The U7-U9 Soccer Match - LWYSA

The U7-U9 Soccer Match For Volunteer Referees, Coaches and Parents presented by Brian Rohrback U7 U9 Referee Coordinator This presentation was created by Phil Mangum, Referee Director LWYSA 1 Today we will cover the Laws of the Game in roughly the order they are discussed in the FIFA handbook. These rules are modified to coordinate with the age of the participants. Where practical, we go through the basic rules first, and deal with fouls and the exceptions at the end. This presentation is available as an online tutorial and is

summarized in a booklet. Our theme for you as a referee supporting youth soccer is simple: Keep it Safe! Keep it Fair! Keep it Moving! Keep it Fun! 2 What Do You Need? In order to play a soccer match, you need a few items

A field A ball Players A referee 3 The Field The diagram below is the standard layout for a U7-U9 soccer field (pitch). 4 The Field The lines on the side of the field are called touchlines in

soccer. If a ball leaves the field by passing all the way over a touchline, it is out of play. Touchlines Approximate Field Length: U7 35 yards, U8 40 yards, U9 45 yards 5 The Field The lines at either end of the field are called goal lines. If a ball leaves the field over one of these lines, it is out of play. If it leaves the field between the goalposts, then a goal is scored. Goal Lines Goal

Lines Approximate Field Width: U7 & U8 25 yards, U9 30 yards 6 The Field The zone at each end of the field is called a penalty area. The term penalty does not apply to U7-U9 play. Its purpose is to indicate the area on the field in which a goalkeeper may use their hands. Penalty Area The line for the penalty area is exactly 6 yards from the goal line. 7

The Field The small boxes in front of each goal are called the goal area. The purpose of the box is to indicate where a ball may be placed during the taking of a goal kick. Goal Area The goal areas are exactly 2 x 6 yards (U7, U8) or 4 x 11 yards (U9) 8 The Field The line down the middle of the field is called the halfway line. In U7-U9 play, its only purpose is to help position players on a kick-off. Halfway Line 9

The Field In U7-U9 play, each coach brings a pair of flags to mark the goals at both ends of the field. The posts should be 6 feet apart for U7-U8 play and 8 feet apart for U9 play. Goals U7, U8 6 feet apart U9 8 feet apart 10 The Field It is a good idea to know the approximate dimensions and parts of the field. Early in the season, some fields may not

have all the markings. Late in the season, markings may not be visible. U7 U8 U9 Length (yards) 35 40 45

Width (yards) 25 25 30 Goal size (feet) 6 6 8

Goal Area (yards) 2x6 2x6 4x11 Penalty Area (yards) 6x25 6x25 6x30

11 The Ball U7, U8 U9 Size 3 Size 4 Balls should be safe, meaning that no panels are peeling off or no other sharp surface that may cause injury is present.

Ball should be properly inflated. They should be firm, but not rock hard. 12 Out of Play A ball is out of play when it leaves the field, in the air or on the ground. The ENTIRE ball must be completely outside the line for a ball to be out of play. Note: The position of the player does not matter. Only the position of the ball matters when determining out of play. A player MAY go out of the field in an effort to play the ball.

13 The Players Total number of players on field (including goalkeeper, if used) Is one of the players a goalkeeper? U7 3 U8 4 U9

5 No Yes Yes You must be able to tell the teams apart. (Different colored jerseys) The players must be able to easily see who is a goalkeeper. (Use a penne or a different colored shirt.) The players must have safe equipment. 14

The Players Player equipment consists of the 5 Ss. 1. Shirt 2. Shoes 3. Shorts 4. Socks 5. Shinguards All 5 of these items are mandatory. 15 The Players SHIRT Players must wear a shirt of some type. Players on the same team should all be wearing a shirt of the same

color (except for the goalkeeper). 16 The Players SHOES The laws of the game and Washington State require a player to have appropriate footwear. It is NOT mandatory that the shoes have cleats, though that is recommended. While FIFA and Washington State rules do not FORBID shoes with metal or toe cleats, shoes with these attributes may be deemed by the referee to be inappropriate. Avoid equipping your player with such shoes.

