Who Were the Vikings? Where did the Vikings come from? The Vikings came from Norway, Sweden and Denmark which are North of England. Their land was not fertile. It was rocky. They found it hard to grow crops. They found that England was rich with plentiful lands and treasures. The climate was much warmer than where they came from, they preferred it and wanted to settle here. Who Were the Vikings
The Vikings, or Norse, were a race of Scandinavian warriors Raided Northern Europe, Western Asia, and Eastern North America. The exploits of the Norwegian Vikings lead them west to settle into Iceland in 860 and later to colonize Greenland The Swedish Vikings set out across the Baltic Sea into Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Russia. By the end of the first millennium the Vikings reached North America five hundred years before Columbus. How do we know about the Vikings? Vikings left many traces of their settlements that are still visible today. Archaeology provides physical evidence of their conquests,
settlements, and daily life. Not a lot of evidence survives, and much of what we have is either uninformative or unreliable. Many popular ideas of Vikings are 19th century inventions, such as horns on helmets. Surviving accounts of Viking activity was almost exclusively written by churchmen. These included monastic chronicles . The chronicles reflect the fact that Vikings attacked these monasteries for their wealth and the accounts had a hostile tone to give a popular image of Viking atrocities. Sagas and Runes Sagas Viking children did not go to school so instead, lessons came in the form of Sagas or long stories. They described the adventures
of great Viking warriors or gods. The Sagas were an important way to teach History, Geography and navigation. The Vikings often decorated buildings with pictures from famous sagas. Runes The Viking alphabet was called the Futhark. The letters or runes were carved into wood or stone. The runes are made of straight lines so it is easier to carve them. Pirate Invaders Men of war is how the Vikings are thought about and indeed they brought violence to England. Over 1200 years ago, sails were seen off the coast of Lindisfarne. The monks in the monastery watched as the longships came closer and landed.
The warriors were fierce and frightening. The monks were skilled fighters but could not hold them back. The Viking raiders took gold from Lindisfarne back to Norway, Sweden and Denmark. on 8 june 787 AD ravages of heathen men miserably destroyed Gods church on Lindisfarne with plunder and slaughter (Anglo Saxon Chronicle) These raids went on for many years as the Vikings stole from the monastery. The word Viking means pirate, and these pirates were about to get even greedier. The Longships were powered by sails or by
rowing with oars. The Vikings used longships to raid and steal from other lands. Longships The Viking longships were crafted out of woods and were very effective and skimming across the surface of the waves. The used their boats for transporting cargo, trading and for exploring. The Vikings even travelled to America, which they called Vineland, because grapes grew there. Battles and Tactics Vikings had no professional standing
army and tactics and discipline seemed at little development. Weapons training began at youth in hunting, sports, and raiding. A leader needed to wage war frequently in order to keep his followers and maintain power against rivals. The famous Berserker warriors fought in groups, and believed that Odin, their god of war, gave them both protection and superhuman powers so they had no need for armor.
Constantinople was the main city of the Byzantine empire. The Vikings traded there. The Vikings were the first Europeans to reach America.
The Vikings seemed to get everywhere... Eric the Red founded a new settlement in Greenland. The Vikings had settlements in Iceland in the ninth
century. The French king gave the province of Normandy to a Viking duke named Rollo to stop him attacking. The Vikings settled in an area called Rus. The name Russia comes
from this word. Home Life What happened to the Vikings? Vikings became citizens of many places in Europe. Kings instituted taxes and the economy changed so that you could get along better off as a trader than a raider. The Viking invasions caused European kingdoms to be more centralized and focused.
European kingdoms learned how to protect themselves and gain by trading and negotiating with the Vikings instead of battling them.
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