The SEN(D) Codes of Practice - Northumberland Education
Responding to the needs of children with SEMH 1st of November 2016 Fintan J ORegan : www.fintanoregan.com [email protected] Core issues Learning Socialisation Behaviour
2 NASENs call for action Every teacher is a teacher of children with special educational needs Nasen May 2013 SEMH? ADHD BD ODD
Spld ASD Specific Learning Difficulties Input: Visual Perception/Auditory Perception Integration: Sequencing, Organisation, Abstraction Memory: Short Term/Long Term Output: Motor/Oral 5 ASD Triad of social impairment:
Social communication Social imagination Social interaction ..also sensory sensitivity and processing 6 Signs of autism in girls Diagnosis of ASD is based on the triad of impairments, identified by Wing and Gould in 1979. But girls can present differently to boys in each of these areas of impairment. (Holtman et al., 2007)
The explosive child Inflexibility + inflexibility = meltdown Ross Greene 2004 8 ADHD A developmental disorder
Pervasive affecting more than one setting Enduring- difficulties beyond childhood. Neurological condition What we know Genetic influences are very strong Several changes in the DNA of chromosomes are now known to be associated with ADHD, these changes are in the genes that control specific neurotransmitters especially dopamine 10 Symptom groups
Inattention Does not pay attention Avoids sustained effort Doesnt seem to listen when spoken to Fails to finish tasks/assignments Cant organise Loses things, forgetful Easily distracted Hyperactivity
Fidgets Leaves seat in class Runs/climbs excessively Cannot play/work quietly Always on the go Talks excessively* Impulsivity
Talks excessively Blurts out answers Cannot await turn Interrupts others Intrudes on others Neurobiology of ADHD Problem with neurotransmission of Dopamine Girls with ADHD Their problems are frequently under-appreciated
May be inattentive only If hyperactive, may present differently Oppositional Defiant Disorder A pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behaviour lasting at least 6 months, during which four or more of the following are present: often loses temper often argues with adults often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults requests or rules often deliberately annoys people Source: Attention/deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IV 4th ed. Washington,
DC.: American Psychiatric Press; 1194: 78-85. ODD ctd. often blames others for his or her mistakes or behaviour is often touchy or easily annoyed by others is often angry or resentful is often spiteful and vindictive Source: Attention/deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IV 4th ed. Washington, DC.: American Psychiatric Press; 1194: 78-85. Rileys Rules regarding ODD They live in fantasy land where they can defeat all authority figures
They are optimistic and fail to learn from experience You must be fair to me no matter how I treat you Seek revenge when angered Need to feel tough Feel you will run out of moves eventually Feel equal to their parents Emulate the behaviour of their least successful peers Answer most questions with I dont know Douglas Riley the Defiant Child 1999 Bi polar Disorder Bipolar 1 : You will have experienced more than one manic episode of severe Mania with more mild
periods of depression. Bipolar 2: You will have experienced more than one episode of severe depression but only mild manic episodes Mania
Feeling happy and excited Getting irritated with others who don't share your outlook Feeling more important than usual Bursting with new and exciting ideas Having an increased interest in sex Making grandiose and unrealistic plans Making odd, impulsive decisions Spending recklessly Being over familiar with others Depression Feelings of unhappiness that wont go away Feeling like you want to burst into tears for no apparent reason
Losing interest in things and being unable to enjoy them Loss of self confidence Negative thinking and thoughts of suicide Losing appetite and weight Loss of libido Difficulty in falling asleep and waking earlier than usual Feeling isolated and avoiding contact with others SF3R Resilie Flex nce ibility Relatio nships Struct
ure Rappo rt Fintan ORegan 2006 Troubleshooting Challenging Behaviour Continuum publications Structure in terms of rules Reduce anxiety Enhance motivation, confidence and self esteem Enhance concentration and reduce distractions Facilitate independence In general Have you cut out external distractions
Are you aware of the danger spots Can you arrange the seating plan to reduce potential trouble spots Can you see them at all times Do you control exits and entrances Is your mobility fit for purpose Does your equipment work and do have your materials in advance Tips for Text for Dyslexia
Typing best read when it is a minimum 12 or 14 point font size Do not underline Use bold to emphasise words Use lower case than capitals Use Sans Serif texts such as Ariel, Verdana, Comic Sans , Trebuchet, Tahoma Matt paper than other shiny options 23 Tips for ASD Provide area in the class where the student can
have their own space Ensure element of continuity and prepare students in advance for changes Visual task list when possible Explain jokes, idioms and figures of speech Giving instructions to children Maintain eye contact (or not) with students during verbal instruction. Simplify complex directions. Avoid multiple
commands. Make sure the student comprehends before beginning the task. Use Visual aids ( ie PECS) to supplement instructions and to transmit important points Potential challenging subject areas Tend to be subjects where:
There is no right/wrong answers Pupils are expected to debate/express their opinion Lots of social understanding (i.e. group work) Lots of writing involved Lots of listening and processing of verbal instruction rather than visual presentation and practical involvement Groups Group leader : facilitates progress
