#revisechurchilleng The Final English Lecture No5: Aiming high aiming higher aiming highest Embedding Context in The Anthology with Miss Strachan: Thursday H8 10th May April Considering Context How can context help us to develop our understanding of the Anthology Poems? This lecture will engage with the poems using the thematic clusters: Love, Place, War/Conflict and Nature. It will help examine the role of the Romantics and their preoccupying thoughts and feelings, explore how war and our current contextual knowledge can be brought to the forefront when examining these poems, as well as the generic ideas around love and place that can be used to embed context seamlessly. Finally, we will investigate contextual clues from throughout the poems which have specific quote links in order to clarify how to embed with ease Level 8/9 knowledge and understanding of context with the analysis of the poems. If you believe or want to investigate the idea that: context is more than just the sum of what the poet believed then this lecture is the right one for you. How will this work? Generic Slides are also included for context links to think about general points regarding: Romanticism context is included where relevant. War poetry context is included where relevant. Love poetry context is included where relevant. Place poetry is included where relevant. Linking the general ideas to the poems Specific poem links to 5 context points: Nature poems up first, then love, then place and finally war. Quotes lines are numbered 1 5. The box on the side reflects context that can be linked to the numbered line in the poem and the lines and numbered context are colour coded. Poems are in a sequence that suggests links between poems A links chart at the end of the slideshow for the comparisons. Romanticism Who are our Romantic poets in the Anthology? Wordsworth Excerpt from the Prelude, Lord Byron She Walks in Beauty, Percy Shelley Ozymandias, William Blake London, Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sonnet 43 What do the romantic poets believe in? Romantic poetry values nature, beauty in language and the natural world, the imagination, and tries
to create a sense of the personal and the emotional rather than dealing with truth and reason Romantic poets are preoccupied with the beauty of nature Romantic poets believe that the ideal man is an artist or poet; he brings natures miracles to our attention. He connects with our daily experience. Romantic poets were interested in: THE IMAGINATION, POLITICALLY ACTIVE (interested in politics and anti-oppression), Interested in the EVERYDAY as inspiration, Inspired by MYTHS and SYMBOLISM, Focused on EMOTIONS & SPONTANEOUS FEELINGS, RULE BREAKERS (they created their own rules to live by and tended to reject religious or absolute systems) Romantic ideas and statements related to the Romantic movement: Poetic form should look for innovation and originality. Romantic poets drew on tales and myths from the classical eras. They charted everyday experience, but aimed to inspire feelings of beauty. Art is the spontaneous overflow of emotional feelings. The world can only be experienced and known through emotion. Art is about self-expression. Reality is subjective, far away and long ago, transcendent, and difficult to know. Beauty in nature should be shocking. Beauty is arrived at by mixing qualities such as fear and awe with wonder; the grotesque and the sublime should be found together to create beauty. Story plots are driven by characters; their emotions, their passions. Frequently employed tragic endings. Characters in stories are unique. They are outcasts, rebels and non-conformists. Wisdom is gained in youth and innocence and subsequently lost. It is located in the individual. Society is always oppressive and stops people reaching their potential. People feel alienated from society. The ideal man is an artist or poet; he brings natures miracles to our attention. He connects with our daily experience. There are no such things as limits. We constantly are plagued with the feeling of incomplete destiny and adventure/leisure should be primary human concerns. Love
Who are our Love poets in the Anthology? Dharker Living Space (Love - found through religion/hope/sense of community) Heaney Death of a Naturalist (Love Of nature and the subsequent loss of this love) Excerpt from the Prelude (Love of nature and freedom) Dickinson - As Imperceptibly as Grief (Love grief caused through love) Byron She Walks in Beauty (Love at first sight or infatuation) Barrett Browning Sonnet 43 (Love overwhelming, cannot believe your luck love) Duffy Valentine (Love the harsh reality of loving someone Dove Cozy Apologia (Love the contentment a relationship can bring) What elements of Love can you explore? Love as an abstract noun can be felt internally but cant be seen physically Love is a feeling that we all are capable off, but that will manifest itself differently for different people Love can change, adapt and disappear Love causes pain and suffering as well as the juxtaposing emotions of joy and delight equally, Love can be all consuming and passionate or slow burning and gentle There are idiomatic phrases linked to love Love makes the world go round Poetry and Literature often focuses on love