Unit 1 - Networking

Unit 2 - Networking LO1 & LO2 Unit Aim The aim of this unit is to provide students with wider background knowledge of computer networking essentials, how they operate, protocols, standards, security considerations and the prototypes associated with a range of networking technologies. You will explore a range of hardware, with related software, and will configure and install these to gain knowledge of networking systems. A range of networking technologies will be explored to deliver a fundamental knowledge of Local Area Networking (LAN), Wide Area Networking (WAN) and their evolution to form largescale networks and the protocol methodologies related to IP data networks will be explored.

Learning Outcomes By the end of this unit students will be able to: LO1. Examine networking principles and their protocols. LO2. Explain networking devices and operations. LO3. LO4. Design efficient networked systems. Implement and diagnose networked systems. Introduction

Computer networks are the driving force behind the evolution of computer systems and allow users to access data, hardware and services regardless of their location. Being knowledgeable about the underlying principles of networking is of vital importance to all IT professionals. Networking is an environment that is increasingly complex and under continuous development. Complex computer networking has connected the world by groups of small networks through internet links to support global communications. It supports access to digital information anytime, anywhere using many applications like email, audio and video transmission, including the World Wide Web, and this has opened the floodgates to the availability of information. Assignments

Assignment 1 Investigate networking principles, protocols and devices (Theory) Assignment 2 Planning, implementing and testing a LAN (Network design and implementation) LO1 Examine networking principles and their protocols Role of networks: Purpose, benefits, resource implications, communications, working practice, commercial opportunity, information sharing, collaboration.

System types: Peer-based, client-server, cloud, cluster, centralised, virtualised. Networking standards: Conceptual models e.g. OSI model, TCP/IP model; standards: e.g. IEEE 802.x. Topology: Logical e.g. Ethernet, Token Ring; physical e.g. star, ring, bus, mesh, tree, ring. Protocols: Purpose of protocols; routed protocols e.g. IPv4, IPv6, IPv6 addressing, Global unicast, Multicast, Link local, Unique local, EUI 64, Auto configuration, FTP, HTTP, SMTP, POP3, SSL; management of protocols for addressing. Questions? What is a computer network? What is the purpose of a network?

What resources do you need to create a network? (Think hardware and software) Purpose of networks File and Data Sharing Resource sharing e.g printers Data Protection and Redundancy On and off site storage and backups for the network

Ease of Administration Standardise protocols Uniform software installation, security and upgrades for network PCs Internal Communications Instant email Collaborative software and scheduling Distributed Computing Power Speed up processing of large tasks by using the power of all or Basic Network Resources

Copper Ethernet cabling Such as: CAT 5, CAT 6, CAT 7, faster the better Server with Network Operating System (Not needed for peer-to-peer networks) Client PCs with Operating system Switch Allows multiple devices(Such as clients, printers etc) to be connected Network Interface Card Sends and receives data

Router Connect a LAN to the internet Hard Drive storage linked to the server/network to provide data backups Network Types Networks are classified according to their geographic coverage and size. The two most common network classifications are local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). LAN - Local Area Network A data network restricted to a single geographic location and typically encompasses a

relatively small area, such as an office building or school. The function of the LAN is to interconnect workstation computers for the purpose of sharing files and resources. Because of its localized nature, the LAN typically is high speed and cheaper to set up than a WAN. WAN - Wide Area Network A network that spans more than one geographic location, often connecting separated LANs.

WANs are slower than LANs and often require additional and costly hardware such as routers, dedicated leased lines, and complicated implementation procedures. MAN - Metropolitan Area Network Occasionally, a WAN will be referenced as a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) when it is confined to a certain geographic area, such as a university campus or city. No formal guidelines dictate the differences between a MAN and a WAN. Technically, a MAN is a WAN. Perhaps for this reason, the term MAN is used less frequently than WAN.

