Variation and Gradience in Phonological Theory

T-Orders and Variation Arto Anttila Stanford University Workshop on Variation, Gradience and

Frequency in Phonology July 8, 2007 3-syllables, t-deletion

3-syllables, no t-deletion 4-syllables 4-syllables, no t-deletion

4-syllables, t-deletion 5-syllables

5-syllables (partial graph) 5-syllables (partial graph) Compound stress effects

1. Initial trochee (in.ter)(fe.ro)(nei.ta) *(in.ter.fe)(ro.ne)ja (in.ter)(fe.ro.ne)ja 2. Initial dactyl

*(ko.les)(te.ro)(lei.ta) (ko.les.te)(ro.le)ja *(ko.les)(te.ro.le)ja (tes.tos)(te.ro)(nei.ta)

*(tes.tos.te)(ro.ne)ja (tes.tos)(te.ro.ne)ja Diagnosis

(inter) and (testos) are words

koles is not Precision and recall 3-syllables 4-syllables

5-syllables Precision 1 0.956

0.857 Recall 0.417 0.586

0.633 thank you

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