; inflation The Roman Republic, in

the face of changing social and economic Augustus Caesar: Civil war, defeat of Marc Anthony, Romes first emperor Empire: Unified and enlarged, using imperial authority and the military Julius Caesar: Seizure of power, assassination Failure to provide for peaceful succession of Emperors The origin and evolution of Imperial Rome STANDARD WHI.6e Caesar

First triumvirate Crassus First triumvirate Pompey The Roman Republic, in the face of changing social and economic conditions, succumbed to civil war and was replaced by Augustus an imperial 100 B.C.- Birth of Caesar 100B.C.

60 B.C. 59 B.C.- 1st Triumvirate (Caesar, Crassus, Pompey the Great) 58 B.C 51 B.C Caesar war in Gaul 50 B.C. 90 B.C 49 B.C.- 45 B.C. Civil War with Caesar and the Senate (Pompey) 48 B.C - The Battle of Pharsalus Caesar defeats Pompey 43 B.C.- 33 B.C 2nd Triumvirate (Octavius , Lepidus, and Mark Antony) 80 B.C. 42 BC -

Octavian and Antony set out to war, defeating Brutus and Cassius in two battles fought at Battle of Philippi 40 B.C. 73- 71 B.C.- Spartacus slave rebellion 31 B.C -The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman 70 B.C. 30 B.C. 27 BC Caesar Augustus becomes Emperor Republic. Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade

Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads The Pax Romana STANDARD WHI. Economic impact of the Pax Romana Expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire, particularly in the Near East Augustus Caesar established the Roman Empire by instituting civil service, rule by law, a common coinage,

and Promoted prosperity and stability secure travel and trade Returned stability to social classes Following Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity known asservice the Created a civil Pax Romana. Social impact of the Pax

Romana Increased emphasis on the family STANDARD WHI.6.g Political impact of the Pax Romana Developed a uniform rule of law Had its roots in Judaism Conflicted with polytheistic beliefs of Roman Empire Origins of Christianity STANDARD WHI.6h The followers of Jesus spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire,

bringing it into conflict with Was led by Jesus of Nazareth, who was proclaimed the Messiah Christian doctrines established by early church councils New Testament, containing accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as writings of early Christians Life after death The followers of Jesus spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, bringing it into conflict with

Roman polytheism and eventually STANDARD WHI.6h changing Western civilization. Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Christianity Jesus as both Son and incarnation of God Monotheism Popularity of the message Spread of Christianity Carried by the Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire STANDARD WHI.6h The followers of

Jesus spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, bringing it into conflict with Early martyrs inspired others The Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and made it legal. The Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe. STANDARD WHI.6i Loyalty to the Church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor. Impact of the Church of

Rome in the late Roman Empire As the Roman Empire declined in the West, the Church of Rome grew in The Church became a importance, source of moral authority followers, and influence. Christianity later became the official state religion. Art and architecture: Pantheon, Coliseum, Forum Technology:

Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches Science: Achievements of Ptolemy Contributions of ancient Rome Medicine: Emphasis on public health (public baths, public water systems, medical schools) Language: Latin, Romance languages STANDARD WHI.6j Conquests and trade spread Roman cultural

and technological achievements throughout the Empire. Law: The principle of innocent until proven guilty (from the Twelve Tables) Literature: Virgils Aeneid Religion: Roman mythology; adoption of Christianity as the imperial religion Pantheon Colosseum Roman Forum

Roman roads Aqueducts Roman arches Roman public baths Twelve Tables of Rome Geographic size: Difficulty of defense and administration Military: Army membership started to include non-Romans, resulting in decline of discipline Political problems: Civil conflict and weak administration Causes for the decline of the Western Roman

Empire STANDARD WHI.6k Over a 300 year period, the western part of the Roman Empire steadily declined because of internal and Economy: The cost of defense, and devaluation of Roman currency Moral decay: Peoples loss of faith in Rome and the family Invasion: Attacks on borders Survival of the Western Roman

Empire until 476 A.D. (C.E.), when it ceased to have a Roman Emperor Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) Division of the Roman Empire STANDARD WHI.6k Move of the capital by Constantine from Rome to Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople Over a 300 year period, the western part of the Roman Empire steadily declined because of internal and

external problems. Se c ti l Ba a Britain Dardanelles Straits Gaul Atlantic Ocean s p Al * Rome Spain

* Balkan Peninsula Black Sea * Constantinople *AthensAsia Minor Carthage Mediterranean Sea *Jerusalem Protection of the eastern frontier Crossroads of trade Location of Constantinople STANDARD WHI.7a Distance from Germanic invasions in the western

empire Easily fortified site on a peninsula bordered by natural harbors The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was changed to Constantinople to provide political, economic, and The Byzantines! SOL #7 Seat of the Byzantine Empire until Ottoman conquest Role of Constantinople STANDARD WHI.7a

The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was changed to Constantinople to provide political, economic, and Preserved classical GrecoRoman culture Center of trade Codification of Roman law (impact on European legal codes) Byzantine Emperor Justinian Expansion of trade Reconquest of former Roman territories STANDARD WHI.7b

As the first to codify Roman law, Justinian provided the basis for the law codes of Western Europe. Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and of architecture. STANDARD WHI.7c Icons (religious images) Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power

Byzantine achievements in art and architecture Hagia Sophia (a Byzantine domed church) Mosaics in public and religious structures Hagia Sophia Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions Greek Orthodox Christianity Byzantine culture STANDARD WHI.7c Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West) Greek and Roman

knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. Centered in Rome Western Church Use of Latin language in the liturgy Centered in Constantinople STANDARD WHI.7d Eastern Church Farther from seat of power after Constantinople became capital

The cultural and political differences between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires weakened Close to seat of power the after Constantinople unity of the became capital UseChristian of Greek language in Church the liturgy and led to its Authority of the Patriarch accepted in the East Authority of the Pope

eventually accepted in the West Division between Western and Eastern Churches STANDARD WHI.7d The cultural and political differences between the Eastern and Western Practices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the West Adoption of Greek alphabet for the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet) Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea

Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its STANDARD WHI.7e religion, culture, and trade. Influence of Byzantine culture on Eastern Europe and Russia Church architecture and religious art Adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe Moscow

Sea c ti Bal * Russia England France Dardanelles straits Atlantic Rome * Spain * Constantinople Asia Minor r Tig Aegean

Sea Black Sea r Ri r ve Mediterranean Nile River Delta Sea Jerusalem * Egypt Nile River ive is R s te ra ph Eu *

Carthage Balkan Peninsula

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