Unit 2 - Department of Natural Sciences

Unit 2 Cells 2.3 Eukariotic cells 1 IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko Assessment statements 2.3.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell. The diagram should show free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), lysosome, Golgi apparatus, mitochondrion and nucleus. The term Golgi apparatus will be used in place of Golgi body, Golgi complex or dictyosome. 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1with the functions of each named structure. 2.3.3 Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells. 2.3.4 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Differences should include: Naked DNA versus DNA associated with proteins DNA in cytoplasm versus DNA enclosed in a nuclear envelope No mitochondria versus mitochondria 70S versus 80S ribosomes eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions.

2.3.5 State three differences between plant and animal cells. 2.3.6 Outline two roles of extracellular components. The plant cell wall maintains cell shape, prevents excessive water uptake, and holds the whole plant up against the force of gravity. Animal cells secrete glycoproteins that form the extracellular matrix. This functions in support, adhesion and movement. IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 2 Introduction Eukaryotic organisms have cells that contain a nucleus. Animals, plants, fungi and protoctist all have eukaryotic cells. They all have organelles which can only be fully appreciated while observed with an electron microscope. Note that the image on the left is a highly schematic

illustration. It compares some possible structures of both animal and plant cells. IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 3 2.3.1 Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell. The diagram should show : - Free ribosomes - Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), - Lysosome, - Golgi apparatus, - Mitochondrion - Nucleus.

The term Golgi apparatus will be used in place of Golgi body, Golgi complex or dictyosome. IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 4 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1with the functions of each named structure. Cell organelle Structure Function (free) ribosome made of two subunits, both made of protein and RNA free ribosomes make

proteins that are used in the cell site of protein synthesis (see Topic 3.5) IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 5 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1with the functions of each named structure. Cell organelle Structure Function rough endoplasmic reticulum - RER RER is membrane with ribosomes attached. RER makes proteins

that are exported via exocytosis in order to be used outside the cell free ribosomes make proteins that are used in the cell site of protein synthesis (see Topic 3.5) IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 6 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1with the functions of each named structure. Cell organelle Structure Function

lysosome contains hydrolytic enzymes e.g. lysozymes which can break down substances in the cell fuses with and digests old cell organelles and material taken in via endocytosis intracellular digestion); it also can burst and cause autolysis of a cell IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 7 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1with the functions of each named structure.

Cell organelle Structure Function Golgi apparatus stack of flattened, membrane-bound sacs, forming an extensive network in the cell intracellular transport, processing and packaging of proteins IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 8 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1with the functions of each named structure.

Cell organelle Structure Function mitochondrion the link reaction and the Krebs cycle take place in the matrix; the electron transport chain is found on the cristae of the inner membrane Involved in the release of energy from inorganic molecules IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko

9 2.3.2 Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1with the functions of each named structure. Cell organelle Structure Function nucleus largest cell organelle contains DNA controls the activity of the cell by transcribing certain genes and not others (see Topic 3.5) IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 10

2.3.3 Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells. IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 11 2.3.3 Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells. Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrium IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 12 2.3.3 Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells. Lysosomes Nucleus

IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 13 2.3.4 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Feature Similarities Differences Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Genetic material Naked DNA DNA associated with proteins Circular DNA

Linear DNA DNA found in cytoplasm (nucleoid area) DNA enclosed in nuclear envelope Protein synthesis 70S (mass and size) 80S(mass and size) Respiration no mitochondria but uses plasma membrane and mesosomes Mitochondria

Ultrastructure no internal membranes present compartmentalise the cell into areas with different functions The differences should include: - Naked DNA versus DNA associated with proteins - DNA in cytoplasm versus DNA enclosed in a nuclear envelope - No mitochondria versus mitochondria - 70S versus 80S ribosomes - Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 14 Protein synthesis 70S (mass and size)