and relationships as a way of exploring the human psyche Love evolves and changes constantly and is difficult to pin down due to the abstract nature of it Place Who are our Love poets in the Anthology? Dharker Living Space (Place a community of shanty towns & abject poverty) Blake - London (Place Walking the streets of London & commenting on the ills of society) Heaney Death of a Naturalist (Place a childhood memory of freedom in the countryside juxtaposed with horror as an adult) Keats To Autumn (Place during harvest & the necessity of bringing it in for life to continue) Excerpt from the Prelude (Place The overwhelming beauty of the Lake Districts) Hawk Roosting (Place Nature as an element of life that is important and often forgotten) Dove Cozy Apologia (Place being bunkered up during a horrible weather event at home & content) What elements of Place can you explore? How the physical environment is presented How the physical environment is presented in relation to the structures that society upholds Specific mentions of the environment The way a place is defined not only by the landscape but by the human emotions that it evokes The way a place is tied up with the beauty of nature The way society constructs towns and cities and these constructs become normal ways of living How place and religion/hope meet The priority given to humanity over nature or landscape War and Conflict
Who are our War and Conflict poets in the Anthology? Blake London (conflict of the common man against the state/power/religion) Shelley Ozymandias (conflict in history against societal power structures) Dharker Living Space (conflict in society poverty endemic) Hardy A Wife in London (conflict/war The women left behind during the Boer War) Armitage The Manhunt (conflict/war The aftermath of a peacekeeping mission in Bosnia) Brookes - The Soldier (conflict/war The propaganda that made many men sign up for certain death) Owen Dulce et Decorum Est (conflict/war The horrific reality of WW1 from an eye-witness viewpoint) Shears Mametz Wood (conflict/war The forgotten soldiers and impact of death) What elements of war and conflict can you explore? Propaganda used to persuade young men to sign up and fight Links to London, The Soldier, Dulce et Decorum Est Peace-keeping missions were supposed to be safe and the men were supposed to take the sacrifice of dying on the chin Links to the Manhunt, The Soldier and Dulce et Decorum Est Brutality of war trench warfare the use of heavy artillery machine guns officers not having strategic plans in place men being sent over the top in waves the idea that men have been cannon fodder over the years Links to London, A Wife in London, The Manhunt, The Soldier, Dulce et Decorum Est and Mametz Wood The Government or rulers or people who have the power or those who have influence in society play a part in keeping/allowing devastation to happen (a comment on power structures) All the above poems Links How can I link these general ideas about Romanticism, Love, Place and War/Conflict to the poems? How can you use this to your advantage in the Anthology context links? Link the general ideas to your thoughts and views about the poems that are in The Anthology and if you are stuck for specific links use contextually this could link to Examples: Romanticism: Prelude preoccupied by the transience of humans and the beauty and awe of nature. Love Valentine Love is an abstract noun felt differently by different people and at different times in the relationship. Place Living Space depicts a place that exists outside the boundaries of normal or accepted societal views on how we should live and highlights the inequality endemic in society due to the abject poverty. War The Soldier/Dulce et - The horror of war was only fully realised once you had experienced this, meaning propaganda played a part in making young men feel they had to go to war (even if they didnt want to). Death of a Naturalist by Seamus Heaney
(1) All year the flax-dam festered in the heart Of the townland; green and heavy headed Flax had rotted there, weighted down by huge sods. Daily it sweltered in the punishing sun. Bubbles gargled delicately, bluebottles Wove a strong gauze of sound around the smell. There were dragon-flies, spotted butterflies, (2) But best of all was the warm thick slobber Of frogspawn that grew like clotted water In the shade of the banks. Here, every spring (3) I would fill jampotfuls of the jellied Specks to range on window-sills at home, On shelves at school, and wait and watch until The fattening dots burst into nimble(4) Swimming tadpoles. Miss Walls would tell us how The daddy frog was called a bullfrog And how he croaked and how the mammy frog Laid hundreds of little eggs and this was Frogspawn. You could tell the weather by frogs too For they were yellow in the sun and brown in rain. Then one hot day when fields were rank With cowdung in the grass the angry frogs Invaded the flax-dam; I ducked through hedges To a coarse croaking that I had not heard Before. The air was thick with a bass chorus. Right down the dam gross-bellied frogs were cocked On sods; their loose necks pulsed like sails. Some hopped: The slap and plop were obscene threats. Some sat (5) Poised like mud grenades, their blunt heads farting. I sickened, turned, and ran. The great slime kings Were gathered there for vengeance and I knew That if I dipped my hand the spawn would clutch it. Death of a Naturalist by Seamus Heaney 1 Countryside Heaney lived in Ireland in the country, before being sent away to boarding school suggests this is set in childhood Stanza 1 2 Childhood memories of collecting frogspawn something relatable to many children interested in life cycles 3 Jars of tadpoles & the anticipation that they will become frogs which is a common memory from many peoples childhood. 4 The important memories of school & being taught again youth is represented through the childish language
