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Kindergarten Cohort Chris Chapman National Center for Education Statistics Institute of Education Sciences IES Research Conference June 2006 Agency Collaborators U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services Planning and Evaluation Service Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students U.S. Department of Agriculture

Economic Research Service U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Administration for Children, Youth and Families Major Areas of Interest School readiness Transition to kindergarten, first grade, and beyond Relationship between kindergarten experience and later school performance

Growth in cognitive and non-cognitive domains Study Design Base year sample included more than 21,000 children and families attending more than 1,200 public and private schools Data are collected at multiple points in time Fall 1998 and Spring 1999: Kindergarten Fall 1999 and Spring 2000: First Grade Spring 2002: Third Grade

Spring 2004: Fifth Grade Spring 2007: Eighth Grade Data are collected from children, their families, their teachers, and their schools Sample counts for cases with child assessment data, by survey round and child and family characteristics: 199899, 19992000, 200102, and 2003-04 Characteristic Total Childs sex Male Female Childs race/ethnicity White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian Other Round 1 Fall Kindergarten 19,173

Round 2 Spring Kindergarten 19,967 Round 3 Fall First Subsample 5,291 Round 4 Spring First 16,593 Round 5 Spring Third 14,470 Round 6 Spring Fifth 11,346

9,773 9,388 10,211 9,743 2,674 2,606 8,476 8,106 7,356 7,114 5,724 5,622 10,527 2,873 3,424 1,235 1,047 11,128

2,982 3,475 1,287 1,030 2,949 781 878 283 375 9,403 2,347 2,837 1,071 879 8,173 1,894 2,614 965 804 6,505 1,287

2,121 789 629 Socioeconomic status in kindergarten First quintile (lowest) Second quintile Third quintile Fourth quintile Fifth quintile (highest) 3,395 3,525 3,625 3,741 3,497 3,658 3,770 3,957 927

947 1,002 1,076 2,873 3,054 3,190 3,325 2,025 2,272 2,468 2,711 1,868 2,048 2,152 2,288 3,949 4,190 1,113

3,534 3,178 2,538 Primary language spoken in home during kindergarten year Non-English English 2,501 15,689 2,619 16,324 625 4,396 2,171 13,706 1,983

11,767 1,659 9,617 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 199899, Public-Use Base Year File, Restricted-Use First Grade and Third Grade Files, and the Public-Use Fifth Grade File. Unpublished table; please do not cite or circulate. ECLS-K Sample Design Nationally representative of kindergartens, kindergartners, and kindergarten teachers Nationally representative sample of first graders Clustered PSU multi-stage sample design Oversampling of private schools and private school children Oversampling of Asian and Pacific Islander children Across Wave Changes in the Sample Freshened in 1st grade only Sample size gets smaller for a variety of reasons The number of children who have changed schools comprises an increasingly larger percentage of the sample Cluster sizes in schools and classrooms decrease

ECLS-K Components Teacher School Child Parent Developmental Status Cognitive Language Parent and Child Demographics Teacher Background School Demographics Child and Family Health

Classroom Environment School Climate Family Characteristics School Climate School Programs Parent-Child Interactions Student Profile Educational Goals and Objectives

Expectations Socioemotional Physical Core Data Collection Methods Direct and indirect assessments of children Parent interviews Teacher questionnaires (including special education) School administrator questionnaires School records abstracts School facilities checklist Student questionnaire Special Studies and Data Head Start verification Kindergarten teacher and school administrator salary and benefits Geocode Data What is Different About Grade 3? Children provide information on their perceptions of socials skills and interest in school subjects (SDQ). Social Rating Scale (SRS) is not collected from parents.