17 The Players SHORTS Yes, the laws of the games DO specify shorts. Most associations arent too worried if a player at U7-U9 chooses to wear long warm-up type pants on cold days. Be aware that, while most associations do not strictly enforce the requirement that shorts be worn, if your team plays in tournaments, the rule MAY be more strictly enforced. Always have shorts with you! 18

The Players SOCKS Socks must be worn. They must be worn OUTSIDE the shinguards. (No folding down over the top). They must completely cover the shinguard. 19 The Players SHINGUARDS Shinguards are MANDATORY and they must be worn beneath the socks. A referee or coach may not waive this requirement. A

player must not be permitted to play, under any circumstances, if they are not wearing shinguards. The shinguards must also be of an appropriate material (NO magazines stuffed down the socks) and must provide a degree of protection. 20 Items NOT Permitted Players may not wear anything that may pose a risk to any participant. Jewelry may NOT be worn. Necklaces, rings, bracelets, earrings must be removed. If the item cannot be removed, the player cannot play. Taping newly pierced ears is NOT

acceptable. (Exception: Medical alert jewelry, or jewelry that cannot be removed for religious reasons, provided the referee determines it does not pose a risk.) LWYSA: NO casts, splints or orthotics 21 The Players Other Equipment Notes A player MAY wear their prescription glasses. Players may NOT wear sunglasses merely as protection from the sun.

The goalkeeper MAY wear a hat provided the hat is of a soft material. No other player may wear a hat. Players MAY wear extra clothing to protect themselves from the cold or if required by religious beliefs, provided it does not pose a danger to other players. WSYSA rules say that the extra clothing must be worn UNDER the uniform. Exercise flexibility and common sense. 22 The Referee The Role of the U7-U9 Referee The last item we need is the referee. For U7-U9 play, the referee is there to keep things safe and to keep the game flowing.

At this level, players, parents, and even many of the new volunteer coaches, are not aware of the rules of play. The referee is NOT a coach. Tactical instruction must come from the coach, not the referee. If a player is confused about what to do next after the referee has stopped play, the ref can provide a very brief explanation so play can move on. 23 The Referee The Role of the U7-U9 Referee The referee is NOT a disciplinarian. If something goes wrong, the ref blows their whistle and allows the coach to deal with things. (This normally isnt a problem in U7-U9 matches.)

The referee IS a volunteer trying to help a group of kids have fun. If all participants remember that, the experience will be a positive one for all. 24 The Referee Equipment: A whistle on a wrist lanyard is key For U7-U9 recreational play.. No ref wallet

Something to keep time: a digital wrist watch No fancy uniform Footwear for jogging. 25 Part II Starting The Match On game day, you arrive at the field. What do you do? 1. Meet the opponents 2. Prepare the field 3. Prepare the players

4. Determine who kicks off PLAY! 26 Meet the Opponents For U7-U9 matches, each team should provide a volunteer referee for of the match. Before the match, coaches and referees should talk and decide who will officiate each half. If there is a jersey color conflict, get the home teams to change if possible, or wear a penne. It is often a good idea to review any rules that you may have questions about. Verify that you will allow substitutions on any stoppage of play. Verify the length of the match and the start time.

27 Check the Field You will need to put the flags for the goal into the field. You may need to add a couple of wuz markers to indicate the penalty area. Remove any debris, large rocks, or branches that may cause injury to a player. Have parents move chairs, coolers, etc. back from the touchline. Remember, players MAY take a couple steps out of the field to try and play a ball. If chairs are too close to the touchlines, players will run into them and may be injured.

