To be human is to engineer - University of Minnesota
Thoughts on Science Teachers Role on the Pathways to Preparing Students for Engineering Education and Practice Karl A. Smith Engineering Education, Purdue University Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota [email protected] www.ce.umn.edu/~smith Minnesota Science QTN Meeting February 10, 2007
Beginning in 1976, students persisting to bachelors degrees have exhibited the same relative preference for engineering and engineering technology. Bachelor's Degrees Awarded in Engineering & Engineering Technology 100,000 25,000 80,000 20,000
1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 U.S. Dept. of Education, NCES data, reported in NSB, Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
500,000 Full-Time Enrollment of Undergraduates in Engineering & Engineering Technology 400,000 300,000 Engineering 200,000
Eng Technology 100,000 0 1983 1988 1993 1998
2003 Source: Am Assoc of Eng Societies, Eng Workforce Comm. First University Degrees in Engineering Awarded by High Output Nations 250,000 China 200,000
Japan 150,000 USA 100,000 So. Korea Germany 50,000
UK 0 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993
1995 1997 1999 2001 Notice that India data are missing. India has not provided vetted national data since 1990, when they were at the South Korea level.
The reports... Engineering Research and Americas Future (NAE, 2005): Committee to Assess the Capacity of the U.S. Engineering Research Enterprise The Engineer of 2020 (NAE, 2004) and Educating the Engineer of 2020 (NAE, 2005) Rising
Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (NRC/COSEPUP, 2005) Innovate American: National Innovation Initiative Final Report (Council on Competitiveness, 2005) Engineering
Individually list 3 words that come to mind when you think of engineering Compare your list with a neighbor, note similarities and differences Definitions Engineering OED The action of the verb ENGINEER; the work done by, or the profession of, an engineer. Technology OED
systematic treatment of art, craft Smith OED One who works in iron or other metal Original sense craftsman, skilled worker in metal, wood or other material Engineering in Popular Media "Houston, we've got a problem. MacGyver? Star Trek?
Engineering A scientist discovers that which exists. An engineer creates that which never was -Theodore von Krmn (1881-1963) The engineering method is the use of heuristics to cause the best change in a poorly understood situation within the available resources Billy Koen The engineering method is design under constraints Wm. Wulf, President, National Academy of Engineering Engineering = Design
Design in a major sense is the essence of engineering; it begins with the identification of a need and ends with a product or system in the hands of a user. It is primarily concerned with synthesis rather than the analysis which is central to engineering science. Design, above all else, distinguishes engineering from science (Hancock, 1986, National Science Foundation Workshop). Design defines engineering. It's an engineer's job to create new things to improve society. It's the University's obligation to give students fundamental education in design (William Durfee, ME, U of
Minnesota, Minnesota Technolog, Nov/Dec 1994). Engineering Design Engineering design is a systematic, intelligent process in which designers generate, evaluate, and specify concepts for devices, systems, or processes whose form and function achieve clients objectives or users needs while satisfying a specified set of constraints. Engineering Design Thinking, Teaching, and Learning --
http://www.asee.org/about/publications/jee/upload/2005jee_sample.htm Skills often associated with good designers the ability to: tolerate ambiguity that shows up in viewing design as inquiry or as an iterative loop of divergentconvergent thinking; maintain sight of the big picture by including systems thinking and systems design; handle uncertainty; make decisions; think as part of a team in a social process; and think and communicate in the several languages of
design. Engineering Design Thinking, Teaching, and Learning -- http://www.asee.org/about/publications/jee/upload/2005jee_sample.htm Languages of Design
verbal or textual statements graphical representations shape grammars features mathematical or analytical models numbers Engineering Design Thinking, Teaching, and Learning -- http://www.asee.org/about/publications/jee/upload/2005jee_sample.htm
http:// www.businessweek.com/ magazine/content/04_20/ b3883001_mz001.htm Time, April 2005 http://www.stanford.edu/group/dschool/big_picture/our_vision.html Design Thinking Discipline Thinking
Ideo's five-point model for strategizing by design: Hit the Streets Recruit T-Shaped People Build to Think The Prototype Tells a Story Design Is Never Done Tom Friedman Horizontalize Ourselves
Engineering = Profession Codes of Ethics of Engineers Fundamental Principles Fundamental Canons Thinking Like An Engineer: Studies in the Ethics of a Profession by Michael Davis, Oxford University Press, 1998 http://www.iit.edu/ departments/csep/publication/md_te.html The Code of Hammurabi (ca 1700 BCE) If a builder builds a house for man and does not
make its construction firm and the house collapses and causes the death of the owner of the house that builder shall be put to death. If it destroys property, he shall restore whatever is destroyed, and because he did not make the house firm he shall rebuild the house which collapsed at his own expense. If a builder builds a house for a man and does not make its construction meet the requirement and a wall falls - that builder shall strengthen the wall at his own expense. American Society of Civil Engineers Code of Ethics
Fundamental Principles Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor and dignity of the engineering profession by: 1. using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare and the environment; 2. being honest and impartial and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clients; 3. striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession; and 4. supporting the professional and technical societies of their disciplines. www.asce.org
Fundamental Canons 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public and shall strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development in the performance of their professional duties. 2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence. 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.