80S(mass and size) Extra info Svedberg unit (symbol S, sometimes Sv) is a non-SI unit for sedimentation rate. It is often used to reflect the rate at which a molecule travels to the bottom of a test tube under the centrifugal force of a centrifuge. IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 15 2.3.4 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Feature Plant cell Animal cell cell wall

cellulose cell wall and plasma membrane only plasma membrane chloroplast present in photosynthetic cells absent vacuole large, permanent vacuole, filled with cell sap small, temporary vacuoles may be present

reserve food carbohydrate stored as carbohydrate storage starch and also plant as glycogen and some oils stored as animal fat IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko 16 2.3.6 Outline two roles of extracellular components. Extracellular components are found associated with both plant and animal cells. Cellulose is the best known example of an extracellular component in plant cells. Bone, cartilage and connective tissue are examples of tissues with a very important extracellular component in animal cells. Link to explicative video IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko

17 2.3.6 Outline two roles of extracellular components. The cell wall is a non-living secretion (an extracellular component) of the cell and it serves several purposes: The cell wall provides support and mechanical strength for the cell and in turn the tissues of the plant as a whole. It determines the shape of the cell. As the plant cell takes up water, the intra-cellular pressure increases. The cell wall will limit the amount of expansion and prevent the plant cell from bursting. The cell will continue to take in water due to osmosis but the same amount of water will be expelled due to the pressure of the cell wall. The cell is now turgid and mechanically quite stable. Many plants depend to a large extend on turgor to keep them upright. Cellulose is a carbohydrate and plants can use the cell wall for carbohydrate storage. The cell wall provides a barrier for pathogens (disease causing organisms). Plant cells store specific proteins in the cell wall that recognise pathogens and start a defense response to them. IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko

18 Unit 2 Cells 2.3 Eukariotic cells 19 IB Biology SFP - Mark Polko

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Lab Safety - River Dell Regional School District

    Lab Safety - River Dell Regional School District

    Protect YourselfHand Safety. If a chemical spills on your skin, notify the teacher and rinse with water for 15 minutes. Wash hands after every lab. Handle glassware, sharp tools and heated containers carefully
  • Title Slide - ICRP

    Title Slide - ICRP

    Manufacturers are challenged to practice standardised methods for dosimetry and dose display in CBCT in conformance with international recommendations such as ICRU. Unfortunately, at present, there is wide variation in dose quantities and units being displayed in CBCT machines.
  • Title

    Title

    Matt Ozanich, MHHS, NRP. Director of Pre-Hospital Care. Trumbull Memorial Hospital. Disclaimers. Always follow local protocols. Always follow administrative policy. Always do what is in the best interest of the patient. Objectives. Review common concerns with pediatric calls.
  • PROJEKTAS PRADINI KLASI MOKYTOJ IR SPECIALIOJO UGDYMO PEDAGOG

    PROJEKTAS PRADINI KLASI MOKYTOJ IR SPECIALIOJO UGDYMO PEDAGOG

    * * * The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education (1994). Salamanca, Spain, 7-10 June, 1994. UNESCO. ... (Inclusive Education and Classroom Practice Summary Report, 2003; ir kt.) teigiama, kad integruotą ar inkliuzinį ugdymą didele dalimi...
  • DOG BREEDS It is estimated that there are

    DOG BREEDS It is estimated that there are

    DOG BREEDS It is estimated that there are over 500 different dog breeds in the world. Two organizations which promote breed standards are the AKC (American Kennel Club) and the UKC (United Kennel Club). The AKC recognizes over 150 different...
  • Spark 2018 Identity economy and media marketing Douglas

    Spark 2018 Identity economy and media marketing Douglas

    Growth in consumer spend Pets Gardening Music (audio equipment) Arts Food (eating out) Fitness and sports Computers and gaming Charities Home and DIY Hobbies
  • Project KapMap - Royal Statistical Society

    Project KapMap - Royal Statistical Society

    In genetic evaluations we had learned that so long as all the info upon which the selection decision had been based was included in the analysis the available data would yield unbiased results . ... Project KapMap ... Kaplan Higher...
  • title

    title

    Even to enable their collaboration Advanced integrated applications, such as Data Grids, rely on seamless "transparent" operation of our LANs and WANs With reliable, quantifiable (monitored), high performance Networks need to become part of the Grid(s) design New paradigms of...