28 Prepare the Players The first half referee should ask for Captains to join them in the middle of the field for the coin toss ceremony. Have the players introduce themselves and shake hands. Identify one player to call the coin toss (it doesnt really matter who) and flip a coin. The LOSER of the toss takes the kickoff. The WINNER gets to chooses side of the field. Get the game ball (properly inflated, usually from the home team). A couple of minutes before the correct start time, announce 29

that it is time to take the field. Start The Match When the players have taken their position on the field, you should do the following: 1. Make note of who is kicking off and which side the players are on. In the second half, players switch ends and the other team kicks off. 2. Make note of when the half will end. 3. Make certain that the substitutes, coaches, brothers, sisters, etc. are off the field. 4. Start your stopwatch and blow the whistle to begin. The match will begin with a kick-off, but first... 30

Part III - Normal Flow of Play The game of soccer is actually quite simple. Two teams of players meet on a field and compete with each other to try and get a ball into their opponents goal. They may use any part of their body except for their hands or arms. Soccer is intended to be played with a minimum of stoppage. Therefore, play goes, without interruption, until the ball goes out of play or until play is stopped by the referee. There are no time outs in soccer. 31 Lets Play So, you are now ready to play. You are the referee. You blow

your whistle so that the kickoff may be taken. BUT what are the rules for a Kickoff? 32 Kick-Offs Typical kick-off for U7 match The ball is placed in the center of the field. Members of the kicking team may be anywhere on their half of the field. Members of the non-kicking

team must be on their half of the field and at least 6 yards from the ball. When the ball is kicked, it must move forward. If it doesnt, the kick is retaken. If the person taking the kick touches the ball again before another player touches the ball, then the kick is retaken. 33 Throw-in Lets assume the kickoff has been properly taken. Red and blue are competing for the ball, but now, Red kicks the ball hard and it travels out of play over one of the touchlines.

If a ball goes out of play by passing over a touchline, then the match is restarted with a throw-in taken by the opponents of the player who last touched the ball. 34 Referee Signals Throw-in The referee indicates that a throw-in is to be taken by pointing up, at a 45 degree angle, in the direction of play. For U7-U9 play, it is recommended that the referee announce Throw-in. Blue, its your throw-in, over there. Then indicate the point at which the throw-in should be taken.

Note: Unlike many sports, the referee does NOT blow the whistle every time the ball is out of play. It is blown only when necessary for example, when a foul is called or when players keep playing after the referee has determined the ball is out of play. 35 Throw-In Procedure The throw-in is taken at the point where the ball left the field (within a yard or so) The player must face the field while throwing. Some part of both feet must be on the ground when the ball is released, either on the touchline or outside of the field.

The player must use both hands when throwing The throw must begin behind the head and be delivered over the head. If the person taking the throw cannot touch the ball again before another player touches the ball. If the player throws the ball into the goal (without touching another player), the goal does not count. 36 Improper Throw-in If the throw-in is not taken in accordance with the rules described on the previous screen, the referee should:

U7-U8 Explain to the player what they did incorrectly, then permit the player to try again. The SAME player is entitled to repeat the throw as many times as needed to do it correctly. U9 Same as U7-U8, except that only 1 retry is permitted before the ball is awarded to the other team. U10+ If the throw-in is not properly taken, the ball is awarded to the other team. There are no retries.

37 Goal Kick Red is now attacking the Blue goal. A red player takes a shot and misses. The ball goes out of play over the goal line. If a ball goes out of play by passing over a goal line, then the match is restarted with a goal kick if the last player to touch the ball was a member of the attacking team. 38 Referee Signals Goal Kick The referee indicates that a goal kick is to be taken by pointing towards the goal area. For U7-U9

play, it is recommended that the referee announce Goal kick. Blue, its your kick, put the ball there. Then indicate where the ball should be placed. 39 Goal Kicks The ball may be placed anywhere within the goal area. Members of the kicking team may be anywhere on the field. The ball may be kicked by ANY player.