Note taker : records ideas Time keeper: monitors task completion Summariser : checks agreement Spokesperson : provides feedback Resource finder : whatever group needs they grab it Tips for ADHD Allow student to fiddle with stress ball or tangle toy Give short breaks between assignments Include fun starters, video clips, educational games, energizers, magic tricks and brain teasers in your lessons from time to time to break up monotony
Support dont penalise organisational issues Give whole class stretching exercises midway through Group situations Have the child sit near teacher / away from distractions Pair the child with strong role models (both academic and social)
Move the child away from temptation Try and work out what are the main distracters (auditory, visual, kinaesthetic, internal) Reduce expectations of seat work and use alternative ways of task completion Provide alternative environments for some tasks and activities Technology Students with ADHD , ASD and SpLD respond well to an individualised or 1 -1 setting
Attention is focused on the screen Multi-sensory experience Non-threatening: can retry problems, constant feedback and reinforcement Impersonal: computer doesn't yell or have favourites
Variety of presentation; attend to novel stimuli Student can control pace, flexible: programmed to do things Rapid assessment
Game like approach: challenge Communication 7% words 38% Tonality, Volume and Tempo 55% non verbal signals Assertive Body language Flexible on eye contact
Height/level positioning Relaxed Nodding Personal space balance
Facial expressions Not fidgeting Focused, active listening Active Listening To give your complete focus to what the other person is saying Let the other person finish before you start talking
Keep your emotions in check Dont interrupt or jump to conclusions Look for feelings or intent behind the words And also Use verbal and non-verbal encourages, e.g. head nods, uh ah I see etc Use of silence And try not to say. I know how you feel Dont worry it will be alright If I were you(give information, not advice) Assertive Sentence starters
Lets.. I need you to........ In five minutes you will have. When I return I will see.. Today we are going to..
You will be.. I expect you to.. I know that you will
Thank you for Do it with flowers.. Instead of saying Maybe try saying Be quiet! Cant you see Im talking? Please dont interrupt How many times do I have to tell you? Please listen carefully
Youre always getting into trouble Do you need me to help you with this? David get back in your seat David you should be sitting down Im warning you! (((Angrily. Stop it Please listen to me. III need you to get back on task/line/learning Refocusing the conversation
Young person Adult It wasnt me I hear what you are saying. But they were doing the same thing I understand.. Im going to report /sue you I was only.. Maybe you were.and yet. You are not being fair
Its boring You are annoying Be that as it may. Yes I may appear unfair Yes you may think it boring yet That could be true however what I need to In general Keep reading the mood of the young person Always focus on the incident not the individual, dont personalise Try to provide a save face option in front of peers by providing a choice of outcome
Be prepared to go into the broken record mode at times and dont get into drawn into smokescreen behaviour Use of humour if appropriate 38 Anger and Rage Anger is a real feeling and we all have the right to feel angry when we feel our needs are not being met Rage is a protracted burst of anger which often gives the protagonist a feeling of power over the person at the receiving end.
Anger is like a Storm Storms happen and they dont ask permission Sometimes you get warnings (gathering clouds, changes in pressure or wind direction, light fading, sudden darkness) Sometimes storms appear out of the blue Warning Signs
Voices getting louder Muttering under their teeth Repetitive body movement e.g. tapping, rocking Screwing up paper or scribbling on a page Changes in eye contact Diffusing Get in quick and be positive Divert the child on to something else Tell them what you want not what they want Relocation Active listening Calming body Language Humour
Rebuilding relationships Listen to the angry person and accept their version of events Show that you are seriously considering the information you have been given even if it feels inconsistent with what you feel may have happened Dont judge the person Show them that you indeed understand why they may have been so angry Discussion Tell us about a recent incident
What happened? What did you do? How did it end? How did you feel afterwards? Bullies: Characteristics Bullies appear to have many characteristics in common, some of which may be seen as the reason for their bullying. 1) They tend to react in an excessively aggressive manner; their behaviour is uninhibited. 2) They have a strong desire for power and dominance over others.
3) They are alienated from the world and regard people in a hostile way. 4) They cannot appreciate it is wrong to bully. 5) They cannot empathise with their victims. 6) They pass responsibility for their actions on to others, their victims deserve to be bullied. 4 kinds of Bullying Verbal Bullying Physical Bullying Relational Bullying Cyber bullying Bullies when caught: Excuses
I didnt do anything wrong I was just having some fun with him He went psycho on us Claims that they are the real victim and the other kid is the bully Counts on the bystanders for backup .he went berserk everyone saw it ..if it wasnt for me Teasing
Allows the teaser and teased to change roles Is not intended to hurt the other person Maintains the dignity of the people involved Is meant to get both parties to have fun Is only a small part of a number of activities kids have in common Is discontinued when person teased becomes upset or annoyed Taunting Is based on an imbalance of power and is one sided
Is intended to harm Involves cruel, racist of bigoted comments thinly described as jokes Includes laughter directed at the target and not with the target Induces fear of physical bullying Continues when the targeted child becomes distressed or objects to the taunts The bullied can be someone..
