Virtuous Violence Part 1

Virtuous Violence Part 2 Fiske & Rai, 2015 Pleasing Gods Human and animal sacrifice Self-sacrifice Religion and Morality

(McKay & Whitehouse, 2015) 2nd look at theory Morality = the intentions, motivations, evaluations, and conjoined emotions that operate to realize ideal models of social relationships in a culturally meaningful manner (p. 135) Why do humans need morality? What determines whether an action is moral?

Is morality automatic or controlled? How does VVT incorporate other theories of violence based on personality, etc.? Proximate vs. ultimate causes Are killers. Evil? Rational? Impulsive?

Self-control/regulation theories (e.g., Dollard et al., 1939; Finkel; Baumeister) Morally disengaged? Bandura Table 10.1 (p. 160) What types of things does VVT not explain? What other theories cover those areas? Could VV theory be used as an argument in a trial?

Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 1996 Social Connection Enables Dehumanization (Waytz & Epley, 2012; Experiment 4) 59 participants from Chicago population Randomly assigned to arrive with a friend or arrive alone Received packet with 11 faces, of terrorists responsible for plotting the

September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center that killed thousands of U.S. citizens, completed moral disengagement scale (Bandura et al., 1996), and willingness to endorse human harm questions (5) In the connection condition (with a friend), participants dehumanized detainees and endorsed harming them more than participants in the control condition IPV How is IPV seen as moral?

Rape What are the major motivators of rape, according to the authors? What is a problem with knowing the causes of rape? Thornhill & Palmer, Natural History of Rape, 2000 According to VV theory, would the recent #metoo movement reduce rape and sexual assaults, or further upset AR relationships (e.g., between men and women)?

The Dark Side of Men: The Nature of Masculinity and Its Uneasy Relationship With Male Rape (Javaid, 2015) Literature Review Pressure to fulfill expected identities

Even if it may clash with inner beliefs, emotions, and behavior Heterosexualtiy is superior to homosexuality Perpetrator executes power and control, asserts hegemonic masculinity Victim is humiliated, degraded, and his masculinity is weakened, which strengthens the perpetrator AR, CS relationships Hazing and initiation rites

How do F&R explain hazing? Aronson & Mills, 1959is this an alternative, or does it fit with VVT? What initiation rites do we have in our culture? Waldron et al., 2011 (p. 182) Is FGM violence? MGM? Torture How does the theory explain torture?

On page 195, "Farid's previous history of terrorist acts was a slightly better predictor of support for torture than the likelihood of his providing useful information." Do you think this is parallel to how prisoners are viewed, and why it is hard for them to be integrated back into society after being released from prison? The Effects of Moral and Pragmatic Arguments Against Torture on

Demands for Judicial Reform (Leidner, Kardos, and Compare moral and pragmatic Castanoarguments 2018; Study 1) against torture Moral: torture violates human rights Pragmatic: torture does not work

191 participants from Craigslist Read fictitious news article, demands for justice (measure), and manipulation checks Moral arguments against torture resulted in stronger demands for redressing injustice of torture compared to pragmatic or no arguments Murder How does the theory explain murder? School shootings?

Shootings by those suffering from mental illnesses? Group projects Why do scientists work in groups? What are some pitfalls to watch out for? How can you work most effectively in a group? How can you deal with the pitfalls? Discuss with your group

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