The Rules of the Road and Municipal Regulation

THE RULES OF THE ROAD AND MUNICIPAL REGULATIONS: WHAT EVERY ELECTED OFFICIAL NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES Illinois Municipal League 98th Annual Conference September 15, 2011 SPEAKERS Kyle Armstrong, P.E., P.T.O.E Engineering & Standards Unit Chief IL DOT - Bureau of Operations 217/782-7414 [email protected] Kevin Burke III, P.E. Local Policy & Technology Engineer IL DOT Bureau of Local Roads & Streets 217/785-5048

[email protected] OUTLINE MUTCD Sign Size, Shape, and Color Children at Play Stop for Pedestrians No Cell Phones

Unauthorized Signs Pedestrian Accessibility for Work Zones Designated Truck Routes Stop Signs Speed Studies

Street Name Signs School Zones Park Zones Low Speed Vehicles MUTCD 625 ILCS 5/11-301 requires the department to adopt Traffic control devices include signs, signals,

markings, and other devices Shall, Should, May SIGN SIZE, SHAPE, AND COLOR SIGN SIZES Conventional Road highway other than low volume road, expressway, freeway. Expressway Divided highway with partial

control of access. Freeway Divided highway with full control of access Low Volume Road a facility outside of cities, towns, and communities with traffic < 400 ADT Shall not be a residential street in a neighborhood SIGN SHAPES

Octagon Stop Sign Equilateral Triangle Yield Circle Grade Crossing Advance Warning Pennant Shape No Passing Pentagon School Advance Warning/County Route Sign Crossbuck Grade Crossing Diamond - Warning Rectangle Regulatory/Guide/Warning Trapezoid Recreational/Cultural/National Forest SIGN COLORS

Black Regulatory Blue Information/Interstate or County Route Brown Recreational/Forest Route Green Guide/Recreational Orange Temporary Traffic Control/Incident Management

Red Regulatory/Interstate Route White Regulatory/US or State Route Yellow Warning Purple Toll Fluorescent Yellow Green School/Ped/Bike Fluorescent Pink Incident Management CHILDREN AT PLAY Slow Children at Play Symbol sign does not comply with MUTCD Word Message Signs such as Autistic Child, Blind Child, Deaf Child or

Children at Play not recommended These signs: Do not describe where the child might be Are ignored by motorists Have no legal meaning Provide parents with a false sense of security Remain in place after the child has left Lack standards for engineering study

Have proven ineffective ALTERNATE FOR CHILDREN AT PLAY W11-1, W11-2, W11-9 or W11-15 W15-1

May use where shared use of roadway or unexpected entry may occur Use engineering judgment Requires down arrow if used at crossings May be used at playgrounds adjacent to the road Should be considered if access requires roadway crossing Fluorescent Yellow Green Optional STOP FOR PEDESTRIANS

625 ILCS 5/11-1002 requires motorists to stop and yield to pedestrians in crosswalks 625 ILCS 5/11-1002.5 covers school zones State Law Border optional Fluorescent Yellow Green Optional NO CELL PHONES

625 ILCS 5/12-610.1 Prohibits Cell Phones in School and Work Zones Does Not Require Sign to Be Posted If Used, Shall Be R2-I110 Department Does not Use in Work Zones School Zone Use Discussed Later UNAUTHORIZED SIGNS 625 ILCS 5/11-310 Unauthorized Signs Are Signs Imitating/Resembling Official Traffic Control Device upon Or in view of Any Highway Considered a Public Nuisance Highway Agency with Jurisdiction May

Remove without Notice Class A Misdemeanor PEDESTRIAN ACCESSIBILITY MUTCD and ADA requirement Shall make temporary facilities accessible

Advanced Warning Audible messages Temporary Curb Ramps Detectable Barriers Public Rights-of-way Accessibility DESIGNATED TRUCK ROUTES

625 ILCS 5/16-116: Report Class II and III to IDOT 625 ILCS 5/15-117: Establish Truck GIS Taskforce 625 ILCS 5/11-214: Report Class II, Class III, and Preferred Truck Route, or None to IDOT STOP SIGN INSTALLATIONS ILLINOIS STATUTES 625 ILCS 11-302 gives local agencies the authority to install stop signs at intersections under their jurisdiction.

IDOT has authority to install stop signs for any approach to an intersection that includes a roadway under State jurisdiction. Stop signs must conform to the Illinois Supplement to the MUTCD. STOP SIGN APPLICATIONS Unlike traffic signals, there are no specific warrants that must be met before stop signs may be installed.