Who is new in the school Who is fat, thin, short or tall Who is submissive Who is annoying Who is passive Who is poor or rich Who has a different accent, skin colour or culture
Who has a particular interest, belief Who may appear to be sexually promiscuous or might be gay Who has acne, is deemed ugly, wears classes, wears braces etc.. Who has SEN (is 2 to 3 X more likely to be bullied) Is in the wrong place at the wrong time The bullied allows bullying because They are ashamed of being bullied They are afraid of retaliation
They dont think anyone can help them They dont think anyone will help them They have bought into the idea that bullying is part of life and they should accept it Symptoms of bullying Show signs of stress being moody, silent or crying, or bullying a younger sibling or friend Make excuses to miss school, such as stomach complaints or headaches (or your child may be skipping school altogether) Seem upset after using the internet or mobile, or change their behaviour for example, no longer wanting to look at new text messages immediately and be secretive and unwilling to talk about their online activities and phone use Be withdrawn in their behaviour
Have more bruises or scrapes than usual change their eating habits Have torn clothes, school things that are broken or missing, or have 'lost' money Sleep badly Passive Victims 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
They have a high level of anxiety and insecurity. They are cautious, sensitive and quiet. They have low self-esteem. They have few friends. They have a negative attitude towards violence. A .Train The Bullying Problem 1995 Provocative Victims 1)
2) 3) 4) 5) When attacked by the bully they try to retaliate. They may try to attack other children weaker that themselves. They could be described as hyperactive as they are restless and unable to concentrate. They may be clumsy and immature. They may be disliked by others, including
teachers, because they irritate and create tension. A .Train The Bullying Problem 1995 The Bystander Peers were involved in some capacity of 85% of bullying episodes Peers reinforced the bullying in 81% of episodes Peers were more respectful towards the bully than the targets Peers were active participants in 48% of episodes Peers were interviewed in only 13% of incidents in which they were present Debra Pepler Toronto Study 1995
Reasons for not intervening The bully is my friend Its not my problem or my fight They are not my friend They are a loser He deserved to be a loser or asked for it had it coming Bullying will toughen him up
Dont want to be a snitch It's better to be in the group than out. The Bystander does not intervene because.. They are afraid of getting hurt themselves They are afraid of being the new target They are afraid of making the situation worse They do not know what to do What should be done
Assessment of the situation Induction procedures Code of Conduct for Parents Code of Conduct for Teachers Code of Conduct for Children Looking at Trouble Spots An anti- bullying policy Strategies to combat the issue Cyber Bullying: summary
Save the evidence If first offence block, ignore or delete If offensive contact the site Set up an alert on goggle regarding your childs name If a student at school contact the school counsellor Collate evidence and contact the other childs parents If unresponsive seek legal support or contact the Police Cyberbullying: Kowalski, Limber Agatston 2008
Problem solving ABC When do the problems occur? (time of day, specific situations) What are the triggers (interaction with others, boredom, particular tasks) In confrontation how does he/she react
In what way does your response to the child affect the outcome What seems to have a positive affect (your approach; humour, change of task) Value of praise Praise can improve self-esteem, self-reliance, autonomy, achievement and motivation Praise will have different effects according to the
gender, home background, abilities and personality of pupils Praise should be seen as encouragement and as part of a continuing process Praise effort not ability in students Fixed mindset
Growth mindset Intelligence is static Avoid challenge Ignore or devalue criticism Feel threatened by others success May plateau early Intelligence can be developed Relish challenge Learn from criticism Gain inspiration by others success Continue to achieve Praise effort not ability
Well done sue you are good at this Responses that praise people for being clever, lead to a fixed mindset resulting in decreasing motivation and a lack of resilience They lead to students to believe that Success is due to innate attributes Difficulties are personal weakness Praise effort not ability Yes that was good thinking Sue, well done for following the idea through Responses like these that praise effort can lead to involvement and perseverance and learning lead to a growth mindset and increase motivation They lead students to believe
Success comes from effort and use of strategies Errors and mistakes are a learning opportunities Types of praise Wallpaper praise..great , lovely Personal Praise..you are brilliant Directed praisewell done for following the rule Reflective praise.you should feel good about this work Contextual praise.this assignment is at such an advanced Level that I need to show it to so that we can use it in .. Working with emotions
Mentoring Coaching Counselling Dealing with issues such as, self esteem, anger management,
appropriate interaction with others, lying, academic expectations, future options etc Communication: Empathy We listen to those: We like and respect We like and respect those with whom we can identify or identify with us We pay attention to those whom we believe mean what they say Sean Misteil 1997
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