Toxic Air Contaminant Emissions by Mode/Power Source in g/km
Comparative Energy Consumption (in MJ per vehicle km) 25 24.1 20 15 9.84 10 5 0 Diesel bus Trolleybus Source: BC Transit (1994) Description of Transportation Emissions Hydrocarbons: Essentially unburned fuel. Hydrocarbons are a significant contributor to poor air quality. In sunlight, they combine with NOx to form ground level ozone (smog). Carbon Monoxide: A toxic gas that induces headaches, loss of visual acuity, drowsiness and decreased motor coordination. Contributes to smog as it combines in the atmosphere with NOx. Also implicated in global warming as a greenhouse gas and typically assigned a GWP value of 1.6 or 3.0. Oxides of Nitrogen: A mixture of oxides of nitrogen, including nitrous oxide (N2O), that results in the brown composition of smog and is a significant contributor to poor air quality. A primary target of emissions reduction programs in urban areas. NOx has been shown to affect health, suppress growth of vegetation and corrode metals. It essentially combines with other pollutants to form ground level ozone, negatively affecting the air quality index. Ground level ozone or smog is a major concern in Canadian cities, particularly during the summer months. NOx also combines with atmospheric water to produce nitric acid, a component of acid rain. NOx is considered a greenhouse gas and is typically assigned a GWP value of 7. Oxides of Sulphur: Substances formed by the combustion of sulphur in fuel, including sulphur dioxide (SO2). Oxides of sulphur react with atmospheric water to form sulphuric acid and are thus considered a contributor to acid rain. They are also a lung irritant. In terms of global warming, they have been shown to exert a global cooling effect. Particulate Matter: Inhaleable particles like small particles of oil, fuel, carbon and soot. They affect the respiratory system, causing asthma and other respiratory ailments. (Respiratory ailments are the fourth leading cause of death in the industrialized world and a growing health concern; asthma alone costs some $11 billion
in health dollars annually in the U.S. and is a continuing health concern in Edmonton.) Diesel engines are responsible for a large percentage of particulate matter produced by transportation sources. Volatile Organic Compounds: Form noxious aerosols which are inhaled and can contribute to lung problems and asthma. Carbon Dioxide: A greenhouse gas, considered the primary contributor to global warming and climate change. Assigned a GWP value of 1. *GWP = Global Warming Potential, the potential of a substance to cause global warming relative to Carbon Dioxide. (Sources: NAAVC, TransLink, ETS, US Environmental Protection Association, Diesel Fuel News) Toxins identified in Diesel Exhaust by the EPA Acetaldehyde Acrolein Aniline Antimony compounds Arsenic Benzene Beryllium compounds Biphenyl Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 1,3-Butadiene Cadmium Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chromium compounds Cobalt compounds Creosol isomers Cyanide compounds Dibutylphthalate Dioxins and dibenzofurans Ethyl benzene Formalehyde Inorganic lead Manganese compounds Mercury compounds
Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Naphthalene Nickel 4-Nitrobiphenyl Phenol Phosphorus Polycyclic organic matter including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives Propionaldehyde Selenium compounds Styrene Toluene Xylene isomers and mixtures o-xylenes m-xylenes p-xylenes Sources: Natural Resources Defense Council (1998), US Environmental Protection Association. Diesel Exhaust is a complex mixture of hazardous particles and vapors, some of which are known carcinogens and other probable carcinogens. The US Environmental Protection Association (California) has identified 41 substances in diesel exhaust listed by the State of California as toxic air contaminants. A toxic air contaminantis defined as an air pollutant which may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or in serious illness, or which may pose a present or potential hazard to human health.
In addition to, or as part of the commonly referred to emissions of NOx, CO and particulate matter produced by diesel engines, the substances listed at the left have been identified. The immediate health threat posed by the use of diesel engines in transit buses arises from the fact that the toxic emissions are released directly into the streets--right into the airways of pedestrians and transit patrons waiting at bus stops. Studies of emissions from co-called clean diesel engines reveal that, while NOx and CO levels may be lower, the levels of toxins such as dioxins, benzene, toluene, 1,3-butadiene and PAHs is essentially unchanged. While the weight of the particulate matter is reduced substantially, the total number of particles emitted by clean diesel engines is 15 to 35 times greater than by conventional diesels. The particles are simply finer, not fewer. Finer particles are more likely to penetrate deeper into the lungs, where they would be trapped and retained. Toxic Air Contaminant Emissions by Mode/Power Source (in g/km) 25 20 15 10 5
Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide Oxides of Nitrogen Sulphur Oxides Particulate Matter C on "C v. D le an iese l " Tr Di e ol le sel y Tr ( ol Tro coa le l) lle y (H y ( yd gas ) ro el ec t.)