5 Danger frogs represent growing up and losing excitement at nature S2 represents adulthood, responsibility and being a grown up without the childlike innocence of S1 (1) Excerpt from The Prelude And in the frosty season, when the sun Was set, and visible for many a mile The cottage windows through the twilight blazd, (2) I heeded not the summons: happy time It was, indeed, for all of us; to me It was a time of rapture: clear and loud The village clock tolld six; I wheeld about, Proud and exulting, like an untird horse, That cares not for his home. All shod with steel, We hissd along the polishd ice, in games Confederate, imitative of the chace (3) And woodland pleasures, the resounding horn, The Pack loud bellowing, and the hunted hare. So through the darkness and the cold we flew, (4) And not a voice was idle; with the din, Meanwhile, the precipices rang aloud, The leafless trees, and every icy crag (5) Tinkled like iron, while the distant hills Into the tumult sent an alien sound Of melancholy, not unnoticed, while the stars, Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in the west The orange sky of evening died away. Excerpt from The Prelude by William Wordsworth 1 Excerpt autobiographical poem that spans the lifetime of Wordsworth, who loved living in the Lake District and was in awe of nature. This suggests that he had a lot to share about living in the Lake Districts and shows his awe of nature and the wide influence that it had. 2 Childhood memories of skating on the frozen lakes, prior to the death of his parents (innocence, childhood joy and freedom are reflected here) 3 Rural life being presented here with hunting sounds implying immanent danger as the hunt happens somewhere out of sight, but known about 4 Memories of chatting with friends and being carefree and youthful not having any other worries or concerns at this point
in life. 5 The hills are representative of the area in the Lake District which is an area of the country famous for hill walking To Autumn by John Keats (1) Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Conspiring with him how to load and bless With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run; To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees, And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells With a sweet kernel; to set budding more, And still more, later flowers for the bees, Until they think warm days will never cease, (2) For summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells. Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; Or on a half-reap'd furrow sound asleep, (3) Drows'd with the fume of poppies, while thy hook Spares the next swath and all its twined flowers: And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep Steady thy laden head across a brook; Or by a cyder-press, with patient look, Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours. (4) Where are the songs of spring? Ay, Where are they? Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue; Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Among the river sallows, borne aloft Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies; And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft; And gathering swallows twitter in the skies. To Autumn by John Keats 1 Suggests that the season is changing and that the weather is closing in
2 The summer has allowed food to be plentiful which was important as the harvest was needed to feed all the families in the community throughout the winter. 3 Reflection of the opiate qualities of poppies (drugged) by nature 4 A reflection of the changing of the season and going metaphorically into old age 5 The importance of animals in nature is presented here showing a romantics view of looking for the beauty in everything Hawk Roosting by Ted Hughes (1) I sit in the top of the wood, my eyes closed. Inaction, no falsifying dream Between my hooked head and hooked feet: Or in sleep rehearse perfect kills and eat. The convenience of the high trees! The air's buoyancy and the sun's ray Are of advantage to me; (2) And the earth's face upward for my inspection. My feet are locked upon the rough bark. (3) It took the whole of Creation To produce my foot, my each feather: Now I hold Creation in my foot Or fly up, and revolve it all slowly I kill where I please because it is all mine. There is no sophistry in my body: (4) My manners are tearing off heads The allotment of death. For the one path of my flight is direct Through the bones of the living. No arguments assert my right: (5) The sun is behind me. Nothing has changed since I began. My eye has permitted no change. I am going to keep things like this. Hawk Roosting by Ted Hughes 1 Superiority of this bird of prey who believes he is above all other creatures and can control nature 2 This bird of prey shows that everything around him is his and belongs to him, even the earth (Gods creation) is there for him to use. 3 Religious reference to God as the creator, but the
