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Unit III Professionals and professional practice 2017 Jahangir Moini Chapter 14 Careers in the health care profession By J a h a n g i r M o i n i , M . D. , M . P. H . and M o r v a r i d M o i n i , D. M . D. , M . P. H .

2017 Jahangir Moini Overview Careers in health care are subdivided into: Therapeutic Diagnostic Management Education There are many opportunities, and the job outlook is optimistic in health care

2017 Jahangir Moini Therapeutic divisions of the health care system Physicians Physician assistants Nurses Medical assistants Surgical technologists Dentists Dental assistants Dental hygienists Occupational therapists

2017 Jahangir Moini Therapeutic divisions of the health care system Dietitians Chiropractors Massage therapists Psychologists Medical social workers Rehabilitation counselors Respiratory therapists and technicians Emergency medical technicians and

paramedics Physical therapists and therapist assistants 2017 Jahangir Moini Physicians Diagnose illnesses Prescribe and administer medications and treatments Examine patients; counsel on choices and behaviors Obtain medical histories Interpret diagnostic tests Two types:

Medical doctor (MD) Doctor of osteopathic medicine (DO) focuses on musculoskeletal system, preventive medicine, holistic care 2017 Jahangir Moini Types of physician specialties Anesthesiologist Family physician General internist General pediatrician

Gynecologist/obstetrician Psychiatrist Surgeon 2017 Jahangir Moini Miscellaneous physician specialties Allergist Cardiologist Dermatologist Emergency Endocrinologist Gastroenterologist

Neurologist Ophthalmologist Pathologist Radiologist 2017 Jahangir Moini Physicians Mostly in groups or health care organizations Up to 80% located in metropolitan areas About 55% specialists; remainder primary care About 8 years of education after high school,

plus 38 years of internship and residency 2017 Jahangir Moini Physicians Licensed to practice in all U.S. and its territories High competition Acceptance based on: School transcripts

High scores on Medical College Admission Test Letters of recommendation Personality Extracurricular activity participation School interviews 2017 Jahangir Moini Physicians In final 2 years of schooling, students work with patients, supervised by licensed physicians Rotated through: Family practice

Pediatrics Internal medicine Psychiatry Gynecology/obstetrics Surgery Most MDs enter a residence after medical school 2017 Jahangir Moini Physicians New physicians in significant debt from

education costs Licensure through U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Reciprocity through various states usually not limited 2017 Jahangir Moini Physicians 22% growth expected up to 2022 Many colleges are increasing enrollments Salaries are high:

Primary care averages $200,000 per year Specialists average $400,000 per year 2017 Jahangir Moini Nurses Treat and educate patients Give advice and emotional support to families Record information Assist with diagnoses Analyze test results

Operate medical equipment Administer medications Assist with follow-up visits and rehabilitation 2017 Jahangir Moini Nurses Registered nurses (RNs) Establish treatment plans, direct other nurses; may specialize (such as critical care) May become advanced practice nurses (APNs), working independently or with physicians Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) Nurse practitioners

Primary care or specialists 2017 Jahangir Moini Nurses Largest health care occupation Most work in hospitals Usually Bachelors, Associates degrees, or diploma National licensing exam then required Masters degree required for: Clinical

nurse specialists Nurse anesthetists Nurse midwives Nurse practitioners 2017 Jahangir Moini Nurses Bachelor programs usually 4 years, BSN degree Associate programs 23 years, ASN degree

Diploma programs (less common), 3 years Other programs: RN-to-BSN Accelerated Masters degree 2017 Jahangir Moini Nurses Classroom instruction plus supervised clinical

experience National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN) Some states have other eligibility requirements Average $43,410 to $92,240 annually 22% growth expected up to 2022 More jobs in physician offices anticipated than in hospitals 2017 Jahangir Moini

Nurses LPNs also known as licensed vocational nurses Training about 1 year in length Licensure is the NCLEX-PN LPNs may receive credentials in special areas

21% growth expected up to 2022 Salaries are $28,260 to $53,580 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Physician assistants Directly responsible for own actions Skills lie between physicians and RNs 24 years of college Health care work experience Post-graduate program of at least 2 years National PANCE exam, then licensure