0 Data Sources: ETS (1993), TransLink (1999), Edmonton Power (1993) Total Toxic Air Contaminant Emissions per Million Kilometres in Vancouver (in tonnes) 20 18.82 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 Clean Diesel Toxic Air Contaminants include Hydrocarbons, Carbon Monoxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, Sulphur Oxides, Particulate Matter. Trolleybus Data Sources: TransLink (1999) Comparative Maximum Levels of Toxic Air Contaminants by Mode (in g/km) 80
70 60 50 Carbon Monoxide 40 Oxides of Nitrogen 30 Particulates 20 10 0 Sources: NAAVC (1999), Edmonton Power (1993), TransLink (1999). NAAVC figures based on tests using CBD cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends (in g/km of CO2e*) 2500 2000 1500 Diesel Trolley 1000 500 0 1990
1994 1997 Larger, more powerful diesel engines tend to result in a slight increase in the average CO2 emission levels from diesel powered transit buses. On the other hand, the trolleybus, powered by hydroelectric power, does not contribute any greenhouse emissions to the environment. 2001 2005 2008 *CO2 Equivalent includes greenhouse gas values for emissions of CO, NOx, N2O, CH4. Data Sources: ETS (1993),, NAAVC Estimated Greenhouse Gas Emissions per Kilometre in 2005 by Mode (in grams/km of CO2e) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Clean Diesel Bus
Trolleybus (hydroelect.) Sources: TransLink. Comparative Noise Levels by Mode (in decibels) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Diesel CNG Fuel Cell Trolleybus City Street
Hearing loss occurs at levels of 90 db or higher The electric trolley measures around 175 times quieter than the diesel bus A Philadelphia study showed that the passing of a trolleybus could not be heard above the ambient street noise Adapted from Coast Mountain Bus Company (Vancouver); KC Metro (Seattle). Trolley Bus Benefits . . . Trolley Coaches attract Riders OTHER CITIES OPERATING TROLLEY COACHES REPORT RIDERSHIP INCREASES IN THE 10% TO 15% RANGE SF MUNI - Conversion of No. 1 line to trolley completed in 1981: 18% increase in ridership between 1979 and 1982. - No. 3, 4 and 55 lines also converted to trolley in 1982 with increases in patronage of approximately 10% to 15%. - California and Jackson lines temporarily converted from trolley to diesel in 1970s with a 10% to 15% decrease in ridership. SEATTLE METRO - Approximate 10% increase in ridership when a line is converted from diesel to trolley coach operation. CLEVELAND
- Expects to realize at least a 10% increase in ridership with the installation of a trolley bus line along Euclid Avenue early in the present decade. Sources: Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Trolley Bus Study for the RTD and LACTC (1991); San Francisco MUNI, Seattle METRO and Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. Statements of the Washington Society of Professional Engineers with regard to trolleybus operations and the replacement of trolleybuses by diesel-powered vehicles - The . . . general belief that the diesel engine is the most efficient and adaptable of all motive units for urban transit vehicles is a modernday phenomenon that finds a parallel only in such well-known misconceptions of the past as the world is flat! - [A] major function of an urban transit system is to transport patrons to and from the central business district--without strangling it! This cannot be done with the motorbus, particularly the diesel because of the offensive odor and high toxicity of its exhaust. - Subsidizing an all-diesel system is tantamount to subsidizing the motor coach industry and air pollution. - No urban community can afford to use the diesel bus for transit purposes . . . from the standpoint of . . . air pollution and public health. - The complete failure of any type of IC engine in urban transit duty is no fault of the technology, but rather a result of the narrow limits imposed by the laws of physics on the extent to which this type of machine can be improved. Its greatest single reason for failure as a transit unit is the fact that its engine speed must be maintained if its tractive effort and horsepower is, also, to be maintained. By contrast, maximum tractive effort, in the case of the electric vehicle, can be realized without any engine speed whatsoever. [In other words, the IC engine is incapable of achieving the energy efficiencies possible with the electric motor.] - The ultimate in poor transit management is the practice of scheduling motorbuses under the wires, when trolleys are left standing idle in the barn. - Those who contend that the cost per mile is meaningful as a method of evaluating equipment either do not have adequate knowledge to express an opinion on the matter, or their motives must be suspect. - Cost of power and maintenance of trolley overhead track and feeder are negligible in the overall costs of operating. The three largest costs, by far, are platform hours, equipment maintenance and garaging and administrative and general expense. Whatever managements reason for conversion [to diesel], economy of operation and service to the patron have nothing whatsoever to do with it! - Any proposal contemplating the retirement of an efficient trolley coach operation of assured longevity and utility value and the abandonment of its newly constructed substation system not only indicates a lack of moral responsibility to the public and a sister city utility, but also a complete disregard for the realities of economics. (S. M. Shockey) Source: WSPE and Seattle Civic Affairs Committee Recent Developments on the Trolleybus Scene I Some Highlights from other Canadian and U.S. Cities City
