Verbs & Subject/Verb Agreement Verbs A verb expresses action or a state of being. Action verbs take direct objects. Example: Jack hit the ball. Hit is the action. Ball receives the action. State-of-being verbs link the subject with a noun which follows the verb Example: John is president. John and
president are the same people. Verbs State-of-being verbs also link the subject with an adjective. Example: Mary is pretty. Mary is the subject. Pretty is the adjective that refers to Mary. Other sensory or intransitive verbs are as follows: taste, smell, sound, feel, look, grow, become, appear, seem
Verbs A verb phrase is a main verb plus one or more helping verbs. The helping verb, or verbs, may be separated from the main verb. Helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. Example: He was riding his bike home. was riding is the verb phrase; was is the helping verb The helping verbs are: have, do, shall, will, may, can, must, ought, and any of their forms.
Example: be and derived forms: am, is, are, was, were, been, being Verbs The tense of a verb refers to the time of the action or state of being. The six verb tenses: Present- I walk, he walks Past- I walked, he walked Future- I shall walk, he will walk
Present perfect- I have walked, he has walked Past perfect- I had walked, he had walked Future perfect- I shall have walked Verbs A direct object receives the action of the verb and names who or what was acted upon. Example: He opened the window. (The direct object is window.) An indirect object is the person or thing to which
or for which the action is done. It often comes between the verb and direct object. Example: Please give me an orange. (The indirect object is me. There is also a direct object, orange.) Subject & Predicate A sentence must have a subject and a predicate. The subject of a sentence is a noun or noun equivalent together with all its modifiers, about which something is said.
Examples: My sister made a cake. (My sister is the complete subject.) The little white kitten lapped up the milk. (The little white kitten is the complete subject.) The simple subject is the main word or words: sister, kitten Subject & Predicate A sentence must have a subject and a predicate. The predicate of a sentence is a verb, together
with all its modifiers, that defines the action of state or the subject. Examples: The orchestra played marches. (The complete predicate is played marches.) The complete predicate is the main verb with its modifiers. The simple predicate is the main verb: played Subject & Predicate A compound subject has two or more subjects connected
by a conjunction. All of the subjects have the same predicate. A compound predicate has two or more predicates connected by a conjunction. All of the predicates have the same subject. Examples: The doctor and the nurse treated the patient. (The compound subject is doctor and nurse.) The patient will leave the hospital today and return tomorrow. (The compound predicate is will leave and return.)
Subject-Verb Agreement A subject must agree in number and person with its verb. Verb forms that require careful use are: is, are, was, were; has, have; and the third person present tense of many verbs. Examples: The baby is asleep. (singular subject, singular verb) They are asleep. (plural subject, plural verb)
Subject-Verb Agreement NOTE: Intervening words between the subject and the verb do not affect the number or person of the verb. They, together with the baby, are asleep. (plural subject) The baby, with his brothers and sisters, is asleep. (singular subject)
Subject-Verb Agreement Compound subjects can be joined by and, or, nor If joined by and, two or more nouns are treated as a plural subject. If joined by or/nor, the verb agrees in person and number with the subject nearer to it. Subject-Verb Agreement Examples: Ann and Betty go to that school.
(plural Ann and Betty) Either you or he was making noise. (singular: he) Either he or you were making noise. (plural: you) Neither Jim nor Al is going. (singular: Al) Neither she nor the teachers are coming. (plural: teachers) Subject-Verb Agreement Indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural depending on meaning.
Examples: each, one, anyone, everyone: usually singular Both, few, many, several: usually plural
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