TiltText - University of Toronto

TiltText: Using Tilt for Text Input to Mobile Phones Daniel Wigdor & Ravin Balakrishnan Text Messaging Estimated 500,000,000,000 text messages in 2003 worldwide More popular outside North America 2 Ambiguity Pressing 2 : {2,a,b,c,A,B,C} 3 Solutions MultiTap

Language-based disambiguation T9 Letterwise Wordwise Alternate Layouts: 4 MultiTap: ~2.1 KSPC e.g.: {6,6,6,>,6,6} = on 5 T9: ~1.2 KSPC e.g.: {6,6} = on, no, mo, 6

T9: Problems Ambiguity persists Inconsistent Eyes-free operation impossible Only English-Like text No numerals Real texting impossible (b4,btw,lol,rotflmao) 7 Whats best? Low KSPC Eyes-free Non-language specific 8 Tilt as input Add a tilt sensor to device

inexpensive accelerometers Hinckley et al. UIST00 Tilt for text input: Sazawal et al. Unigesture MobileHCI 02 Partridge et al. TiltType UIST02 No formal evaluations 9 TiltText: 1 KSPC + Tilt Action Q eg: {7} = P R

S 10 Tilt Detection: Key Tilt Difference between press & release Slow: 3 consecutive actions keypress, tilt, key-release Pilot study: poor performance 11 Tilt Detection: Absolute Relative to a fixed origin Keypress & tilt actions concurrent Consecutive same-tilt: savings Consecutive opposite-tilt: extra cost High error-rate: creeping posture

12 Tilt Detection: Relative Most recent tilting gesture floating origin Maintains advantages of Absolute tilt Saves work on consecutive same tilts & consecutive opposite tilts No creeping posture 13 Our Prototype Uses Absolute tilt Tilts from board via serial port 14

The Study Repeated-measures design 10 participants 2 techniques (MultiTap & TiltText) 16 blocks of 20 phrases each in 2 sessions Same phrases for both techniques Technique order between participant Measured time & accuracy Participants told to correct mistakes 15

Results: Overall Speed Overall, TiltText 16% faster (including error correction) 16 14 12 WPM 10 8 TiltText 6 MultiTap

4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Block 16

Power-law extrapolation 16 0.2134 y = 7.6837x 2 R = 0.9263 14 WPM 12 0.1184 y = 8.0297x

10 2 R = 0.8963 8 TiltText MultiTap 6 4 2 0 1 3

5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21

23 25 Block 17 Results: Between Participant Data from 1st technique seen by each participant TiltText still faster 16 14 12 WPM

10 8 TiltText 6 MultiTap 4 2 0 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 Block 18 Results: Error Rate TiltText error rate higher than MultiTap 20 Error Rate Percentage 18

16 14 TiltText MultiTap 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 Block 19 Error Rate: By Letter Error rates much higher for some letters 40 Error Rate Percentage 35

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Correct Letter 20 Error Rate: Tilt Direction Direction significantly effects error rate Creeping posture 40

Error Rate Percentage 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Left Forward Right

Back Correct Tilt Direction 21 Conclusions Implemented TiltText Three distinct approaches for tilt Formal study conducted TiltText faster despite errors 22

Future Work Theoretical TiltText speed KSPC is not the whole story Implement relative-tilt system Deeper analysis of error causes Longer study Optimizing letter/key assignments 23 Acknowledgements

Michael McGuffin Richard Watson DGP Lab members Study participants Microsoft Research 24 25

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