Members of the non-kicking team must be outside the penalty area AND at least 6 yards from the ball. Once the ball is kicked NEITHER team may touch the ball until it leaves the penalty area. The non-kicking team must remain outside the penalty area until the ball is outside the penalty area. If any player kicks the ball before it leaves the penalty area or the ball doesnt make it outside the penalty area the kick is retaken. If the person taking the kick touches the ball again before another player touches the ball, then the kick is retaken. 40

Corner Kick Red is now attacking the Blue goal. A Blue defender successfully wins the ball and kicks it out of play over the goal line. If a ball goes out of play by passing over a goal line, then the match is restarted with a corner kick if the last player to touch the ball was a member of the defending team. 41 Referee Signals Corner Kick The referee indicates that a corner kick is to be taken by pointing their arm up at a 45 degree angle towards the corner where the kick will be

taken. For U7-U9 play, it is recommended that the referee announce Corner kick. Red, its your kick, put the ball there. Then indicate where the ball should be placed. 42 Corner Kicks The ball must be placed within 1 yd of the corner on the side of the field it went out. Members of the kicking team may be anywhere on the field. Members of the non-kicking team

must be at least 6 yards from the ball. Once the ball is kicked, it is in play. If the person taking the kick touches the ball again but before another player touches the ball, then the referee will explain to the kicker that this is not permitted and the kick shall be retaken. 43 Scoring a Goal A goal is scored when all of the following happen 1. The ball travels COMPLETELY over a goal line. 2. It is between the goal posts 3. It is beneath the crossbar (or lower than the

top of the flags) 44 The Goalkeeper Each team in U8, U9 play MUST have one person designated as the goalkeeper. 1. A goalkeeper must wear a distinctive shirt or a penne so everybody knows who they are. 2. A goalkeeper MAY go anywhere on the field. 3. A goalkeeper may use their hands and arms if they are within their own penalty area. 4. If the goalkeeper is holding the ball, they must put it back in play in a reasonable amount of time (up to 6 seconds) 45

The Goalkeeper 5. If the goalkeeper puts the ball down, they may not use their hands to touch the ball again until somebody else has touched it. 6. If a teammate of the goalkeeper deliberately kicks the ball to them, they may not use their hands. 7. If a teammate throws the ball to them (from a throw-in) they may not use their hands. 8. A U8 Goalkeeper may not punt the ball. A U9 goalkeeper may punt the ball. 46 Ending the Half Or Match A soccer match is played in two equal halves of duration:

U7 U8 U9 20 min 25 min 25 min The clock is always running, even in the event of injury. However, a referee should add time to a half to make up for time lost to injury or other unusual delays.

The referee traditionally ends the half by blowing two long whistles and announcing half-time, while pointing at the center of the field. At the conclusion of the match, the referee traditionally ends the match by blowing three long whistles and pointing at the center of the field. Players are entitled to 5 minutes for a half-time interval. 47 Substitutions Either team may ask the referee for permission to substitute during any stoppage of play, but only AFTER the referee has given permission for them to enter. The coach must ASK the referee if they can substitute a player, usually by loudly yelling Sub Ref. The following are considered a stoppage of play: 1. A goal kick, corner kick, throw-in, or kick off 2. Any direct or indirect free kick 3. A dropped ball

4. During any stoppage in which a coach enters the field to tend to an injured player, Referees should be sensitive to the fact that coaches want to give players adequate play time and listen for the coaches so that substitutions can take place. 48 Part IV As indicated earlier, the sport of soccer is to be played with as few interruptions as possible. However, soccer is a competition with rules, and when one of those rules is violated, the referee must intervene. In soccer, play is stopped for only two reasons. 1. If the ball is kicked out of play 2. If the referee chooses to blow their whistle and stop play