supercilious and demanding nature of the Hawk implies that he was made to be magnificent 4 As a bird of prey there is no apology for killing, this is what the bird is designed to do and will do. It is the natural order and instinct and ensures the survival of the fittest (a Darwinian idea related to the idea of natural selection) 5 Sun is necessary for life and this conjures up imagery of the bird framed against the sun in the sky. A bird in flight is an iconic picture of nature that most people are familiar with and reinforces Hughes preoccupation with nature. As Imperceptibly as Grief by Emily Dickinson (1) As imperceptibly as Grief (2) The Summer lapsed away Too imperceptible at last To seem like Perfidy A Quietness distilled (3) As Twilight long begun, Or Nature spending with herself Sequestered Afternoon The Dusk drew earlier in The Morning foreign shone (4) A courteous, yet harrowing Grace, As Guest, that would be gone And thus, without a Wing (5) Or service of a Keel Our Summer made her light escape Into the Beautiful. As Imperceptibly as Grief by Emily Dickinson 1 Dickinson was greatly affected by the death of friends during the civil war and the grief could represent this or the collective grief of America 2 She was famously reclusive and the passing of the seasons for her would have been seen from her bedroom where she spent a lot of time watching the world and writing 3 Time passing is a preoccupation in this poem 4 Could be linked to religion and the idea that this is important in stabilising how these feelings are processed 5 A keel is part of a ship used to keep everything steady, therefore this can link to the emotions felt and the fact that they
will fluctuate with time and with the passing of the seasons She Walks in Beauty By Lord Byron (1) She walks in beauty, like the night Of cloudless climes and starry skies; And all thats best of dark and bright (2) Meet in her aspect and her eyes; Thus mellowed to that tender light Which heaven to gaudy day denies. One shade the more, one ray the less, Had half impaired the nameless grace (3) Which waves in every raven tress, Or softly lightens oer her face; Where thoughts serenely sweet express, How pure, how dear their dwelling-place. And on that cheek, and oer that brow, (4) So soft, so calm, yet eloquent, The smiles that win, the tints that glow, But tell of days in goodness spent, (5) A mind at peace with all below, A heart whose love is innocent! She Walks in Beauty by Lord Byron 1 Byron was inspired to write this about his cousin (by marriage) who was in mourning (she) suggests that the persona is not well known to him 2 Byron was a womaniser or a well known lothario who had a reputations as being a ladies man and this poem focusing on the aesthetic appearance of the female form reinforces this reputation. 3 Dark haired beauty, but this also links to the bird The Raven which is said to be a omen of bad luck or ill fortune and this symbolism could be as a result of the interest Byron is taking on the lady in the poem 4 Lots of assumptions being made about the personality of the female due to her looks, which links to patriarchal ideas about women. There is a supposition that women should look good and obey the male and this is reinforced in this poem as we hear nothing of the females thoughts and opinions. 5 The female was in mourning clothes and therefore effectively out of bounds from male admiration and these lines show that again the female is being suggested as having
ethereal and otherworldly qualities. The attention would have been considered over the top due to the mourning garments the female was wearing. How she feels is being assumed here again, despite every indication that they have never met. Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1) How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. (2) I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of Being and ideal Grace. I love thee to the level of every days Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight. (3) I love thee freely, as men strive for Right; (4) I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise. I love thee with the passion put to use In my old griefs, and with my childhoods faith. I love thee with a love I seemed to lose (5) With my lost saints I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears, of all my life! and, if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death. Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Barrett Browning 1 The question is rhetorical and indicates the overwhelming love that Barrett Browning had for her husband choosing to portray this in the repetition of this phrase so many times to emphasise the power of her love for Robert (another poet) whom she felt saved her. 2 Her love transcends worldly confines which is linked to the transcendental nature of being a Romantic poet 3 This reflects the idea that equality for men and women was not a given at the time and that men were still fighting for the right to vote when EBB wrote the poem 4 Rejecting the religion that she was brought up with perhaps as a result of the suffocation she felt from being part of the religion and her fathers disapproval of her marrying Robert BB. She was famously outcast by her father due to her marriage and no longer a favourite of her dictatorial father. 5 suggests that in rejecting religion she has found
