Chapter 11 THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Dr. Babar Ali 1 CHAPTER OUTLINE Chemistry & Matter Classification of Matter Mixtures Pure substances Periodic Table
Metals & Non-metals Metalloids Periods & Groups Solutions Chemical Formulas Naming Compounds 2 CHEMISTRY & MATTER Chemistry is the science that deals with the composition and structure of matter, and its changes Matter is anything that has mass, and occupies space Matter can be classified by its physical state as
gas, liquid or solid Matter can also be classified by its composition as pure substance or mixture 3 CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER MATTER Anything that has mass PURE SUBSTANCE MIXTURE Fixed composition & properties Variable composition & properties
Mixtures can be converted into pure substances by simple physical processes (e.g. filtration, evaporation) 4 MIXTURES MIXTURE Variable composition & properties HOMOGENEOUS HETEROGENEOUS Uniform composition & properties Non-uniform composition & properties
Tea, Coke Ink Salad dressing Cement 5 PURE SUBSTANCES PURE SUBSTANCE Fixed composition & properties ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS Composed of one type of atom
2 or more elements chemically combined hydrogen, Compounds can be converted into water, elements sugar by copper, chemical ironprocesses or reactions (e.g. electrolysis) salt 6 PERIODIC TABLE Arrangement of elements based on their atomic masses (A) was first proposed by the Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869
In the modern periodic table the elements are arranged according to their atomic # (Z) The elements are generally classified as metals, nonmetals and metalloids 7 PERIODIC TABLE Non-metals Metals Metalloids 8 PERIODIC TABLE Metalliccharacter characterdecreases increases going across
down aagroup Metallic period Least Mostmetallic metallic element elements 9 PERIODIC TABLE Non-metals Metalloids Metals 7 elements exist as diatomic molecules others exist as monatomic (one atom) 10
PROPERTIES OF METALS & NON-METALS Metals Non-metals Mostly solid Can be solid, liquid or gas Have shiny appearance Have dull appearance Good conductors of heat & electricity Poor conductors of heat
& electricity Malleable & ductile Brittle (if solid) Lose electrons Gain or share electrons 11 METALLOIDS Metalloids are elements that possess some properties of metals and some of non-metals The most important metalloids are silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge)
which are used extensively in computer chips 12 PERIODS & GROUPS The periodic table is composed of periods (rows) and groups or families (columns) 13 PERIODS & GROUPS Elements in the same group or family have similar properties, and are commonly referred to by their traditional names 14 More on GROUPS
Elements in groups 1-2 and 13-18 are referred to as main-group or representative groups Halogens are the most reactive nonmetals, and occur in nature only as compounds Noble gases are unreactive gases that are commonly used in light bulbs
Alkali metals are soft metals that are very reactive. They often react explosively with other elements Group 2 elements are called alkaline-earth metals. These metals are less reactive than alkali metals The group of metals in between the main group
elements are called transition metals 15 SOLUTIONS Solutions are solvents homogeneous made Solutes and can bemixtures any of the 3 from twophases substances of matter: solids, liquid or gas Solute
Substance being dissolved Solutions Solvent Substance dissolving solute 16 SOME COMMON SOLUTIONS Solution Solute
Solvent air oxygen nitrogen soda water carbon dioxide water antifreeze ethylene glycol water
wine ethyl alcohol water saltwater salt water brass copper zinc
steel carbon iron 17 SOLUTIONS Most common solutions have water as solvent and are called aqueous Solutions that do not contain the maximum amount of solute dissolved in them are called unsaturated
Solutions that contain the maximum amount of solute dissolved in them and cannot dissolved anymore solute are called saturated Solutions that contain more than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in them are called supersaturated Supersaturated solutions are unstable and can be made to form crystals with the slightest disturbance 18 Rules about CHEMICAL FORMULAS Elements combine chemically to form compounds Each represented by a chemical formula The more metallic element is written first followed by the less metallic element Subscripts are used to indicate the # of atoms of each element in the compound
19 CHEMICAL FORMULAS Less metallic More metallic NaCl Indicates 1 atom of sodium Indicates 1 atom of chlorine 20
CHEMICAL FORMULAS Less metallic More metallic CO2 Indicates 1 atom of carbon Indicates 2 atoms of oxygen 21 CHEMICAL FORMULAS
H2SO4 Indicates 2 atoms of hydrogen Indicates 4 atoms of oxygen Indicates 1 atom of sulfur 22 CHEMICAL FORMULAS Ca(NO3)2 Indicates 1 atom of calcium Composed
Indicates of a 1 nitrogen nitrate andgroup 3 oxygens Indicates 2 nitrate groups 23 NAMING Binary COMPOUNDS Binary compounds of a Metal & a Non-metal To name a binary (2-element) compound of a metal and non-metal, 1st name the metal followed by the non-metal with ending changed to ide. NaCl sodium chloride
Al2O3 aluminum oxide Ca3N2 calcium nitride 24 NAMING COMPOUNDS Binary compounds of a 2 Non-metals To name a binary compound of 2 non-metals, the more metallic element is written 1st, followed by the 2nd element with the ide ending HCl hydrogen chloride
CS2 carbon disulfide PBr3 phosphorous tribromide The number of atoms for each element is indicated by Greek prefixes: mono-(1); di-(2); tri-(3);tetra-(4); penta-(5); hexa-(6); hepta-(7) 25 THE END 26
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