After exam, Physician Assistant Certified 2017 Jahangir Moini Physician assistants Masters, Bachelors, Associates degrees or certificate programs 38% growth up to 2022 Traditional medical practices and telemedicine Salaries $64,100 to $134,720 annually

2017 Jahangir Moini Physician assistants Every 10 years, recertification exam required, or alternative program (CE and at-home examination) Job duties:

Examining patients Taking histories X-rays, lab tests Preliminary diagnoses Casts, splints

Suturing wounds Recording notes Managing practices Ordering supplies Supervising others Counseling patients Prescribing drugs (in most states) 2017 Jahangir Moini Medical assistants Administrative and clinical tasks: Medical records Insurance forms

Answer telephones Greet patients Scheduling Correspondence Bookkeeping, payments Arranging for lab tests Arranging hospitalizations 2017 Jahangir Moini Figure 6-1: A medical assistant answering the phone 2017 Jahangir Moini

Figure 6-2: A medical assistant accepting payment from a patient 2017 Jahangir Moini Medical assistants Programs usually last 12 years Certificate, diploma, or Associates degree Credentials: Certified Medical Assistant (by the AAMA)

Registered Medical Assistant (by the AMT) Certified Clinical Medical Assistant (by the NHA) National Certified Medical Assistant (by the NCCT) 34% growth up to 2022 Average of $20,600 to $39,570 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Surgical technologists Also called surgical technicians, operating

room technicians, or scrubs Duties include: Preparing operating rooms Setting up equipment and supplies Preparing and transporting patients Positioning patients Monitoring vital signs Assisting team with clothing Verifying patient information 2017 Jahangir Moini

Surgical technologists Pass instruments and supplies Account for everything used during surgery

Assist in operating equipment Handle specimens Apply dressings Restock supplies Maintain homeostasis Assist with anesthesia Document procedures 2017 Jahangir Moini Surgical technologists Programs last 924 months Certificate, diploma, or Associates degree

Certification preferred Liaison Council on Certification for the Surgical Technologist (LCCST) exam Certified Surgical Technologist (CST) credential 2017 Jahangir Moini Surgical technologists Certification must be renewed every 4 years Approved by the National Center for

Competency Testing (NCCT), every 5 years 25% growth up to 2020 Averages $27,510 to 54,300 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Dentists Specialize in teeth and mouth tissues General practitioners or specialists

Counsel patients Write prescriptions Fill cavities

Remove tooth decay Examine X-rays Seal teeth Repair fractures Straighten teeth Extract teeth Create dentition models Take measurements Administer anesthetics 2017 Jahangir Moini Types of dental specialties Dental public health specialist

Endodontist Oral/maxillofacial radiologist or surgeon Oral pathologist Orthodontist Pediatric dentist Periodontist Prosthodontist 2017 Jahangir Moini Figure 6-3: A dentist performing a procedure on a patient 2017 Jahangir Moini

Figure 6-4: A dentist wearing protective garb 2017 Jahangir Moini Dentists Only about 15% are specialists Dental school requires: Bachelors degree in Science, plus passing Dental Admissions Test Competition for admission is very high Usually 4 year programs, for:

Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD) 2017 Jahangir Moini Dentists National Board Dental Examination To specialize, 24 additional years of study Residency of up to 2 years required To teach or research, 25 years of

additional training 16% growth up to 2022 Average just under $143,000 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Dental hygienists Duties include: Educate patients about oral hygiene Oral examinations Recording of all findings Cleaning teeth Providing other types of preventive care

X-rays Applying fluorides and other agents Sealing pits and fissures in teeth Certain states allow other job duties 2017 Jahangir Moini Figure 6-5: A dental hygienist taking an X-ray 2017 Jahangir Moini Dental hygienists

Nearly all hygienists work in dentist offices Usually Associates degrees Higher degrees for research, teaching, clinical practice National Dental Examination, American Dental Association Most states also require an exam on related legal topics 2017 Jahangir Moini Dental hygienists