something better and more fulfilling with her love for her husband something that will continue to make her happy and satisfied even after death. Valentine by Carol Ann Duffy (1) Not a red rose or a satin heart. (2) I give you an onion. It is a moon wrapped in brown paper. It promises light like the careful undressing of love. Here. (3) It will blind you with tears like a lover. It will make your reflection a wobbling photo of grief. I am trying to be truthful. Not a cute card or a kissogram. I give you an onion. Its fierce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful as we are, for as long as we are. Take it. (4) Its platinum loops shrink to a weddingring, if you like. Lethal. (5) Its scent will cling to your fingers, cling to your knife. Valentine By Carol Ann Duffy 1 A rejection here of the stereotypical and traditional trinkets that are often associated with love and giving on Valentines day. Duffy rejects these stereotypes. 2 A real gift, something that is useful and has some meaning is given instead 3 Realism of love is depicted in the poem through the continuation of the extended metaphor. Love is not an easy journey and it will make you cry, but this is to be expected. Contextually, love is an emotional journey and Duffy is not hiding this realism. 4 a symbol of marriage. Most people recognise the importance of the institute of marriage and that this is
a binding commitment. Here Duffy implies that the vows should be taken seriously and that this is a binding agreement. 5 All the emotions that are associated with love are meant to stay with you through all the different layers of a relationship. Duffy recognises that love is an ever evolving journey and that contextually relationships are joyful and painful and that juxtaposing emotions are meant to be felt in the journey of a relationship. (1) Cozy Apologia by Rita Dove (for Fred) I could pick anything and think of you This lamp, the wind-still rain, the glossy blue (2) My pen exudes, drying matte, upon the page. I could choose any hero, any cause or age And, sure as shooting arrows to the heart, Astride a dappled mare, legs braced as far apart As standing in silver stirrups will allow There you'll be, with furrowed brow (3) And chain mail glinting, to set me free: One eye smiling, the other firm upon the enemy. This post-postmodern age is all business: compact disks And faxes, a do-it-now-and-take-no-risks Event. Today a hurricane is nudging up the coast, Oddly male: Big Bad Floyd, who brings a host Of daydreams: awkward reminiscences Of teenage crushes on worthless boys Whose only talent was to kiss you senseless. They all had sissy namesMarcel, Percy, Dewey; Were thin as licorice and as chewy, (4) (5) Sweet with a dark and hollow center. Floyd's Cussing up a storm. You're bunkered in your Aerie, I'm perched in mine (Twin desks, computers, hardwood floors): We're content, but fall short of the Divine. Still, it's embarrassing, this happiness Who's satisfied simply with what's good for us, When has the ordinary ever been news? And yet, because nothing else will do To keep me from melancholy (call it blues), I fill this stolen time with you.
Cozy Apologia by Rita Dove 1 Fred Viebahn is Ritas husband and the poem appears to be dedicated to him and a time when she was grateful to take a step out of day to day life and appreciate spending quality time with him 2 Dove is a writer (as is her husband Fred) and this detail appears to show the reality of this being autobiographical and about the relationship with her husband. 3 Fairy tale depictions are made and alluded to. Rita implies that her husband is her knight in shining armour which is a stereotypical depiction of how relationships present. This suggests she is happy to have been saved by him. 4 Dove reflects on previous relationships that she had with young men and finds them dissatisfying and something that has not made her happy. 5 Floyd is the masculine name of the hurricane which ripped through the East Coast of America in 1999 causing damage and destruction Afternoons by Philip Larkin (1) Summer is fading: The leaves fall in ones and twos From trees bordering The new recreation ground. In the hollows of afternoons (2) Young mothers assemble At swing and sandpit Setting free their children. Behind them, at intervals, Stand husbands in skilled trades, An estateful of washing, And the albums, lettered (3) Our Wedding, lying Near the television: Before them, the wind Is ruining their courting-places That are still courting-places (4) (But the lovers are all in school), And their children, so intent on (5) Finding more unripe acrons,
