Three World Religions: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam
Three World Religions: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam EQ: Explain the similarities and differences between the worlds three largest monotheistic religions. MONOTHEISM Judaism, Christianity, and
Islam are major faiths that are examples of monotheism, or belief in one supreme god. I. JUDAISM First practiced by a small group of people in Southwest Asia called the
Israelites. Followers today are known as Jews. Holy book is the Torah. Jewish Beliefs: Believe that they descended from Abraham and Sarah, the first people to worship Yahweh (God).
Abraham lived at least 3,700 years ago in what is now Iraq. Torah says that God made an agreement, or covenant, with Abraham (move to Canaan [Palestine] and he will be blessed). Because of this, Jews believe they are Gods chosen people.
Ten Commandments Most important of Gods laws. God gave the commandments to Moses (a prophet, or messenger of God). He moved Israelites out of Egypt, where they were slaves.
Commandments said that all people are equal, whether they are rich or poor. Jerusalem, Israel Diaspora Over the centuries, the Jews would be conquered and forced to
leave their homeland many times. Eventually, they spread to countries in many parts of the world. Scattering of the Jews = Diaspora. In many areas, the Jews were treated cruelly Jewish Diaspora
Holy Days Passover: festival that retells the story of the Israelites fleeing Egypt. Rosh Hashanah: Jewish New Years Day. Yom Kippur: known as the Day of Atonement. People fast
(go without food) and pray on this day. II. Christianity Arose from Judaism in Southwest Asia. A Jew named Jesus began preaching in what today is Israel, the West Bank, and
Jordan. Taught that God loved all people, even those that have sinned. Some Jews greeted him as the messiah, or savior, who would deliver them from the Romans. Jesus
A.D. 30, Jesus and his disciples, or followers, went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover. Many Jews greeted him as the messiah, and this worried other Jews and Romans. Jesus was convicted of treason under Roman law and crucified, or executed.
Jesus Disciples proclaimed that Jesus had risen from the dead. They began preaching that Jesus was the Son of God, and they called him Christ (Greek for messiah). They spread Jesus teachings
throughout the Roman world and beyond. The holy book of the Christians is the Bible; stories about Jesus became the New Testament. Christianity Spreads
A.D. 300: Christians were persecuted until Roman emperor Constantine became one and proclaimed it a lawful religion. Christianity later divided into Roman Catholics (Pope in Italy), Eastern Orthodox, and Protestants (Martin Luther). Has more followers than any
other religion. Holy Days Christmas: Jesus birthday. Good Friday: day Jesus was crucified. Easter: most important day of Christian calendar; believed to be the day that
Jesus rose from the dead. III. ISLAM Began in the A.D. 600s in the Arabian Peninsula (Southwest Asia). In Arabic, Islam means surrender to the will of Allah (God). Followers of Islam are called
Muslims. Believe that Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet of Islam, following Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muhammad Born A.D. 570 in Makkah (Mecca), city in western Arabia.
A.D. 610, he heard the voice of angel Gabriel telling him to preach about God. Told the people there is only one God, Allah, and all believers in him are equal. Urged the rich to share with the poor. Saw life as a preparation for the Day of Judgment (when Allah would
reward the good and punish the bad). Muhammads swords Muhammads hat, robe, and staff A piece of Muhammads
hair! One of Muhammads sandals Hijrah Muhammads message angered the rich merchants of Makkah. A.D. 622, he was forced to flee for
safety to Madinah. His departure is known as the Hijrah, or migration. His forces eventually defeated armies who came to Madinah. Made Madinah the center of Islam. By the time of his death in A.D. 632, most of Arabia had accepted
Islam. Makkah to Madinah The Green Dome in Madinah Muhammads grave lies under the Green Dome. (Above is his
casket.) The Quran The Muslim holy book is the Quran. Describes the Five Pillars of Faith (obligations all Muslims must fulfill).
Five Pillars of Faith: 1. Confession, or statement, of faith. 2. Pray 5 times a day, facing Makkah. 3. Give charity to people in need. 4. Fast during daylight during Ramadan (the month in which
God began to reveal the Quran to Muhammad). 5. Make the hajj, or journey, to Makkah to pray (once in each Muslims lifetime). The Grand Mosque in Makkah
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