Direct child assessment includes science (instead of the previous general knowledge assessment), in addition to reading and mathematics. What is Different About Grade 5? New data collection design for teacher questionnaires Teachers report on the sample childs instruction Information about childrens food consumption was collected from children and also from school administrators The ECLS-K Assessment Multiple Domains Cognitive Reading Mathematics General Knowledge (K-1) Science (3-5) Socioemotional Social skills Approaches to Learning Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviors

Self-Control Self-Concept (3-5) Multiple Domains (Continued) Physical Height and weight Gross and fine motor skills (Fall kindergarten only) Cognitive Scores Broad-based scores (overall performance) Number right raw scores (routing scale scores) IRT-based scores (scale scores) Standardized scores (T-scores) Cognitive Scores

Targeted scores (acquisition of specific knowledge and skills) Proficiency level scores (pass/fail) Reading Mathematics Proficiency probability level scores (IRT-based) Reading Mathematics Cognitive Assessment Reading Proficiency Scores (K 5th) Level 1: Level 2: Level 3: Level 4: Level 5: Level 6: Level 7: Level 8: Level 9:

Letter recognition Beginning sounds Ending sounds Sight words Words in context Literal inference Extrapolation Evaluation Evaluating non-fiction Cognitive Assessment Mathematics Proficiency Scores (K-5th) Level 1: Level 2: Level 3: Level 4: Level 5: Level 6: Level 7: Level 8: Level 9: Number and shape Relative size

Ordinality, sequence Additional and subtraction Multiplication and division Place value Rate and measurement Fractions Area and Volume Mean mathematics scores for fall 1998 first-time kindergartners, by childrens race/ethnicity and time of assessment: Fall 1998 through spring 2004 Math score Asian, non-Hisp. 140 125 120 101 100 97 90

Hispanic 98 Black, non-Hisp. 80 64 79 61 56 60 39 40 White, non-Hisp. 118 112 36 31

27 25 21 20 49 28 19 0 Fall 1998 Spring 1999 Spring 2000 Spring 2002

Spring 2004 Time of assessment NOTE: Estimates are based on children assessed in English at all rounds of data collection. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), fall 1998 through spring 2004 data. Unpublished tables. Direct Assessment Socioemotional and Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ)* Feelings about self, school, reading and mathematics (grades 3 & 5) Peer Relations Externalizing Problem Behaviors Internalizing Problem Behaviors Feelings About School Feelings About Reading Feelings About Mathematics *Adapted with permission from the Self-Description Questionnaire-I (Marsh 1990) The Direct Assessment

Physical and Motor Specifications Physical Height Weight Motor Skills Fall Kindergarten only: Fine Motor Skills copy basic figures construct forms with wooden blocks Gross Motor Skills balance on each foot

hop on one foot skip walk backward in a straight line The Indirect Assessment Academic Rating Scale (ARS) Teacher report Childrens cognitive knowledge and skills Social Rating Scale (SRS)* Teacher and parent reports Childrens social skills * Adapted with permission from the instrument Social Skills Rating System: Elementary Scale A (Gresham, F. M. and Elliott, S.N., 1990). Academic Rating Scale (ARS): Domains Language and Literacy (K 5th grade) Mathematical Thinking (K 5th grade) General Knowledge (K 1st grade) Social Studies (3rd grade) Science (3rd 5th grade) Social Rating Scale*: Parent Subscales K- 1

Approaches to Learning Self-control Social Interaction Impulsivity/Over activity Sadness/Loneliness * Adapted with permission from the instrument Social Skills Rating System: Elementary Scale A (Gresham, F. M. and Elliott, S.N., 1990). Social Rating Scale*: Teacher Subscales K- 5 Approaches to Learning

Self-control Interpersonal Skills Externalizing Problem Behaviors Internalizing Problem Behaviors Peer Relations (3rd and 5th: Self-control & Interpersonal Skills Combined) * Adapted with permission from the instrument Social Skills Rating System: Elementary Scale A (Gresham, F. M. and Elliott, S.N., 1990). Data Training Opportunities Future Data Training Seminars SRCD Pre-conference Training Seminar (March 28, 2007) AERA Professional Development Seminar (April 2007) ECLS-K Data Users Training Seminar (Summer 2007) For more information: ECLS website http://nces.ed.gov/ecls/ ECLS email address [email protected]

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