Expect to be taken home. Their beauty has thickened. Something is pushing them To the side of their own lives. Afternoons by Philip Larkin 1 Larkin was famously preoccupied with death and life ending and this comes through as a preoccupation with the seasons changing. Often this is described as being typically Larkinesque as he focused on the negativity in life and time passing as opposed to the positives. 2 Larkin never had any children and is an outsider looking in at the family life and relationships being played out here. He doesnt have any experience of being in a relationship with children as he was incredibly (self confessed) selfish 3 Marriage is depicted as something that is quickly forgotten in the mundanity of day to day life. TV and the false and unrealistic lifestyles shown on the TV take prime position in comparison to the marriage. 4 The process of ageing is shown through the children taking over as young lovers. Life goes on and what adults did in the past becomes the preserve of the young. 5 Children expect to be taken care off and have carefree and fun times with no real responsibility. This is the preserve of the mothers. Observationally, Larkin was looking at how mothers and children inter-acted in the local park and imagining a narrative around this. LONDON by William Blake (1) I wander thro' each charter'd street, Near where the charter'd Thames does flow. And mark in every face I meet Marks of weakness, marks of woe. (2) In every cry of every Man, In every Infants cry of fear, In every voice: in every ban, The mind-forg'd manacles I hear How the Chimney-sweepers cry (3) Every blackning Church appalls, (4) And the hapless Soldiers sigh Runs in blood down Palace walls But most thro' midnight streets I hear
(5) How the youthful Harlots curse Blasts the new-born Infants tear And blights with plagues the Marriage hearse London by William Blake 1 In London during the Victorian times the houses were bought and owned by wealthy people who then rented them out to poorer people. The charterd effect was also the idea that mankind could manipulate the streets and the river to their own will. The Thames was dirty, used by mankind as a sewage dump and unrecognisable to the way it is presented today as a landmark. Money is the enemy of humanity here. 2 Mankind and humanity is on the brink of disaster in this poem with the way all aspects of humans are seen to be despairing as a result of the inhumanity of the life that they are being forced to lead. Humans were squashed into overcrowded conditions and paid poorly and at the mercy of mass industrialisation. 3 Organised religion is depicted as at fault too. The darkness encompassing the churches could be the smog from the industrialisation or the culpability of religious leaders for not helping the poor escape the harrowing conditions they are living in. 4 The way men were sent to fight is being commented on. The men are shown by Blake to be pawns used as cannon fodder, sent into a war that the Monarchy (or bourgeoisie in society) chose with little understanding of the impact that it would have. 5 Syphilis was a sexually transmitted disease that was a common cause of death and a harlot would have been a prostitute. Here Blake could be commenting on the moral degradation in society and how mankind are causing their own deaths. (1) Living Space by Imtiaz Dharker (2) There are just not enough straight lines. That is the problem. Nothing is flat or parallel. Beams balance crookedly on supports thrust off the vertical. Nails clutch at open seams. The whole structure leans dangerously
(3) towards the miraculous. Into this rough frame, someone has squeezed a living space and even dared to place (4) these eggs in a wire basket, fragile curves of white hung out over the dark edge of a slanted universe, gathering the light into themselves, as if they were the bright, thin walls of faith. Living Space by Imtiaz Dharker 1 The title implies that this is somewhere that people stay because they have to not somewhere that could be nice enough to consider as a home or a permament and stable residence. 2 Dharker is discussing the slums of Mumbai and the way that these shanty towns sprang up using any material that could be made into a structure where people (often large families) can use as a home or as a shelter. The homes and structures are insecure and appear to be joined together in a haphazard way making them seem dangerous and inhospitable. 3 Hope is seen as important in the way that the structures manage to stay upright and dont collapse, even though little structural rigour seems to have been applied in the building of these. 4 Reality and living still continue in these shocking conditions and people continue to have animals and collect eggs in baskets and use any available surface to hold onto these precious pieces of life (eggs are fragile) but hope keeps them upright and safe 5 A wider comment on society is being made here with the idea that it isnt okay that people have to live in these conditions. Poverty and being choice and voice less is shown, but the government dont do anything to help leading to an existence that is slanted or seems wrong from the outside looking in. Ozymandias by Percy Shelley 1 The title is the nickname for Rameses 11 an Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled with a fist of iron and was widely believed (2) I met a traveller from an antique land to be despised by his people.
