What is a Mineral?

What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure and chemical composition. What is a Mineral?

1. naturally formed 2. Inorganic 3. solid. 4. Crystalline structure 5. Definite chemical composition (5) Characteristics of Minerals

Naturally Formed- must form naturally, not manmade Ex._______________ Non-ex.___________ Fossils *electronics Apples, fruits, vegetables *paper Trees

* clothes Water rocks Natural: you can find it in NATURE Naturally Formed or Man-Made?

Naturally Formed Naturally Formed or Man-Made? Man-Made (You cannot walk outside and pick up laptops and cell phones off trees).

Naturally Formed or Man-Made? Naturally Formed (We do not make fruit; fruit grows naturally form the earth). Naturally Formed or Man-Made?

Naturally Formed (found in nature) Naturally Formed or Man-Made? Naturally Formed (found in nature)

Man-Made Naturally formed or man-made? (5) Characteristics of Minerals Inorganic- cannot arise from materials that were once part of a

living thing Ex.______________ Non-Ex._________________

Most rocks *decaying leaves Water *tree Clouds *fossils

A Mineral is Inorganic it's never alive, it never will be Inorganic or NOT? Inorganic

Inorganic or NOT? NOT! Leaves were once from a living tree. Inorganic or NOT? Inorganic

Inorganic or NOT? Inorganic Inorganic or NOT?

NOT! A tree is living. Inorganic or NOT? organic (fossils are formed from the remains of once living organisms).

(5) Characteristics of Minerals Solid- always solid, not a liquid or gas. It has a definite volume and a definite shape (5) Characteristics of Minerals Crystalline Structure- particles must line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again

Crystals Crystals are solid, geometric forms produced by a repeating pattern of atoms or molecules that are present throughout the mineral. A crystals shape is determined by the arrangement of the atoms or molecules within

the crystal. All minerals can be grouped into crystal classes according to the kinds of crystals they form. Crystal Structure Crystal Structure

Crystal Structure Crystals have a definite pattern.. This crystal prism has a pattern or design that it creates as light passes through it. (5) Characteristics of Minerals

Definite Chemical Composition- always contains certain elements in definite proportions. NaCl (salt) (5) Characteristics of Minerals Solid- always solid, not a liquid or gas. It has a definite volume and a definite shape

Naturally Formed- must form naturally, not manmade Inorganic- cannot arise from materials that were once part of a living thing Crystalline Structure- particles must line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again Definite Chemical Composition- always contains certain elements in definite proportions. NaCl

(salt) Properties of Minerals Properties of Minerals A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid that

has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. Each mineral has its own set of specific physical properties that can be used to identify it (hardness, color, streak, luster, density, crystal system, cleavage and fracture). An element is a substance composed of a single

kind of atom. A compound is two or more elements combined so that the elements no longer have their original distinct properties. Identifying Minerals Hardness- Mohs scale ranks ten minerals from softest

to hardest. Resistance to scratch Color- Because of factors, such as impurities, used only to identify a few minerals Streak- the color of a mineral in its powdered form Luster- how a mineral reflects light from its surface Density- the ratio of the mass to the volume of a substance

Crystal Systems- six groups of structures based on the number and angle of the crystal faces Cleavage splitting along smooth, flat surface Fracture- breaking apart along curved or irregular surfaces Identifying Minerals

Properties: Color, Luster, Streak, Density, Hardness, Cleavage, Fracture, and Special Properties Color The same mineral can come in a variety of colors

Ex. quartz Impurities & other factors can change mineral appearance Color is not the best way to identify minerals

Luster Describes how a surface reflects light Ex. shiny/dull Metallic- minerals containing metals are often

shiny Luster Examples of Nonmetallic Nonmetallicnotglassy, as shiny Vitreousbrilliant

Silky-fibrous Resinous-plastic Waxy- greasy, oily Pearly- creamy Earthy- rough, dull Streak

Color of mineral in powder form Observed by rubbing a mineral against a piece of unglazed porcelain called a streak plate Streak doesnt vary like

color & is often different than a minerals color More reliable than color Cleavage and Fracture Cleavage and Fracture- ways the mineral breaks apart, determined by arrangement of atoms.