Engineering judgment should be used to establish intersection control and should account for the following: Traffic volumes Speeds

Crash history No. and angle of approaches Sight Distance Stop Signs should not be used for speed control. STOP SIGN APPLICATIONS (CONT.) Stop signs should be considered where engineering judgment indicates a stop

is always required based on the following conditions: Through street traffic is greater than 6000 vpd Poor sight distance 3 or more crashes in 1-year period or 5 or more crashes in 2-year period. Crashes must be of a type correctable by stop sign installation (right-angle collisions). MULTI-WAY STOPS Used where traffic volumes on intersecting roads are approximately equal.

The installation of multi-way stop control should be based on an engineering study which accounts for the following: Prior to traffic signal installation Crash history Vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle volumes Section 2B.07 of the MUTCD contains specific criteria for multi-way stop control. SPEED STUDIES SPEED ZONE REGULATIONS

Local Agencies are not required to obtain IDOT approval for speed zones on roads under their jurisdiction and are not required to follow IDOT procedures for setting speed limits. 625 ILCS 11-604 Local Agencies may establish absolute maximum speed limits on all streets which are within its corporate limits and not under State or County jurisdiction. An engineering or traffic investigation is required to alter a statutory speed limit. SPEED ZONE REGULATIONS Altered Speeds:

- cannot be less than 20 mph or greater than 55 mph in an urban district - cannot be less than 35 mph outside of an urban district - cannot be less than 25 mph in a residence district - can make speed limits in effect only for certain hours - no more than 6 alterations per mile - cannot have more than 10 mph difference between adjacent altered speed zones Signs stating Speed Limit XX on city streets unless otherwise posted are not allowed on State-route entrances to cities. IDOT Chief Counsel determined that an altered speed limit is not in effect unless it is posted on that street. IDOT SPEED POLICY PROCEDURES Local Agencies may use IDOT speed study

procedures to establish altered speed zones. An altered speed limit is primarily based on prevailing speed of free-flowing traffic. Nationally accepted premise that the majority of motorists will drive at a speed they judge to be safe and proper Prevailing speed is based on the average of: 85th percentile speed Upper limit of the 10 mph pace Average test run speed SUPPLEMENTARY INVESTIGATIONS

High-Crash Locations: Access Control: Reduction based on the number of entrances/intersections within the studied zone. Pedestrian Activity:

Reduction if the studied zone contains a highcrash location. Reduction with certain pedestrian volumes and if sidewalks are not present or directly behind curb. Parking: Reduction where parking is allowed next to traffic lanes. Details for speed study procedures may be found in Policy on Establishing and

Posting Speed Limits on the State Highway System March 2011 STREET NAME SIGNS LETTERING Any new street name sign installed must use mixed-case lettering. There is no compliance date for

mixed case lettering. Existing signs with all upper-case lettering may remain until they need to be replaced due to maintenance or as part of retroreflectivity requirements. Research has shown that mixedcase lettering improves recognition distances of signs. RETROREFLECTIVITY Street name signs must be maintained to a minimum level of retroreflectivity. Existing street name signs that dont meet

the minimum retroreflective levels based on management or assessment methods must be replaced by January 2018. If existing street name signs still meet the minimum levels they may remain in place. COLORS Only 4 acceptable colors Green with white legend Blue with white legend Brown with white legend White with black legend

There is not a compliance date for the use of these colors. Existing signs not of these colors may remain in place until they need to be replaced due to maintenance or as part of retroreflectivity requirements. LETTER HEIGHTS

Letter heights in MUTCD for street name signs are recommendations, but agencies should use engineering judgment and document reason for using letter heights smaller than recommended. Multilane roads greater than 40 mph: 8/6 post mounted and 12/9 overhead. Agencies should decide whether to use these heights or use smaller heights through engineering judgment by December 2018. All other roads: 6/4.5. There is an option to use 4/3 for roads 25 mph or less. Agencies should decide whether to use these heights or use smaller heights through engineering judgment by January 2012. These dates do not require that existing signs have these letter heights by these dates. It just requires an agency to decide whether to use these recommendations or not. SIGN HEIGHTS

Street name signs on conventional roads should have 12 height. 8 height may be used for low-speed roadways and alleys and where physical conditions preclude the use of larger signs. Documented engineering judgment may be used to decrease the sign height but not to a height lower than 8. OTHER INFORMATION

Pictographs May be used on street name signs that do not contain a route shield. Must be positioned to the left of the street name and cannot be larger than the height of the upper case letter Stop Signs Street name signs may be mounted directly above stop signs.