Who said: `Two vast and trunkless legs of stone2 The importance of the oral tradition of passing stories Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand, down through generation is shown here. As a poet and Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,storyteller himself, Shelley offers an omniscient narrator as a way of perhaps authenticating the story being told. Shelley And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command, was in competition with a friend to write a poem about the (3) Tell that its sculptor well those passions story of Ozymandias. read 3 The sculptor would have been instructed to create a true Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless liking of the face of the Pharaoh and there appears to be no flattery in the depiction of the statues true nature here. things, The hand that mocked them and the heart thatPerhaps, the sculptor was immortalising Ozymandias but giving an insight for generations to come into the cruelty of fed. the leader. And on the pedestal these words appear -4 This suggests a superiority complex and a sense that "My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Ozymandias as a character is put himself on a physical pedestal as being better than everyone else. He seems to Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!" think he is the greatest ruler and the statue is his legacy. Nothing beside remains. Round the decay 5 A wider comment on society is being made by Shelley in Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare that power while alive may be all well and good, but once you The lone and level sands stretch far away.' are dead, your power will fade and the essence of who you were will be all that is remembered. It is a wider warning about the damaging nature of people in power not remembering their humanity. We all die the same appears to be a message from Shelley. (1) Ozymandias by Percy Shelley )A Wife in London )I--The Tragedy ) She sits in the tawny vapour at the City lanes have uprolled, hind whose webby fold on fold ke a waning taper
e street-lamp glimmers cold. messenger's knock cracks smartly, ashed news is in her hand meaning it dazes to understand ough shaped so shortly: e--has fallen--in the far South Land . . . ) II--The Irony s the morrow; the fog hangs thicker, e postman nears and goes: etter is brought whose lines disclose the firelight flicker s hand, whom the worm now knows: esh--firm--penned in highest feather ge-full of his hoped return, nd of home-planned jaunts by brake and burn the summer weather, nd of new love that they would learn. A Wife in London by Thomas Hardy 1 The role and importance of women in war is often forgotten and Hardy was aware of this. He wrote the poem in the perspective of a wife to remind people of the often forgotten females who would wait at home and receive bad news of their husbands or partners. 2 The wife in this section of the poem receives the news via telegram (before the days of internet) that her husband has been killed in the Boer War in South Africa many many miles away 3 The weather was often appalling casting a smog over the newly industrialised London and as she sits waiting to hear from her husband the weather acts as a warning that all is not well for this unsuspecting female (who is nameless, therefore could be any female whose husband is at war) 4 This section of the poem is the day after the horrific news and the same female receives a letter from her husband giving her news that he will be home soon. This would have happened as post took a long time to arrive home and news was sporadic in this time period. 5 This comments on the loss of future life together. War does not only stop the man from living, but also kills all the plans that the couples had for the future. Hardy reinforces the futility of war and the way that this devastated many families and couples lives.
The Manhunt by Simon Armitage (1) After the first phase, after passionate nights and intimate days, only then would he let me trace (2) the frozen river which ran through his face, only then would he let me explore the blown hinge of his lower jaw, and handle and hold the damaged, porcelain collar-bone, and mind and attend the fractured rudder of shoulder-blade, and finger and thumb the parachute silk of his punctured lung. Only then could I bind the struts and climb the rungs of his broken ribs, (3) and feel the hurt of his grazed heart. Skirting along, only then could I picture the scan, the foetus of metal beneath his chest where the bullet had finally come to rest. Then I widened the search, traced the scarring back to its source (4) to a sweating, unexploded mine buried deep in his mind, around which every nerve in his body had tightened and closed. (5) Then, and only then, did I come close. The Manhunt by Simon Armitage 1 The couplet structure reminds us that the poem is focusing on the devastating impact that the injuries sustained by Eddie also had an impact on his wife Laura as well. 2 During a peacekeeping mission in Bosnia with the UN, Eddie Beddoes was shot at and suffered life changing injuries. The bullet entered his face and ricocheted down through his body and this is chartered through the poem. 3 This reflects the emotional trauma that Eddie suffered. He had PTSD after the event and this hampered his home life. Balloons going off at childrens birthday parties could traumatise him and take him back to the way he felt when he was shot. 4 This reflects the instability of Eddies mind after the event. It was incredibly traumatic and he was only 19 at the time. He shut
down after the event and it took a long time for him and his wife to get emotional stability back after the trauma, however his wife Laura feels that it made them stronger as a couple overall. 5 This reflects how important it was to work together to overcome the physical and mental torture that Eddie endured as a result of being shot. Many men who suffer trauma end up loosing their families and Eddie and Laura have worked incredibly hard as a couple to ensure that they are together and that they dont allow the physical injuries and the mental scarring to tear them apart. (1) The Soldier by Rupert Brookes If I should die, think only this of me: That theres some corner of a foreign field That is for ever England. There shall be In that rich earth a richer dust concealed; (2) A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware, Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam, A body of Englands, breathing English air, Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home. (3) And think, this heart, all evil shed away, A pulse in the eternal mind, no less Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given; Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day; (4) And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness, (5) In hearts at peace, under an English heaven. The Soldier by Rupert Brookes 1 This is an appeal to any young man who is able to go to war. Brookes wrote this prior to the reality of war becoming apparent and seems to want any young man to sign up to protect the country and their women. 2 Personifying England as a mother is a deliberate ploy by Brookes to appeal to the young males of Britains sense of emotional ties with their own important females, be that their mum or sister or girlfriend. A man needed to look after and support their females and this appeals to this masculine sense of pride. 3 The evil is the enemy (in this case Germany in WW1) suggesting that to die is glorious as long as it is for a cause close to your heart. 4 Appeal to the nature of young men is made here implying that they will take a piece of England with them when they die.