If any distinction exists, its that a MAN is smaller than a WAN. A MAN is almost always bigger than a LAN and usually is smaller than or equal to a WAN. MANs use an Internet service provider (ISP) or telecommunications (telco) provider. WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network A wireless local area network (WLAN) provides wireless network communication over short distances using radio or infrared signals instead of traditional network cabling. A WLAN is a type of local area network (LAN). WLANs use Wireless access points (APs) which have a transmitter and receiver (transceiver) device used to create a

wireless LAN (WLAN). APs typically are a separate network device with a built-in antenna, transmitter, and adapter. APs use the wireless infrastructure network mode to provide a connection point Networking models You can choose from two basic wired network models: peer-to-peer and client/server. The model used for a network is determined by several factors, including how the network will be used, how many users will be on the network, and budgetary considerations.

These two are: Peer-to-Peer Networking Model Client/Server Networking Model Peer-to-peer A decentralized network model offering no centralized storage of data or centralized control over the sharing of files or resources. All systems on a peer-to-peer network can share the resources on their local computer and use resources of other systems.

Peer-to-peer networks are cheaper and easier to implement than client/server networks, making them an ideal solution for environments in which budgets are a concern. Does not work well with large numbers of computer systems. As a peer-to-peer network grows, it becomes increasingly complicated to navigate and access files and resources connected to each computer because they are distributed throughout the network. The lack of centralized data storage makes it difficult to locate and back up key files. Client/Server Networking Model Without question, the most widely implemented model and the one you are most likely to encounter when working in real-world environments.

The advantages of the client/server system are that it is a centralized model and it enables centralized network management of all network services, including user management, security, and backup procedures. Often requires technically skilled personnel to implement and manage the network. This, and the cost of dedicated server hardware and software, increases the cost of the client/server model. Despite this, the advantages of centralized management, data storage, administration, and security make the client/server network the network model of choice Comparing Peer-to-Peer and Client/ Server Network Models Attribute

Peer-to-peer Network Model Client/Server Network Model Size Recommended a max of 10 computers The size of the network is limited only by server size, network hardware, and budget. It can have thousands of connected systems Administration Each individual is responsible for the administration of his or her own system. An administrator is not needed. A skilled network administrator is often required to maintain and manage the network.

Security Each individual is responsible for maintaining security for local files and devices connected to the system. Security is managed from a central location but often requires a skilled administrator to correctly configure. Cost Easy to configure and set up. Often requires complex setup procedures and skilled staff to Server types: Centralised based Infrastructure based network using a NOS/Server configured to support a network of hardware and software resources belonging to an entire

network Enables network connectivity, communication, operations and management of an network. Provides the communication path and services between users, processes, applications, services and external networks/the Internet. Server types: Cluster based A group of servers that work together and act like a single system Enables high availability, if a server in the cluster fails the remaining servers take up the strain.

Enables load balancing Enables parallel processing Server types: Cloud based Access of networking resources from a centralized third-party provider using Wide Area Networking (WAN) or Internet-based access technologies. The hosting, storage, and delivery of computing as a service rather than a product.

The end user accesses remotely stored programs and other resources through the Internet without the need for expensive local networking devices, services, and support. Server types: Virtualised based Virtual networking is a technology that facilitates the control of one or more remotely located computers or servers over the Internet. Hardware and software network resources and network functionality are combined in a single, software-based administrative entity. Data can be stored and retrieved, software can be run and peripherals can be operated through a Web browser as if the distant hardware were onsite. External virtualization can be used to combine several LANs into

one VLAN for easier management. Internal virtualization single system with software containers to emulate a physical network with software. For example Microsoft Virtual Server uses virtual machines to make a "network in a box". Its containers can run Microsoft Windows, Mac or Linux. Centralized Computing versus Distributed Computing These terms describe where the network processing takes place. In a centralised computing model, one system provides both the data storage and processing power for client systems. This networking model is most often associated with computer

mainframes and dumb terminals, where no processing or storage capability exists at the workstation. These network environments are rare, but they do still exist. A distributed network model has the processing power distributed between the client systems and the server. Most modern networks use the distributed network model, where client workstations share in the processing responsibilities. Questions Part 1 1. True or False: The biggest difference between a LAN and WAN is usually the size of the network? 2. What network model offers no centralized storage of data or centralized control over the sharing of files or resources?