36% growth up to 2018 One of the fastest growing health care occupations Averages $49,190 to $97,390 annually Benefits vary, based on: Practice setting Part- or full-time employment 2017 Jahangir Moini Dental assistants Variety of dental care, office, lab support

work Assist dentists Work with patients and varied equipment Assist with imaging, anesthesia, polishing Help dentists and dental hygienists 2017 Jahangir Moini

Figure 6-6: A dental assistant preparing a tray 2017 Jahangir Moini Dental assistants Usually work in dentist offices Programs usually 1 year (certificate or diploma) No licensure or certification required unless: Performing

advanced activities Assisting in radiological procedures 2017 Jahangir Moini Dental assistants 25% growth up to 2022 One of the fastest growing occupations Averages $24,580 to $49,540 annually Benefits vary: More than 50% receive health and other benefits 2017 Jahangir Moini

Occupational therapists Work with physicians, nurses, psychologists, others Develop skills needed by each patient: Getting dressed, driving, walking, using the bathroom Work with: Physically disabled (majority)

Developmentally disabled Emotionally disabled Psychologically disabled 2017 Jahangir Moini Occupational therapists Masters degree is usually required Doctoral and Bachelors degrees also given National licensing exam Credential: Occupational Therapist Registered Certification is available also (voluntary)

2017 Jahangir Moini Occupational therapists 26% growth up to 2022 Averages $42,820 to $81,290 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Respiratory therapists and technicians Therapists also known as respiratory care practitioners

Work with breathing or cardiopulmonary disorders Interview, examine, and test patients Instruct in using medications Place patients onto mechanical ventilators Supervise respiratory technicians 2017 Jahangir Moini Respiratory therapists and technicians Bachelors degree required for therapists Licensure required in nearly all states Certified Respiratory Therapist (CRT) or

Registered Respiratory Therapist 21% growth up to 2022, mostly in hospitals Average annual salary: $55,870 2017 Jahangir Moini Respiratory therapists and technicians Technicians usually need an Associates degree

Limited demand due to most work being handled by respiratory therapists Average annual wages: $47,810 2017 Jahangir Moini Emergency medical technicians and paramedics Provide fast, life-saving care Treat, transport patients Usually dispatched by 911 operators Use specialized equipment such as:

Devices to measure vital signs Backboards that immobilize patients 2017 Jahangir Moini Emergency medical technicians and paramedics Five levels: First

responder EMT-basic EMT-intermediate (1985) EMT-intermediate (1999) Paramedic (provide most extensive care): Administer drugs Endotracheal intubations Read electrocardiograms

2017 Jahangir Moini Emergency medical technicians and paramedics Paid positions closer to metropolitan areas Volunteer positions in more rural areas Graduates must pass written, practical exam Intermediate-level students: 30 to 350 training hours Instruction on advanced airway devices, IV fluids, and

certain drugs 2017 Jahangir Moini Emergency medical technicians and paramedics Advanced paramedic training: Anatomy, physiology, advanced medical skills 12 years (Associates degree) All EMTs must be certified Most register with the NREMT every 2 years 19% growth up to 2022 Averages $20,690 to $54,690 annually

2017 Jahangir Moini Optometrists Main providers of vision care Doctors of optometry:

Examine, diagnose, test patients Prescribe contact lenses, eyeglasses, medications May provide vision therapy or rehabilitation Refer and educate patients Provide pre- or post-operative care Promote nutrition 2017 Jahangir Moini Figure 6-7: An optometrist examining a patient 2017 Jahangir Moini

Optometrists Usually general practice; may specialize Not ophthalmologists or dispensing opticians (who fit and adjust contact lenses or glasses) Work in a variety of facilities 4-year Doctor of Optometry degree required Highly competitive field due to lack of colleges 2017 Jahangir Moini

Optometrists 1-year postgraduate clinical residencies for specialists Master degree or PhD for research or teaching Licensure required, renewal every 13 years 24% growth up to 2022 Averages $78,000 to $169,115 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini

Ophthalmologists Physicians who: Diagnose, treat eye diseases, injuries Perform eye surgery Prescribe contact lenses and glasses Specially trained on more complex eye conditions than optometrists Can prescribe a wider range of drugs 2017 Jahangir Moini Ophthalmologists 4+ years of premedical undergraduate

training 4 years of medical school 1 year of internship 3-year residency Written Qualifying Exam 18% growth up to 2022 Averages $215,000 to $354,500 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Audiologists Work with hearing, balance, or related ear

problems Counsel about hearing loss Train in use of hearing aids Teach communication and listening strategies Fit devices Some specialize to work with: Children Elderly Hearing impaired

2017 Jahangir Moini Audiologists Licensure required varies with state Mastera degree required Many states now require Doctoral degree (4 years) Credential: AuD Some states do not allow dispensing of hearing aids unless separate Hearing Aid Dispenser license is

obtained 2017 Jahangir Moini Audiologists Certificate of Clinical Competence in Audiology (CCC-A) may be earned 25% growth up to 2022 Averages $40,360 to $98,880 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini

Pharmacists Dispense medications following prescriber guidelines Less compounding of medications than in the past In community or retail pharmacies Often counsel patients about products 2017 Jahangir Moini

Pharmacists In hospitals Advise staff about drug selections and adverse effects Prepare sterile solutions Order supplies Handle administration Provide education May visit patients along physicians to aid in monitoring medication use (pharmacotherapists) 2017 Jahangir Moini

Pharmacists Specialties: Home health care Cancer or psychiatric medications Nutrition support Work with radiopharmaceuticals (nuclear pharmacists or radio-pharmacists) Regulated by both state and federal boards About 61% work in retail pharmacies About 23% work in hospitals

2017 Jahangir Moini Pharmacists Licensure and several exams required Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), usually 4 years Master of Science or PhD degree after PharmD if more experience is desired

Graduate studies in: Pharmaceutical chemistry Pharmacology Pharmaceutics Pharmacy administration 2017 Jahangir Moini Pharmacists 12 year residency if intending to work in hospitals Pharmacists who own their own pharmacies

often seek a Master of Business Administration Licensure required Several exams, including North American Pharmacist Licensure Exam (NAPLX) 2017 Jahangir Moini Pharmacists Most states require:

Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam (MPJE) on pharmacy law Additional exams required by some states Licenses transferred between all states except California 14% growth up to 2022 Averages $89,320 to $150,550 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Pharmacy technicians Assist in:

Preparation and compounding of medications Administration Labeling Customer service Regulated by individual states 75% in retail pharmacies, 17% in hospitals No national training standard exists 2017 Jahangir Moini Pharmacy technicians On-the-job training: 312 months College: 6 months to 2 years

Certificate, diploma, or Associate degree Internships often included Most states require registration Some require certification every 2 years Pharmacy Technician Certification Exam (PTCE) Exam for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (ExCPT) 2017 Jahangir Moini Pharmacy technicians 20% growth up to 2022 Replacing pharmacy aids because job

descriptions are enlarging Averages $29,320 to $42,400 annually Certified often earn more than non-certified 2017 Jahangir Moini Dietitians Along with nutritionists: Assist with meal selection and preparation Promote healthy eating Evaluate diets Bachelors degree required

Licensure, certification, registration requirements vary between states 2017 Jahangir Moini Figure 6-8: A dietitian consulting with a patient 2017 Jahangir Moini Types of dietitian specialties Business

Clinical Community Consultant Educator Management Research 2017 Jahangir Moini Dietitians Registered Dietitian credential is available Supervised internships required for

certification (45 years) Also, supervised practice internships (6 months to 2 years) 9% growth up to 2022 Averages $31,460 to $73,410 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Chiropractors Treat neuromusculoskeletal problems

Nerves, muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones Use spinal adjustments, manipulation, etc. Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.) degree required (3 years undergraduate; 4 years chiropractic) Exam via National Board of Chiropractic Examiners 15% growth up to 2022 Average annual wage: $67,000 2017 Jahangir Moini Physical therapists

Work with: Dysfunctions of movement Arthritis Stroke Heart disease Lower-back pain Cerebral palsy Fractures Head injuries 2017 Jahangir Moini Physical therapists

Use therapeutic exercise, devices Electrical therapies, physical agents Joint or soft tissue mobilization Bronchopulmonary therapies Neuromuscular training or retraining May specialize in: Children Orthopedics Elderly Neurological Athletes Cardiopulmonary