In our previous sections, we focused on what happens when the ball is kicked out of play. This section of the education focuses on reasons the referee may choose to stop play. 49 When does the Ref Stop Play? For a U7-U9 match, the referee should blow their whistle to stop play whenever: 1. An injury has occurred 2. A foul or other misconduct has occurred 3. The ball went out of play and the players continued to play Unlike some other sports, the soccer referee need not blow their whistle when a ball goes out of play (over a line) and it is obvious to all that the ball is out. The whistle should be reserved for those situations in which

the referee must get the players attention, such as those described above. Also, except for cases in which the referee clearly states that the match will start only after blowing their whistle (for example, the kick-off), there is no whistle required before any restart. 50 Free Kicks If the referee stops play while the ball is still on the field, the most common restart for U7-U9 play will be an indirect free kick. By indirect we mean that somebody other than the kicker of the ball must touch the ball before a goal can be scored. The kicker may not kick the ball directly into the goal. For all indirect free kicks the requirements are: 1. The ball must be placed where the

referee indicates. It cannot be moving when it is kicked. 2. All opponents of the kicker must be at least six yards from the ball. The ball is in play as soon as it is touched by a kicker and movesany amount. At that point, anybody can run up to the ball and kick it. 6 yards 3. The kicker may not touch the ball again before it is touched by another player. 4. For any infringement, the kick is retaken (U7-U9 rule)

51 Dropped Ball The other method of restarting play is a dropped ball. Many referees are not fond of this restart because of the risk of injury. When a dropped ball occurs, the referee takes the ball in hand and simply drops it on the field at the point the ball was when they stopped play. While it is NOT a requirement that a player from both teams be there, it is a common practice to allow one player from each to be there. 1. Neither player may kick the ball until the ball hits the ground. If a player does touch the ball before it hits the ground, the ball is dropped again. 2. The ball is in play as soon as it is touches the ground. At that point,

anybody can run up to the ball and kick it. 52 In the Event of Injury Minor injuries are fairly common in U7-U9 play. Players are hit in the face or other places with the ball, they trip, they jam their fingers, etc. When an injury is detected, the referee should stop play and allow a coach to come on to the field to tend the player. While it is not a requirement to sub the injured player, it is encouraged. For a U7-U9 match, the referee should must always be sensitive to the needs of young players. They should not hesitate to stop play and allow a player to be comforted by a coach or parent. 53

Restart after Injury After the player has been tended to, the referee must restart the match. If the ball had gone out of play (over a line), then the restart will be a goal kick, corner kick, or throw-in, just as if the injury had not happened. However, if the referee stopped play while the ball was still in play, the restart will be either a dropped ball or an indirect free kick. If one team had clear possession of the ball at the time the referee stopped the match, the match will restart with an indirect free kick for the team having possession. If neither team had clear possession of the ball, then the match will restart with dropped ball. 54 Fouls

There are some things that a player is not permitted to do, in order to keep the game safe and fair. The rule of thumb for a volunteer U7-U9 referee is quite simple. If something doesnt seem safe or it doesnt seem fair, its probably a foul. By the same token, the role of the referee is not to punish every little contact that occurs between players. Soccer IS a contact sport. 55 Fouls When a foul is determined to have occurred, the referee will stop play by blowing their whistle. An indirect free kick will be given to the team that got fouled.

When a referee awards an indirect free kick, they blow their whistle, then signal the fact that the kick is indirect by holding their hand in the air until the ball is touched by a player other than the kicker. 56 Fouls Fouls are subjective. The role of the referee is to use their best judgment to determine if a foul has occurred that requires some action. In U7-U9 play, if the referee determines that a foul has occurred, an indirect free kick is given to the opponent at the point of the infraction. A referee should offer the players a very quick, no more than 1

sentence, explanation of why the foul was called; we are instructing players. Keep it Safe! Keep it Fair! Keep it Moving! Keep it Fun! 57 What is a Foul? If a player commits any of six offenses in a manner considered by the referee to be careless, reckless, or using excessive force: When you see careless or reckless play, blow your whistle BEFORE somebody gets hurt.