It is a propaganda filled poem that reinforces how 5 Death is seen as inevitable, however any death will result in almost martyrdom for the young men of Britain. They will go to heaven (a religious ideal that you will be chosen in death for favourable treatment from God) Dulce et Decorum Est by Wilfred Owen (1) Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots (2) But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of tired, outstripped Five-Nines that dropped behind. (3) Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And floundring like a man in fire or lime... Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams you too could pace (4) Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devils sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, (5) The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori. Dulce et Decorum Est by Wilfred Owen 1 Men who may have been young, even under age went to war and the horrific conditions in the trenches during the war meant that they looked old before their time and the clothing and food they had was insufficient for the conditions that they were enduring. 2 Injuries were common place and unless they were life threatening
men were expected to carry on regardless. There was not enough manpower in the war to continue holding the lines without everyone getting involved and staying involved, despite exhaustion or minor injuries. The focus on feet could reflect trench foot which was endemic during the war and could result in amputation as men having cold and wet feet constantly meant that they would rot. 3 Gas attacks were feared and fearful as this new phenomena was silent and deadly. Panic to fumble with the gas masks and put them on was important as otherwise the men would die horrific and painful deaths. 4 During the war men became desensitised to the horror and deaths that they witnessed. If they stopped to think about the way they were treating their fellow men they would have not been able to carry on killing and fighting. 5 Latin explores the idea that the rich and important people are sending men to be cannon fodder with little thought or care for how they feel. This emphasises the propaganda elements of other poems and information fed to the public. Owen was a serving soldier so he knew the true reality. Mametz Wood by Owen Shears (1) For years afterwards the farmers found them the wasted young, turning up under their plough blades as they tended the land back into itself. Mametz Wood by Owen Shears 1 Men of the Welsh regiment who were killed during the Battle of the Somme were left in the ground where they fell and when the ground was being farmed many years later the bodies or fragments of the bodies would be churned up in the fields. A chit of bone, the china plate of a shoulder blade, 2 The injuries suffered by the men show that the new machinery, the relic of a finger, the blown guns and artillery cut through the Welshmen quickly and in a (2) and broken birds egg of a skull, devastating way leading to loss of life and death. 3 This shows the incompetence of the officers in the wartime as all mimicked now in flint, breaking blue in white they thought there was no issues or problems facing the men in (3) across this field where they were told to the trees, however the enemy was waiting for them with machine
walk, not run, guns, meaning they couldnt escape and were unaware of the towards the wood and its nesting machine guns. horrific death that awaited them. 4 The earth appears to be guarding the men until they can be (4) And even now the earth stands sentinel, dug up and returned to their families or remembered as the Welsh reaching back into itself for reminders of what and Shears himself felt strongly that the regiment had been happened ignored and forgotten during the wider battles and that they like a wound working a foreign body to the surface deserved to be recognised for their sacrifice. of the skin. 5 The men lost their tongues when they lost their lives. The Welsh soldiers had no opportunity to be recognised for the This morning, twenty men buried in one long sacrifice that they made. They died, they fell and they were grave, invisible for many more years and their story deserves to be a broken mosaic of bone linked arm in arm, heard and remembered. their skeletons paused mid dance-macabre in boots that outlasted them, Poem War/ Conflict The Manhunt Sonnet 43 London The Soldier She Walks in Beauty Living Space As Imperceptibly as Grief Cozy Apologia Valentine A Wife in London Death of a Naturalist Hawk Roosting
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