SCHOOL ZONES AND PARK ZONES ILLINOIS STATUTES AND REGULATIONS SCHOOL ZONES 625 ILCS 11-605 applies to:

(1) A public or private primary or secondary school. (2) A religious primary or secondary school. (3) A public, private, or religious nursery school. May be established adjacent to school grounds or where children cross to and from school as part of an established school route. The 20 mph school zone speed limit is in effect on school days between 7 am and 4 pm only when school children are present and so close to the road that they are a potential hazard to traffic. Does not apply to areas of school property devoted to athletic or extracurricular activities. SCHOOL ZONE LOCATIONS

Location of school zones should be established using engineering judgment based on where children are present. School zones should not be established based solely on the school property line. SCHOOL ZONE LOCATIONS (CONT.) PROPERTY LINE There are situations, primarily in rural areas, where the school-owned property is some distance from the actual portion of the property occupied by the school and there are

no children walking or present along that portion of the property. Establishing a 20 mph school speed limit based on the property line would be inappropriate in this case. PROPERTY LINE SCHOOL ZONE LOCATIONS (CONT.) PROPERTY LINE It might be appropriate to impose a 20 mph school speed limit some distance ahead of the property line where children walk close to the highway on their way to and from school and such path is part of a

planned school walk route. PROPERTY LINE SCHOOL ZONE LOCATIONS (CONT.) School Zone on a side road NEW MUTCD REQUIREMENTS

S1-1 School sign is required in advance of a reduced school speed zone. A Fines Higher plaque is required to be installed under the first school speed limit 20 mph sign. An End School Zone sign and standard speed limit sign are required at the end of the school zone. No compliance dates for these requirements. TYPICAL SCHOOL SIGNAGE ILLINOIS STATUTES AND REGULATIONS PARK ZONES

625 ILCS 1-605.3 allows local agencies through ordinance or resolution to establish 20 mph park zone speed limits along streets under their jurisdiction adjacent to a park zone. Park Zone speed limits may not be established on streets under IDOT jurisdiction. 20 mph park zone speed limit in effect when signed and any day when children are present and within 50 feet of motorized traffic. PARK ZONE SIGNING SPEED LIMIT

20 PARK ZONE PARK PARK ZONE PARK ZONE SIGNING (CONT.) Local Agencies may establish and sign a Park Zone without establishing a park zone speed limit. Park Zone warning signs may be installed on State routes, but not park zone speed limits. IDOT may perform a speed study where a park zone is established to determine if a reduction in speed is necessary. This would establish a

regulatory speed limit and not a park zone speed limit. Ordinance or resolution may establish hours the park zone speed limit is in effect. These hours may be displayed on the park zone speed limit signs. NON-HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND LOW-SPEED VEHICLES NON-HIGHWAY VEHICLES 625 ILCS 11-1426.1 contains allowances for nonhighway vehicles: (1) (2)

All-Terrain Vehicles Golf Carts (3) Off-Highway Motorcycles (4) Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles Neighborhood vehicles are no longer a classification. Taken out in SB1641 July 14, 2011 Non-Highway Vehicles are not allowed on public roads unless authorized by ordinance or resolution after determining that public safety is not jeopardized. NON-HIGHWAY VEHICLES (CONT.)

If allowed, may only travel on roads with speed limits of 35 mph or less. Non-Highway Vehicles may only cross a Statejurisdiction road if its speed limit is 35 mph or less and only at an intersection controlled by a traffic signal or all-way stop. Warning signs may be installed but are not required at locations where non-highway vehicles are allowed to operate. LOW-SPEED VEHICLES

625 ILCS 11-1426.2 contains allowances for low-speed vehicles. Low-Speed Vehicles have max speed between 20 and 25 mph meeting certain safety requirements and licensed by Sec. of State. Low-Speed Vehicles by law are allowed on public roads with speed limit of 30 mph or less. Ordinance or resolution is required to prohibit low-speed vehicles. LOW-SPEED VEHICLES (CONT.)

Municipalities may allow on 35 mph roads by ordinance or resolution. (Added in SB1641) Low-Speed Vehicles may cross any street at an intersection where the street has a speed of 45 mph or less. Low-Speed Vehicles may only cross a street over 45 mph at an intersection controlled by a traffic signal or all-way stop. USE PROHIBITED BY regulatory signs may be installed at locations where low-speed vehicles are prohibited. Low-Speed Vehicle warning signs may be installed as

USE determined by engineering judgment. PROHIBITED BY LOW-SPEED VEHICLES

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