58 Fouls Kicks or attempts to kick an opponent Trips or attempts to trip an opponent Jumps at an

opponent 59 Fouls Strikes or attempts to strike an opponent (hitting them) Charges an opponent (bangs into them)

Pushes an opponent 60 Fouls If a player commits any of the following offenses it is also considered a foul: Tackles an opponent to gain possession of the ball, making contact with the opponent before touching the ball (in other words, you cant go through your opponent to get the ball. Holds an opponent

Spits at an opponent (the coach should immediately replace this player and counsel them) 61 The Dreaded Handball Many spectators are under the mistaken impression that every time a hand and a ball come in contact in soccer, a foul has occurred. That is NOT the case. Common situations that are NOT fouls: The ball travels quickly at a player who instinctively puts hands up as protection. The player wasnt facing the play and didnt know it was coming when the

ball hit a hand. A swarm of players is kicking at the ball when it deflects off an arm (it is not swatted at by the player). The key word is deliberate. 62 Goalkeeper Infractions We encourage referees of U7-U9 players to instruct the goalkeeper when they see any of these infractions, rather than punish them. However, if the goalkeeper continues to do these things, an indirect free kick can be awarded to their opponent. 1. If the goalkeeper is holding the ball, they must put it back in play in a reasonable amount of time (up to 6 seconds)

2. If the goalkeeper puts the ball down, they may not use their hands to touch the ball again until somebody else has touched it. 3. If a teammate of the goalkeeper deliberately kicks the ball to them, they may not use their hands. 4. If a teammate throws the ball to them (from a throw-in) they may not use their hands. 5. A U8 Goalkeeper may not punt the ball. 63 Goalkeeper Safety Goalkeepers are in a very vulnerable position so we have special rules to protect these young players. No person may make contact with a goalkeeper that is inside their penalty area when they have possession of the ball in any way and to any degree whatsoever. This means they may not be

contacted while they are bobbling the ball or have even a single finger touching it. Under no circumstances should a player be rewarded with a goal if they have contacted the goalkeeper to win the ball. This rule may appear simple, but can actually be a challenge when a goalkeeper is very aggressive. The rule is intended to protect the goalkeeper from an overzealous attacker. However, the attacker should not be penalized if it was the goalkeeper that actually initiated the contact. 64 Other Infractions The following are other examples of things that a referee may consider unfair or unsafe and may sanction with an indirect free kick. 1. Impeding the progress of an opponent (deliberately getting in

their way to block them or slow them down when you are not playing/shielding the ball) 2. Preventing somebody from putting the ball back in play such as getting the way of the goalkeeper or a player taking a throw-in. 65 Other Infractions The following are other examples of things that a referee may consider unfair or unsafe and may sanction with an indirect free kick. 3. Doing anything that may be considered dangerous. Examples include kicking high into the face of an opponent, ducking down low to head a ball (thus risking your own face) 4. Within Washington, slide tackles (sliding, like a baseball slide to win or keep the ball from an opponent) are not permitted at

these ages. 66 Offside / Cherry-Picking Many people may be familiar with a soccer law known as offside. This law is not enforced in LWYSA U7-U9 matches, primarily because we want young players to focus on developing their skills. However, a referee sees a player linger behind the defense, they should politely ask the coach to have the player come back and play with their team, preferably before the ball is kicked to the player. If a player is a couple of steps beyond the defense as a result of active play, dont worry about it.

67 Fouls Wrap-up As a volunteer referee for U7-U9, remember your basic responsibility: Keep it Safe! Keep it Fair! Keep it Moving! Keep it Fun! You need not remember every detail of what constitutes a foul. If the players are doing something you consider unsafe, blow the whistle, let the players know what you consider unsafe, and give a free kick to the opponents. There is likely a rule that covers the situation, even if you cant recall it that second. 68

Does it Count? 1. If you kick the ball into your own goal, it DOES count as a goal for your opponent. 2. For U8 and U9, if a team kicks the ball straight into the goal on a kick-off or on a corner kick, the goal DOES count. They do have a goalkeeper! 3. The goal does NOT count if somebody does a throw-in and it goes right in 4. The goal does NOT count if you kick it into your own goal on a goal kick. 69 Advantage

