Unit 2: Economies in History - Mr. Paul Ingram

Unit 2 Part C Early Canadian History Economic Empowerment Vikings In LAnse aux Meadows (on the North coast of Newfoundland) there was evidence found of an early Norsemen or Viking settlement that dates back to the 1000. This settlement was the result of Viking expansion and exploration from their homeland.

LAnse aux Meadows Newfoundland Vikings The trip was made in a type of ship called a longboat that used a combination of sails and oars for locomotion. These were not comfortable and offered little protection from the sea. The passage to Newfoundland was a dangerous one.

Vikings Once they arrived in Newfoundland they found that they could not peacefully coexist with the Beothuk native group and left after conflict in 1011. A Little Beothuk History The

following 3 slides are very brief history of the Beothuk. No need for notes just read or listen via the link provided. Shawnadithit The Beothuk The Beothuk First Nation lived on the island of Newfoundland and the coast of

Labrador. This nation had the misfortune of being the first indigenous group to have prolonged contact with Europeans. The first encounter took place around 1,000 AD with the Vikings. The Norse attempted to establish permanent settlements on Vinland (Newfoundland). However, when the Vikings refused to trade iron weapons to the local Beothuk war erupted between the two peoples. Thereafter, the Vikings abandoned settlement of the New World altogether. Europeans returnedthis time the Englishby the early 17th Century. Wisely the Beothuk did not trust the English anymore than the Norwegians. Many Beothuk were captured by slave traders and hauled away to Europe. Once the Beothuk (and indigenous North Americans in general) demonstrated their unsuitability for slavery (they quickly died of exposure to disease while in Europe) they were hunted for sport by English colonists. Since there weren't enough Beothuk to force the English out, they responded by building their settlements in the remote interior of Newfoundland. This

alleviated the situation for a while; however, the English occupied the best places for fishing and hunting. Inevitably, the two civilizations were bound to clash again and clash they did: by the early 1800s there were fewer than 20 Beothuk left alive. The last remaining survivor was a woman who called herself Shawnadithit. http://www.vcanada2.com/section_1/1.1fivenationsandbeothuk.htm Shawnadithit In 1823, Shawnadithit, and her mother and sister, were found on the verge of starvation by English trappers. The trappers rescued the three women and took them to St. John's. After recovering the women were

returned to Exploits Bay where they had originally been found. Shortly thereafter, Shawnadithit's mother and sister died of tuberculosis. Alone and unsure of what else to do, she walked back to the English colony. She was taken in as a nurse-maid by John Peyton and renamed "Nancy". An amateur ethnologist and anthropologist, William Cormack founded the "Beothuk Institution" in an attempt to educate the world about the dying Beothuk culture. By the time he established his institution (October 2, 1827) the people he intended to study had all but vanished; that is, until he heard of Shawnadithit. Cormack had Shawnadithit brought to him so she could supply him with first hand information about the culture, history, and society of the "Red Indians of Newfoundland." By the time Shawnadithit arrived at Cormack's she was already dying of tuberculosis. In a race against

time, Cormack attempted to teach her English. However, her English was so bad that she would've made Evgeni Malkin sound like William Shakespeare in comparison. So with no alternative Cormack was forced to rely on her simple drawings to put together the history of the Beothuk. http://www.vcanada2.com/section_1/1.1fivenationsandbeothuk.htm A Little Beothuk History In 1810, the governor of Newfoundland attempted to make friendly contact with the Beothuk. He sent Captain David Buchan to establish friendly relations with the natives. Despite their legendary shyness and fear of the whites, Buchan somehow managed to find a Beothuk hunting

party and have a good visit. The initial meeting went quite smoothly. The English and Beothuk, through gestures, managed to make an agreement to meet again. As a gesture of good will, Buchan left two of his buddies with the hunters while he returned to the settlement in order to bring back things to trade. The good feeling quickly faded away as the Beothuk began to wonder if it had not been a mistake to let Buchan go. The Beothuk decided to leave but before going they killed the two Englishmen. Perhaps in Beothuk culture the killing of guests could be considered as a gesture of good will? If this was the case, the English were indeed quite culturally insensitive. Needless to say, the English certainly didn't share the Beothuk's outlook and the mutual hostility resumed. Approximately nine years after the incident, Newfoundland's new governor offered a substantial reward to anyone who could bag a "red indian" dead or

alive. http://www.vcanada2.com/section_1/1.1fivenationsandbeothuk.htm Beginning about 1500 AD, Europeans begin arriving in North America. Europeans came from a variety of nations & cultures but many of their

economic ideas were similar. Needs and wants: Europeans left their homes for the promise of land and natural resources. Something only the very wealthy could afford in Europe Question: What North American natural resources were many Europeans hoping to

get rich with? Production: Until the 1700s Europeans made most things by hand. Some people specialized in one skill so each village had a blacksmith, cobbler, mason etc. Many of these skills came in very handy when the Europeans arrived in North America

Distribution: The European system was based on the idea that if you owned land or a resource you had the right to make as much profit from it as you could. If you wanted something you paid money for it. If you made extra you could sell it. Most of the Europeans came with the idea to recreate their society in North America Question: How are the Native and

European systems similar and different? First Nations & Inuit European Settlers Needs & Wants Production Distribution Unit 2 Part C Early Canadian History

Economic Empowerment

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