Hardness

Minerals resistance to being scratched Mohs Hardness Scale: Ranks minerals from softest to hardest Talc- softest known mineral Diamond- hardest known mineral Hardness

Mohs Hardness Scale

Talc 1

Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apatite Orthoclase Quartz Topaz

8 Corundum Diamond Softest known mineral 2 fingernail can scratch it 3 scratched by copper penny

4 easily scratched by steel knife 5 can be scratched by steel knife 6 can scratch window glass 7 can scratch steel can scratch quartz 9 can scratch topaz 10 hardest known mineral

Density mass (how heavy it is) per unit volume (how much space it takes up) D= M/V Density remains same regardless of sample size Mass determined using balance

Volume determined using water displacement method. Ex: gold is heavier than pyrite (fools gold) Special Properties

Some properties are particular to only a few types of minerals:

Fluorescence glow under ultraviolet light Chemical Reactions reacts to an acid Magnetism natural magnets that attract iron. Taste ex. Halite has a salty taste Optical Properties some can cause a double image

Radioactivity minerals that contain radium or uranium Fluorescence glow under ultraviolet light. Chemical Reactions- reacts to an acid.

Magnetism Optical Properties some can cause a double image Special Properties of Some Minerals Quick Check

1. Which of the following properties of minerals does Moh's scale measure? a. b. c. d.

luster density hardness streak Quick Check 1. Which of the following properties of

minerals does Moh's scale measure? a. b. c. d. luster

density hardness streak Quick Check 2. Pure substances cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical

means are called a. molecules. b. compounds. c. crystals. d. elements. Quick Check

2. Pure substances cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means are called a. molecules. b. compounds. c. crystals. d. elements.

Quick Check 3. Which of the following properties is considered a special property that applies to only a few minerals? a. luster b. taste

c. hardness d. density Quick Check 3. Which of the following properties is considered a special property that applies to only a few minerals?

a. luster b. taste c. hardness d. density Quick Check 3. The appearance of a material that can vary according

to the impurities in that mineral as well as other factors: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness d. streak e. color f. luster

Quick Check 3. The appearance of a material that can vary according to the impurities in that mineral as well as other factors: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness

d. streak e. color f. luster Quick Check 4. The splitting of a mineral along smooth, flat surfaces:

a. density b. cleavage c. hardness d. streak e. fracture f. luster

Quick Check 4. The splitting of a mineral along smooth, flat surfaces: a. density b. cleavage

c. hardness d. streak e. fracture f. luster Quick Check the ratio of the mass of a substance to the

volume of the substance: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness d. streak e. fracture f. luster

Quick Check the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness

d. streak e. fracture f. luster Quick Check A measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching:

a. density b. cleavage c. hardness d. streak e. fracture f. special properties

Quick Check A measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness d. streak

e. fracture f. special properties Quick Check Characteristics that are particular to only a few types of minerals: a, cleavage

b. hardness c. special properties d. streak e. color f. luster Quick Check

Characteristics that are particular to only a few types of minerals: a, cleavage b. hardness c. special properties d. streak e. color

f. luster Quick Check The color of the powder of a mineral: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness

d. streak e. special properties f. color Quick Check The color of the powder of a mineral: a. density

b. cleavage c. hardness d. streak e. special properties f. color Quick Check

5. The way in which a mineral reflects light: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness d. streak e. fracture f. luster

Quick Check 5. The way in which a mineral reflects light: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness d. streak

e. fracture f. luster Quick Check 6. The breaking of a mineral along either

curved or irregular surfaces: a. density b. cleavage c. hardness d. fracture e. luster f. special properties

Quick Check 6. The breaking of a mineral along either curved or irregular surfaces: a. density

b. cleavage c. hardness d. fracture e. luster f. special properties

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