US Imperialism & WWI Unit 4 What is Imperialism? Imperialism: Attempt by stronger nations to create empires by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily. Motives for Expansion
1. Economic: Industry requires resources (rubber, petroleum, etc) Need someone to sell your goods to New markets Motives for Expansion 2. Military Factors Improvement in European military technology Navies acquiring bases around the world for supplies Maxim Gun
Motives for Expansion 3. Nationalism Your nations people, ideals, and goals are superior to others If your neighbor acquires new land, you should too. Motives for Expansion 4. Humanitarian Spread of religion (primarily Christianity) Spread of western cultural blessings
White Mans Burden Hawaii American sugar merchants gained influence from 1870s1890s Pearl Harbor naval base established in 1887 American businessmen led overthrew of Queen
Liliuokalani in 1893 Established Sanford B. Dole as president Hawaii annexed in 1898 The Spanish American War, 1898 U.S. first attacked Spain in the Philippines Quickly defeated Spanish fleet
Military victory in Cuba was swift Teddy Roosevelts Rough Riders (San Juan Hill) Black soldiers comprised much of the army War ended on August 12, 1898 A Splendid Little War U.S. acquired Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the
Philippines. Acquisition of the Philippines was heavily debated in Congress Anti-Imperialist League W.J. Bryan, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, and Mark Twain were among those who opposed imperialism Treaty was narrowly approved in Feb. 1899 Cuba U.S. withdrawal was contingent on the Platt
Amendment: 1. Restricted Cubas autonomy in foreign relations 2. Lease of naval bases to the U.S. 3. Authorized U.S. intervention to maintain order and preserve Cuban independence The Filipino-American War Filipino nationalists had fought against Spain, welcomed American victory Emilio Aguinaldo declared
independence, U.S. refused U.S. military used harsh tactics to suppress resistance concentration camps, mass killings The Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt stated that the U.S. had the right to
exercise an international police power to protect its interests in Latin America Big Stick Diplomacy Latin American countries resented American intervention Wilson and Latin America
Wilson vowed to abandon imperialism, but didnt American military took control in Haiti, Dominican Republic, Cuba Wilson interfered with the revolutions taking place in Mexico Pancho Villa led raids on U.S. in 1916, General John J.
Pershing sent to pursue Causes of WWI Imperialism: Western scramble for colonies (Africa, Asia, and the Pacific) Great Britain and France have the most land resources Germany wants more power take land from other colonizers
Causes of WWI Militarism: Policy involving building a nations armed forces in preparation for war. Military has more control over government & foreign policy Key European players: Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Russia
Causes of WWI Nationalism: Your countries interests over the interests of others Ethnic minorities Want independence Big countries protect ethnic minorities in other countries (Russia & Serbs) Causes of WWI
Alliances: Bolster each countries security Blank Check Germany Austria-Hungary Russia France Great Britain France Assassination June 28, 1914 Archduke Francis
Ferdinand (AustriaHungarian Empire) visits troops in Sarajevo, the capital Bosnia. Gavrilo Princip 19 year old Bosnian Serb Member of terrorist group Black Hand Mobilization July 23, 1914
Austria-Hungary demands Serbia stop supporting terrorism in Bosnia. Two day warning. July 28, 1914 war declared by Austria-Hungary Mobilization August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia
Schlieffen Plan (Germany) Eliminate France quickly, then turn on Russia Belgium ruins plan Key Players Central Powers: Germany, and Austria-Hungary, Turkey Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia
Stalemate: neither side can gain an advantage. Trench warfare The Fighting Starts After Germanys invasion of Belgium, Germany and the allies became entrenched along the Western Front created trenches no mans land
Trench warfare led to enormous casualty rates Little ground ever gained by either side German Submarine Warfare German U-boat Submarine Germany began allowing submarines to fire on British merchant ships without warning.
Bad public image Sussex Pledge Sinking of the Lusitania (May 7, 1915) German promise to US to warn ships before attacking, Zimmerman Note July 31, 1917 Germany nullifies Sussex Pledge End of diplomatic relationships between Germany and US Still no war
Zimmerman Note: Germanys foreign secretary If Mexico helps Germany, they will get Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back. Still no war The War Resolution March 16-18, 1917 Germany sinks four US ships Wilson brings the war resolution to Congress
passed by the Senate and the House, signed by Wilson April 6, 1917 Is this a just war? Analysis: Wilsons Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War against Germany (1917) Where we left off: The U.S. Enters the War Wilson was reelected in 1916 He Kept Us Out of War
Wilson hoped to mediate conflict U.S. intercepted the Zimmerman note Germany attempted to lure Mexico into the conflict Revolution in Russia overthrew the czar Wilson submitted war message
to Congress on April 2, 1917 Raising, Training, and Testing an Army Congress passed the Selective Service Act establishing a draft limited training, segregated divisions American Expeditionary Force was commanded by John J. Pershing 4.3 million Americans served (115,000 died) African Americans served at high rates
Fighting Over There New weapons changed nature of war German Big Bertha cannon, zeppelins, machine guns, poison gas, tanks, airplanes Medical technology did not keep pace with weaponry trench foot, diseases, shell shock Organizing the Economy for War
War Industries Board was created to set industrial priorities and supervise business to boost efficiency Food Administration controlled production and distribution for the U.S. and Allies National War Labor Board supervised labor relations guaranteed right of unions to organize, improved work conditions Women and Minorities Many job opportunities opened up for women and African Americans
heavy industry Jobs in industry played a major role in the Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities Advertising the War The government worked to promote a war spirit through propaganda Committee on Public
Information promoted national unity encouraged Americans to purchase Liberty Bonds depicted Germans as brutal, subhuman The Collapse of Germany Mutiny spread among German soldiers and workers People of Berlin rose in rebellion in November 1918
Kaiser abdicated throne, fled to the Netherlands Germany surrendered on November 11 Wars toll was staggering 26 million soldier and civilian deaths, 20 million wounded, 10 million refugees $350 billion direct economic cost Wilsons Fourteen Points Wilson hoped that the ending of the war would
bring about a more democratic world system create new nations, shift borders, ensure selfdetermination League of Nations Wilson agreed to travel to Paris for peace negotiations The Versailles Peace Conference
Delegations were dominated by Allied leaders Central Powers and Russia were excluded other Allies sought to punish Germany Wilson had to compromise on his points Treaty of Versailles Germany had to accept sole responsibility (war-guilt clause), pay reparations, give up land, limit army, destroy bases new nation-states were created, some Allies annexed territory proposed the creation of a League of Nations
The Fight Over the League of Nations Americans generally favored the Versailles treaty and the League of Nations Republicans in the Senate stood in opposition Henry Cabot Lodge Irreconcilables and Reservationists
Wilson campaigned for the passage of the treaty but fell ill immobilized for remainder of his presidency treaty died in the Senate
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