2017 Jahangir Moini Figure 6-9: A physical therapist putting a knee brace on a patient 2017 Jahangir Moini Physical therapists Usually Doctoral degrees (3 years) Also, Masters degrees (22.5 years) Licensure required

30% growth up to 2022 Averages $50,350 to $104,350 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Physical therapist assistants Help therapists to provide treatments Demonstrate equipment usage Assist with exercises Give massages or electrical stimulation Apply traction or hot/cold packs Perform ultrasound Document information

Most states require an Associates degree 2017 Jahangir Moini Physical therapist assistants Must be certified in CPR and other first aid Some states require licensing or registration 35% growth up to 2022 Averages $28,580 to $63,830 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Massage therapists

Manipulate soft body tissues: Improving joint mobility and range of motion Base therapies on thorough medical histories Specializations include: Deep-tissue massage Sports massage Swedish massage 2017 Jahangir Moini Figure 6-10: A massage therapist working with a patient

2017 Jahangir Moini Massage therapists Sessions last 5 minutes to more than 1 hour Often instruct patients about at-home techniques 23% growth up to 2022 Massage and Bodywork Licensing Exam (MBLEx) Most states require licensure or certification

2017 Jahangir Moini Massage therapists Study areas: Anatomy Physiology Kinesiology Diseases and pathology Business management Ethics All therapists transferred to Board Certification

Since National Certification is no longer valid Averages $41,790 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Psychologists Study the mind and behaviors Identify causes of behaviors Prevent undesirable behaviors Solve problems related to behavior Help diagnose, treat, and prevent mental

illness Considered a scientific (not medical) field 2017 Jahangir Moini Psychologists Study both individual and group behaviors Work in many different types of facilities Master or Doctoral (PhD or Doctor of Psychology PsyD) degree required

Bachelor degree allows individuals to assist Licensure required 2017 Jahangir Moini Types of psychologist specialties Clinical Counseling Developmental Educational Engineering

Experimental/research Industrial Personnel Psychometric Rehabilitation School Social 2017 Jahangir Moini Psychologists Graduate programs are highly competitive Licensing varies from state to state All states require passing an examination

Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) recognized in USA American Board of Professional Psychology Awards certification to Doctors of Psychology 2017 Jahangir Moini Psychologists Industrial and organizational psychologists:

53% growth up to 2022 For other areas: 12% growth up to 2022 Averages $42,230 to $120,670 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Medical social workers Help people with personal and family problems, and relationships:

Diseases Disabilities Housing Substance abuse Unemployment

Domestic conflicts Research Advocacy Policy planning Other areas 2017 Jahangir Moini Medical social workers May be called licensed clinical social workers Specialization areas:

Schools Conflict resolution Child welfare Child Protective Services Family services 2017 Jahangir Moini Medical social workers Give support to people with:

AIDS Alzheimers disease Cancer Other illnesses Bachelors degree (or higher) required Credentials: BSW, DSW, PhD Requirements vary between states 2017 Jahangir Moini Medical social workers 2 years or 3,000 hours of supervised clinical

experience usually required 22% growth up to 2022 Averages $38,370 to $51,470 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Rehabilitation counselors Evaluate and determine treatment for:

Mental rehabilitation Physical rehabilitation Academic rehabilitation Vocational rehabilitation Usually requires Masters degree Certificate or license may be required 20% growth up to 2022 Averages $33,880 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Diagnostic divisions

of the health care system Radiologists Radiologic technologists Cardiovascular technologists, technicians Clinical laboratory technologists, technicians Pathologists Pathology assistants Phlebotomists 2017 Jahangir Moini Radiologists Physicians who specialize in:

Interpreting radiographs Showing various body tissues MDs or DOs who complete 4-year residencies Essential in diagnosing many conditions and disorders 2017 Jahangir Moini Radiologic technologists Work with more complicated equipment, including:

Computed tomography (CT) Fluoroscopy equipment Mammography equipment Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 2017 Jahangir Moini Radiologic technologists