As your players grow older, you may hear this term a lot. Basically, this means that if your team will gain an advantage by the referee NOT calling a foul, then the referee should not call it. One example: If your son or daughter is tripped, but the ball goes straight to the feet of a teammate that can easily score, the referee would normally NOT call that foul. Unless an advantage is HUGE and obvious to everybody, at U7-U9 play, most fouls should be called, as teaching players what constitutes a foul is every bit as important as goals being scored. 70

Trifling and Doubtful Breaches The referee must work to find that balance between keeping the game safe and fair and keeping the game moving and fun. It is not necessary for a referee to blow their whistle for every little technical infraction that occurs. If a foot comes up an inch off the ground on a throw-in, but the player really gained no advantage, you can probably let that go. You MUST call situations in which there is rough or reckless play, You MUST call situations in which the players learning the rules will be helped by your judicious use of the whistle. But take care that the players dont end up spending the entire match listening to your whistle instead of playing. 71

Closing Remarks Check out http://referees.lwysa.org. Look under Information, then FAQ, as a starting point. This material should remove some of the mystery of the game and get coaches, parents, and volunteer referees off to a good start. Keep it Safe! Keep it Fair! Keep it Moving! Keep it Fun! Brian Rohrback, Referee Coordinator U7-U9 72

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • The Quality of Life advisor seminar (MIT AgeLab / Hartford Funds)

    The Quality of Life advisor seminar (MIT AgeLab / Hartford Funds)

    First, we're going to talk about traditional approaches to financial planning and some of their flaws. Second, we're going to teach you what MIT says are the three questions that are predictive of a future quality of life—three questions that...
  • Candide by Voltaire - mr. gufford's English classes

    Candide by Voltaire - mr. gufford's English classes

    Candide by Voltaire NOTES Time Period Enlightenment—18th century France and England A.k.a. the Age of Reason Climate of Inquiry Lessening Control of the Church The Protestant Reformation The Printing Press Scientific Developments The New World (America!)
  • Title I Reading Intervention

    Title I Reading Intervention

    Decoding/Phonics- a student's ability to decode words on grade level passages Fluency- a student's ability to read a grade level passage with appropriate pacing and fluency Comprehension- a student's ability to understand what they have read A word about Lexiles...
  • Chapter 5 General consideration of efferent nervous pharmacology

    Chapter 5 General consideration of efferent nervous pharmacology

    Cholinergic agonists(胆碱能激动药) —— cholinomimetics(拟胆碱药): Ⅱ. Alkaloids(生物碱类): Pilocarpine(毛果芸香碱, 匹鲁卡品) 1. Pharmacological effects: It can excite M receptor directly, the sensitivity for eye and exocrine glands.
  • THE FORUM www.misterconnor.or g ETYMOLOGY From foris, foras

    THE FORUM www.misterconnor.or g ETYMOLOGY From foris, foras

    It dates from the 2nd century BC and was part of the enlargement of the forum at that time. COMITIUM In this large hall electors, who were divided into curiae voted for the lists of candidates before the duumvir, who...
  • Title Verdana 22pt Bold - ICT4Peace Foundation

    Title Verdana 22pt Bold - ICT4Peace Foundation

    Presentation by Adam Hadley. [email protected] Private Sector Engagement in Responding to the Use of the Internet and ICT for Terrorist Purposes. Strengthening Dialogue and Building Trust. Objectives of the joint ICT4Peace and UN CTED project in 2016.
  • MARSOC 101 Joint Special Operations Religious Support Team

    MARSOC 101 Joint Special Operations Religious Support Team

    MARSOC Mission. A Title 10 organization, charged with recruiting seasoned Marines in order to . organize, train, equip, and deploy . them in task organized, scalable and responsive Marine Corps Special Operations Forces (MARSOF) worldwide to accomplish Special Operations missions...
  • CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISTRICT ORIENTATION TO CONNECTICUT

    CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISTRICT ORIENTATION TO CONNECTICUT

    Connecticut General Statutes state: "If the State Board of Education determines that a local or regional board of education is not in compliance with any provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, and section 10-220a, the State Board of Education...