3. In what networking model is the processing power shared between the client systems and the server? Questions Part 2 What is the maximum number of computers recommended for inclusion in a peer-to-peer network? A. 2 B. 5 C. 10

D. 25 When a WAN is confined to a certain geographic area, such as a university campus or city, it is known as a A. LAN B. MAN Research and explore The following information is needed to complete your assignment 1. Find out about:

Role of networks: Consider purpose, benefits, resource implications, communications, working practice, commercial opportunity, information sharing, collaboration. System types: Consider Peer-based, client-server, cloud, cluster, centralised, virtualised. Research and find out advantages and Practical While completing this research: Find a suitable PC preferably with 2GB or better RAM Install Windows Server from provided USBs While not officially

launched Unit 2 Assignment 1 is available to read on Moodle. Network Operating Systems(NOS) Designed to support networks Networks are a collection of many computers and devices that are connected together By installing a NOS onto a computer it becomes what is know as a Server.

Servers can provide many different functions. NOS installed on a server and configured to distribute files. Example NOSs include: Windows Server, MacOS Server, Apache and Linux(e.g Ubuntu Server, RedHat, SUSE, CentOS, Debian, Oracle, ClearOS, Solaris, FreeBSD) NOS services: File: Allows resources to be shared between clients on the network. System admin can regulate who has access to what. Web: Server configured to store, process and deliver web pages to clients. Print: Manages the print queue, usage and potentially user credit. Print queue could be shared between multiple printers.

Remote access: Using software such as Virtual Machine Manager the server can be remotely managed. Using VPN connection to the remote server, clients can access their files and folders after logging in. Firewall/Proxy: A proxy firewall acts as an intermediary between inhouse clients and servers on the network. Proxy firewalls are considered to be the most secure type of firewall because they prevent direct network contact with other systems. A proxy firewall has its own IP address so an outside network connection will never receive packets from the sending network directly. NOS services continued: Terminal services: With remote access configured a user or admin can take full control of a computer or virtual machine desktop on the network. Access control: Allows the server admin to authorize users, groups, and computers to access or restrict access to objects on the network or computer.

Infrastructure management: Allows you to connect and manage the objects on the network. Ecommerce: Website hosting, secure (SSL) certificate installed and email management can be set up. Windows Server 2016 Interface Uses a familiar Windows 10 style interface Windows Server 2016 Services Services in Windows Server 2016 can be installed through server roles Windows Server Basic Configuration

Install Windows 2016 Standard Desktop Experience Change Computer Name (NO GAPS) Check Firewall is ON (Be aware this can block connections however) Allow Remote Connection Set up a static I.P Configure Updates Windows Defender Set to ON (Be aware this can block connections however)

Configure date and time Activate Product ID(You cant do this at college but would in a business environment) Promote to Domain Controller Finding out IPs on your network OPEN CMD OR POWERSHELL ON WINDOWS TERMINAL ON LINUX Current Machine IP

Broadcast IP(a special, reserved address used to send to all IP device) Type ipconfig (or ifconfig on Linux) at command prompt. This will give you the IP address of your own machine. For example, your machine's IP address is So your broadcast IP address is ping (may require -b on Linux) Alternatively use ARP(Address Resolution Protocol) Type arp a. You will get the list of all IP addresses on your segment. Arp is used to get IP addresses on the network and their matching Physical (MAC) addresses. Enabling Remote Connections Promote to Domain Controller

Allows the server to respond to requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc.) within a Windows domain. To enable in Windows Server: Manage > Add roles and features > Install Active Directory domain services - Dont enable Azure Cloud based active directory Promote server to domain controller Add new forest Default 2016 functional level Name + password

Keep clicking next and install

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