Fundamental Canons 4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest. 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others. 6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the engineering profession. 7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers, and shall provide opportunities
for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision. Engineers for a Sustainable World (ESW) Engaging Engineering Curricula Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology National Science Foundation, 1996 Goal B All students have access to supportive, excellent undergraduate
education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry. Recommend that SME&T faculty: Believe and affirm that every student can learn, and model good practices that increase learning; starting with the student=s experience, but have high expectations within a supportive climate; and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the excitement of discovery, plus communication and teamwork, critical thinking, and
life-long learning skills into learning experiences. Lila M. Smith Pedago-pathologies Amnesia Fantasia Inertia Lee Shulman MSU Med School PBL Approach (late 60s early 70s), Currently President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of College Teaching
Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17. What do we do about these pathologies? Lee Shulman Activity Reflection Collaboration Passion Combined with generative content and the creation of powerful learning communities
Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17. Lila M. Smith Pedagogies of Engagement Cooperative Learning Task Groups Perkins, David. 2003. King Arthur's Round Table: How collaborative conversations create smart organizations. NY: Wiley.
http://clte.asu.edu/active Tracking Change - Seymour "The greatest single challenge to SMET pedagogical reform remains the problem of whether and how large classes can be infused with more active and interactive learning methods." Seymour, Elaine. 2001. Tracking the processes of change in US undergraduate education in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. Science Education, 86, 79-105.
Top Three Main Engineering Work Activities Engineering Total Design 36% Computer applications 31% Management 29% Civil/Architectural Management 45% Design 39%
Computer applications 20% Burton, L., Parker, L, & LeBold, W. 1998. U.S. engineering career trends. ASEE Prism, 7(9), 18-21. Successful Attributes for the Engineer of 2020
Possess strong analytical skills Exhibit practical ingenuity; posses creativity Good communication skills with multiple stakeholders Business and management skills; Leadership abilities High ethical standards and a strong sense of professionalism Dynamic/agile/resilient/flexible Lifelong learners
Design of Engineering and Technology Education It could well be that faculty members of the twenty-first century college or university will find it necessary to set aside their roles as teachers and instead become designers of learning experiences, processes, and environments James Duderstadt, 1999 Design & Learning Engineering design
is a social activity Designers require ambiguity All design is redesign Design occurs in context Education is a social activity Learning requires ambiguity All education is reeducation
Learning occurs in context Larry Leifer Thomas Friedman Story about Teachers A CEO, snidely mocking the salaries of teachers, asked a teacher, What do you make? The teacher responded, I make kids work harder than they ever thought they could, I make kids wonder, I make them question, I make them criticize, I make them write, and I make them
read and read and read. You know what I make? I make a difference. What about you? Friedman, Thomas. 2005. Journalism as Life. Commencement Address, Williams College. http://www.williams.edu/home/commencement/friedman.php (accessed 8-2205) Four Questions to Help Focus Attention on Engineering* 1. Can you name one thing is this room that was not produced, developed or delivered by an engineer? 2. Can you name a profession that is affecting your life more than engineering?
3. What is the method that engineers use? 4. Can you name a nationally known, recognized scholar of engineering whom you can turn to for an answer to the engineering method question? *Koen, ca. 1985 Its Up to You* Widen your horizons. Be a Renaissance engineer that is, an engineer for the twentyfirst century. Get involved in public policy. Dont be afraid to run for office. Stand for practical, cooperative
solutions. Bring your expertise to the table, and make others want to listen to you. Most important, go out and change the world. Make it a better place. Improve the quality of life for all the people of the Earth. Isnt that what engineering is really all about? *George Fisher, Address to the National Academy of Engineering, October 7, 2001.
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