Boston Approx. Active Fleet 40 Flyer (1976) Recent Developments Current fleet to be replaced w. new trolleys; new route planned east of Downtown Boston to use Neoplan articulated low floor trolleys. Cleveland 30 Neoplan artic Dayton Philadelphia San Francisco 57 ETI/Skoda (1998-99) 66 AM General (1979) 276 Flyer (1976-77) 60 Flyer artic (1993) 102 AM General (1979) 46 MAN artic (1986 ) 236 Breda artic dual mode (1990) 244 Flyer (1982-83) Seattle Vancouver NEW TROLLEY SYSTEM! 5 mile long route in planning for Euclid Avenue to use articulated low floor trolleys. Trolley usage expected to boost ridership
by at least 10% and help revitalize Euclid corridor. Fleet renewed in 1998-99; last of four new extensions opened August 20, 2000. $44 M in budget for new trolleys, 2004-2011. Fleet currently undergoing renewal with new 40 and 60 foot trolleys from ETI/Skoda. AM General fleet to be rebodied using 100 40 ft. Gillig bodies on order and updated/refurbished electrics and controls; construction on an extension to Rte. 36 to start within a year. Over 200 new low floor trolleys to come in next five years; new 1 km extension into Stanley Park to be completed next year. (Sept. 2000) Data sources: International Trolleybus News List, Trolleybus Magazine Recent Developments on the Trolleybus Scene II - There are approximately 350 electric trolleybus systems worldwide 37 new trolleybus systems were opened in the last decade Some Highlights from around the World Linz, Austria New Volvo low floor articulated trolleys arriving; system expansion. Sao Paulo, Brazil Eleven route extensions under consideration; work progressing on Fura Fila articulated guided trolleybus line. Beijing, China New route recently opened, another existing line recently extended. Guangzhou, China $70 million trolley system expansion planned to include 49 km of new overhead. Fleet will be expanded to 350 trolleybuses to operate on 11 routes. Hong Kong, China NEW TROLLEY SYSTEM? Proposing to introduce trolleybuses to replace diesel buses on heavily used routes to reduce pollution. Demonstration line to be ready in near future. Shanghai, China New air conditioned low floor trolleybuses entering service. Brno, Czechoslovakia New route to open in September, 2000; new koda trolleys arriving. Quito, Ecuador 59 new trolleybuses entered service this year. Quitos large, ultra-modern trolleybus line that uses articulated vehicles, platform loading and operates on a right-of-way is being extended. London, England NEW TROLLEY SYSTEM? London Transport is considering implementing trolleybuses on four routes for environmental reasons and to boost patronage.
Nancy, France New trolleys bearing the mark of the designer Pinifarina to appear sometime in Fall 2000. Paris, France NEW TROLLEY SYSTEM! A 6.5 km route is to be constructed for guided trolleybuses. Athens, Greece Taking delivery of 200 brand new low floor trolleybuses in preparation for the Olympic Games. Arnhem, Holland Launched Trolley 2000 last year, a public transportation plan that will place renewed emphasis on the citys trolleybus system in the 21st century as a practical and environmentally-friendly way of travel. Trolleybuses carry signs: Arnhem Trolley Stad (Arnhem Trolley City). Naples, Italy New fleet of low floor trolleybuses began arriving in February, 2000. Mexico City, Mexico New Mitsubishi trolleybuses recently added to fleet. Moscow, Russia 271 new trolleybuses were purchased in 1999, adding to a trolley fleet of over 1,000 vehicles. Bern, Switzerland New batch of low floor Swisstrolleys now in operation. Lausanne, Switzerland Extensions in progress; Neoplan to test a 25 m, three-section mega-trolleybus in Lausanne in the near future. Merida, Venezuela NEW TROLLEY SYSTEM! Construction of a new 18 km segregated, high platform trolleybus route is underway. (Sept. 2000) Data Sources: International Trolleybus News List, Trolleybus Magazine Energy Efficiency of Fuel Cell Vehicles Ten units of power produced at a power plant will power: - ten direct electric vehicles ( e.g. trolleybuses) - five lead-acid battery vehicles - one fuel cell vehicle Source: Eur Ing Irvine Bell BSc CEng MIMechE CDipAF PGCE Energy Requirements and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for a Subcompact Car 140 125
120 110 100 85 80 Energy Requirements in kWh per 100 km Carbon Dioxide Emissions in grams per km 60 52 45 44 40 20 0 Gasoline Engine Diesel Engine Fuel Cell Fuel cell emissions based on hydrogen generated from natural gas or methanol. Note that fuel cell technology still results in 77% of the CO2 emissions produced by a diesel engine. Sources: Daimler-Benz (1994); Ian Fisher, Electric Trolleybuses in Vancouver, 1997 Fuel Cells and GHGs Hydrogen needed to power fuel-celled vehicles is most readily obtained by stripping it from hydrocarbon
molecules found in fossil fuels. The process results in the release of Carbon Dioxide, the most common greenhouse gas and the key target of the Kyoto Accord. Presently, fuel cells would result in little reduction in greenhouse gases over internal combustion engines. The chart below quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions produced in operating a Mercedes A-class automobile with different power sources: Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions per 1,000 km (in kg of CO2e) Current Gasoline Engine Fuel Cell (H from fossil fuels) Advanced "Clean" Gasoline Methanol Natural Gas 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Source: The Economist (April 2000); Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development
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