Certificate, Associates, Bachelors programs Most states require licensure Voluntary certification is available 21% growth up to 2022 Averages $35,100 to $74,970 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Radiologic technicians Provide diagnostic imaging exams Place and program equipment Prepare, educate, and position patients Associate degree required

Licensure requirements vary A few states require certification 2017 Jahangir Moini Cardiovascular technologists Assist physicians in diagnosis and treatment Specialize in: Echocardiography

Invasive cardiology (catheterizations) Vascular technology Usually 2-year programs, but 4-year programs are becoming more popular Average $48,984 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Cardiovascular technicians Usually Associates degrees Bachelors and certificate programs available

Licensure not usually required Certification available, often preferred 24% growth up to 2022 Technicians average $29,270 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Clinical laboratory technologists Assist pathologists in testing and treatment Mostly employed in hospitals and labs

Analyzing samples, chemicals Blood typing Drug detection Cell counting Specimen preparation Searching for abnormalities 2017 Jahangir Moini

Clinical laboratory technologists Regularly use: Microscopes Cell counters Computerized or automated test equipment Electronic medical records 2017 Jahangir Moini Clinical laboratory technologists Technologist jobs generally more complex than technician jobs

Supervise technicians in the lab Specialize in many different areas 2017 Jahangir Moini Types of laboratory technologist specialties Blood bank Clinical chemistry Cytotechnologist

Immunology Microbiology Molecular biology 2017 Jahangir Moini Clinical laboratory technologists Bachelor degree in medical technology or a life science Competition high; lack of training programs Various states require licensure or registration

National exam available Doctoral degree usually required for lab directors 14% growth up to 2022 Averages $60,560 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Clinical laboratory technicians Less complicated activities than technologists Prepare specimens Conduct manual testing May operate automated analyzers Specialties: Histotechnicians, Phlebotomists

Associate degree or certificate required, though some get on-the-job training 2017 Jahangir Moini Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians Licensure available, often leads to advancement toward becoming a technologist 30% growth up to 2022 Averages $40,750 annually

2017 Jahangir Moini Phlebotomists Draw blood, transport to labs, and test blood Perform venipuncture and skin puncture Need strong interpersonal skills to deal with apprehensive patients 2017 Jahangir Moini Figure 6-11: A phlebotomist performing venipuncture

2017 Jahangir Moini Phlebotomists High demand for phlebotomists Positions evolve to become part of other job titles Usually: postsecondary non-degree award May receive on-the-job training Certificate or diploma programs usually less than 1 year 2017 Jahangir Moini

Phlebotomists No licensure in most states, but employers prefer certification (via an exam) 27% growth up to 2022 Averages $32,000 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Pathologists Physicians who specialize in: Diagnosis and study of disease, using lab

methods Residencies usually required Board certification available Examine body fluids Toxicology tests Blood banks Test immune function Analyze cell and tissue samples 2017 Jahangir Moini Pathologists Medical degree, then specialized study Certification via American Board of Pathology

18% growth up to 2022 Averages $174,544 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Pathology assistants Supervised by pathologists: Prepare, dissecting surgical specimens Prepare, select tissue samples May also assist other departments Certification is voluntary Bachelors or Masters degree required 30% growth up to 2022

Averages $58,640 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Health care management Health care administrators Health information technicians 2017 Jahangir Moini Health care administrators Manage, coordinate services in clinics,

physician offices, hospitals, nursing facilities Bachelors, Masters, Doctoral degrees available Certificate or diploma programs often less than 1 year in length 22% growth up to 2022 Averages $85,860 to $102,000 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Health information technicians Also called medical records technicians Manage and analyze information

Always maintain confidentiality Associate degree usually required 22% growth up to 2022 Averages $34,160 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini Health care education Health educators School health educators

2017 Jahangir Moini Health educators Teach behaviors that promote wellness Bachelor degree required Employers often require Certified Health Education Specialist credential 21% growth up to 2022 Averages $48,790 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini

School health educators Assist young people with healthy living skills Usually participate in community programs Bachelors or Masters degree required Meet regular teacher certification standards 18% growth up to 2022 Averages $41,830 annually 2017 Jahangir Moini

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