The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition

SENTENCES Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition THE PARTS OF SPEECH Nouns Persons, places, things, ideas, or qualities Pronouns Substitute for nouns and function as nouns Verbs Actions, occurrences, or states of being Adjectives Describe or modify nouns or pronouns Adverbs

Describe or modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, or whole groups of words Prepositions Relate nouns or pronouns to other words in a sentence Conjunctions: link words, phrases, and clauses Coordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions Interjections Express feelings or command attention Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 12.1 THE FIVE BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS Subject

Predicate Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 12.2 TESTS FOR FINITE AND NONFINITE VERBS Test 1: Does the word require a change in form when a third-person subject changes from singular to plural? Yes No Finite verbs: It sings. They sing. Nonfinite verb: bird singing, birds singing Test 2: Does the word require a change in form to show the difference in present, past, and future? Yes No Finite verb: It sings. It sang. It will

sing. Nonfinite verb: The bird singing is/was/will be a robin. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 12.3 INDEPENDENT (MAIN) VS. DEPENDENT (SUBORDINATE) CLAUSES A main or independent clause makes a complete statement and can stand alone as a sentence: The sky darkened. A subordinate or dependent clause is just like a main clause except that it begins with a subordinating word: when the sky darkened; whoever calls. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 12.4

EXERCISE Sentence combining: Sentence structures Combine each set of simple sentences below to produce the kind of sentence specified in parentheses. You will have to add, delete, change, and rearrange words. 1. Recycling takes time. It reduces garbage in landfills. (Compound.) 2. People begin to recycle. They generate much less trash. (Complex.) 3. White tissues and paper towels biodegrade more easily than dyed ones. People still buy dyed papers. (Complex.) 4. The cans are aluminum. They bring recyclers good money. (Simple.) 5. Environmentalists have hope. Perhaps more communities will recycle newspaper and glass. Many citizens refuse to participate. (Compound-complex.) Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 12.5a ANSWERS TO EXERCISE Possible answers

1. The turn of the twentieth century ushered in improved technology and new materials. 2. A sturdy steel skeleton made the construction of skyscrapers possible. 3. By 1913 the towering Woolworth Building, with its Gothic ornaments, stood 760 feet (55 stories). 4. At 1450 feet the Sears Tower in Chicago now doubles the relatively puny height of the Woolworth Building. 5. Skyscrapers would not have been practical if Elisha Graves Otis had not built the first safe passenger elevator in 1857. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 12.5b CASE FORMS OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS Subjective Objective Possessive

Boy Boy Boys Jessie Jessie Jessies 1st person I Me My, mine 2nd person You You Your, yours

3rd person He Him His She Her Her, hers It It Its 1st person We Us

Our, ours 2nd person You You Your, yours 3rd person They Them Their, theirs Who Whom Whose Whoever Whomever

Which, that, what Which, that, what Everybody Everybody Nouns Personal pronouns Singular Plural Relative and interrogative pronouns Indefinite pronouns Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition Everybodys 13.1

A Test for Who vs. Whom in Questions Pose the question. (Who, Whom) makes that decision? (Who, Whom) does one ask? Answer the question, using a personal pronoun. (She, Her) makes that decision. She makes that decision. [Subjective] One asks (she,her). One asks her. [Objective] Use the same case (who or whom) in the question. Who makes that decision? [Subjective] Whom does one ask? [Objective] Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 13.2 A Test for Who vs. Whom in Subordinate Clauses Locate the subordinate clause. Few people know (who, whom) they should ask. They are unsure (who, whom) makes the

decision. Rewrite the subordinate clause as a separate sentence, substituting a personal pronoun for who, whom. Choose the pronoun that sounds correct, and note its case. They should ask (she,her). They should ask her. [Objective] (She, her) makes the decision. She makes the decision. [Subjective] Use the same case (who or whom) in the subordinate clause. Few people know whom they should ask. [Objective] They are unsure who makes the decision. [Subjective] Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 13.3 EXERCISE Choosing between subjective and objective pronouns Select the appropriate subjective or objective pronoun(s) for each sentence.

Lisa and (I, me) were competing for places on the relay team. The fastest runners at our school were (she, her) and (I, me), so (we, us) expected to make the team. (She, Her) and (I, me) were friends but also intense rivals. The time trials went badly, excluding both (she, her) and (I, me) from the team. Next season we are determined to earn at least one place between (she, her) and (I, me). Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 13.4a ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I she, I, we She, I

her, me her, me Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 13.4b TERMS USED TO DESCRIBE VERBS Tense The time of the verbs action Mood The attitude of the verbs speaker or writer Voice The distinction between the active, in which the subject performs the verbs action. Person The verb form that reflects whether the subject is speaking, spoken to, or spoken about. Number The verb form that reflects whether the subject is singular or plural.

Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 14.1 TENSES OF A REGULAR VERB (ACTIVE VOICE) Present Simple present plain form: I walk. Present progressive form: I am walking. Past Simple past past-tense form: I walked. Past progressive form: I was walking. Future Simple future plain form: I will walk. Future progressive form: I will be walking. Present perfect Present perfect plus past participle: I have walked. Present perfect progressive form: I have been walking. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers

Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 14.2a TENSES OF A REGULAR VERB (ACTIVE VOICE) continued Past perfect Past perfect plus past participle: I have walked. Past perfect progressive form: I had been walking. Future perfect Future perfect plus past participle: I will have walked. Future perfect progressive form: I will have been walking. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 14.3b ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE Active Voice The Subject acts. Subject = actor The city

Transitive verb in active voice controls Direct object rents. Passive Voice The subject is acted upon. Subject = object of action Transitive verb in passive voice Rents are controlled Rents are controlled. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition

By Actor (optional) by the city. 14.4 EXERCISE Distinguishing sit/set, lie/lay, rise/raise Choose the correct verb and then supply the past tense or past participle, as appropriate. 1. Yesterday afternoon the child (lie, lay) down for a nap. 2. The child has been (rise, raise) by her grandparents. 3. Most days her grandfather has (sit, set) with her, reading her stories. 4. She has (rise, raise) at dawn most mornings. 5. Her toys were (lie, lay) out on the floor. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 14.5a

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1. Yesterday afternoon the child lay down for a nap. 2. The child has been raised by her grandparents. 3. Most days her grandfather has sat with her, reading her stories. 4. She has risen at dawn most mornings. 5. Her toys were laid out on the floor. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 14.5b AGREEMENT Agreement helps readers understand the relations between elements in a sentence. Subjects and verbs agree in number and person. Subject Verb More Japanese Americans live in Hawaii

and California than elsewhere. Pronouns and their antecedents agree in person, number, and gender. antecedent Hawaiians value Senator Inouyes work pronoun for them. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 15.1 WAYS TO CORRECT AGREEMENT WITH INDEFINITE WORDS Change the indefinite word to a plural, and use a plural pronoun to match. Faulty: Every athlete deserves their privacy. Revised: Athletes deserve their privacy. Rewrite the sentence to omit the pronoun. Faulty: Everyone is entitled to their own locker. Revised: Everyone is entitled to a locker.

Use he or she (him, her, his, her) to refer to the indefinite word. Faulty: Now everyone has their private space. Revised: Now everyone has his or her private space. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 15.2 EXERCISE Revising: pronoun-antecedent agreement Revise the sentences so that pronouns and their antecedents agree in person and number. 1. Each girl raised in a Mexican-American family in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas hopes that one day they will be given a quinceanera party for their fifteenth birthday. 2. Such celebrations are very expensive because it entails a religious service followed by a huge party. 3. A girls immediate family, unless they are wealthy, cannot afford the party by themselves. 4. Her parents will ask each close friend or

relative if they can help with their preparations. 5. Surrounded by her family and attended by her friends and their escorts, the quinceanera is introduced as a young woman eligible for fashionable Mexican American society. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 15.3a ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1. Each girl raised in a Mexican American family in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas hopes that one day she will be given a quinceaera party for her fifteenth birthday. 2. Such a celebration is very expensive because it entails a religious service followed by a huge party. Or: Such celebrations are very expensive because they entail a religious service followed by a huge party. 3. A girls immediate family, unless it is wealthy, cannot afford the party by itself. 4. Her parents will ask each close friend or relative if he or she can help with the preparations. Or: Her parents will ask close friends or relatives if they can help with the preparations. 5. Sentence correct.

Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 15.3b FUNCTIONS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Adjectives modify NOUNS: Serious student PRONOUNS: ordinary one Adverbs modify VERBS: warmly greet ADJECTIVES: only three people ADVERBS: quite seriously PHRASES: nearly to the edge of the cliff CLAUSES: just when we arrived SENTENCES: Fortunately, she is employed.

Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 16.1 EXERCISE Using Comparatives and Superlatives Write the comparative and superlative forms of each adjective or adverb below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Badly Steady Good Well Understanding Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 16.2a

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1. badly, worse, worst The favored horse performed badly in the race. He performed worse than all but one other horse. The horse that performed worst broke stride and left the race. 2. steady, steadier, steadiest The stool was not steady. Its steadier now that Ive planed one leg. But its still not the steadiest stool in the house. 3. good, better, best The fruit tasted good. The cheese tasted better. The chocolate pie tasted best. 4. well, better, best

Julie did well on the test. Jack did better than Julie. Ellen did best of all. 5. understanding, more understanding, most understanding Professor Najarian was understanding about my late paper. She was more understanding than I had expected. She must be the most understanding professor in the department. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 16.2b COMPLETE SENTENCE VS. SENTENCE FRAGMENT A complete sentence or main clause Contains a subject and a verb The wind blows. And it is not a subordinate clause A sentence fragment Lacks a verb The wind blowing.

Or lacks a subject And blows. Or is a subordinate clause not attached to a complete sentence. Because the wind blows. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 17.1 TESTS FOR COMPLETE SENTENCES Perform all three of the following tests to be sure your sentences are complete. Find the verb. Find the subject. Make sure the clause is not subordinate. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 17.2 EXERCISE

Revising Sentence Fragments Correct any sentence fragments below. 1. Human beings who perfume themselves. They are not much different from other animals. 2. Animals as varied as insects and dogs release pheromones. Chemicals that signal other animals. 3. Human beings have a diminished sense of smell. And do not consciously detect most of their own species pheromones. 4. The human substitute for pheromones may be perfumes. Especially musk and other fragrances derived from animal oils. 5. Some sources say that humans began using perfume to cover up the smell of burning flesh. During sacrifices to the gods. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 17.3a ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1. Human beings who perfume themselves are not much different from other animals.

2. Animals as varied as insects and dogs release pheromones, chemicals that signal other animals. 3. Human beings have a diminished sense of smell and do not consciously detect most of their own species pheromones. 4. The human substitute for pheromones may be perfumes, especially musk and other fragrances derived from animal oils. 5. Some sources say that humans began using perfume to cover up the smell of burning flesh during sacrifices to the gods. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition

17.3b SITUATIONS THAT MAY PRODUCE COMMA SPLICES AND FUSED SENTENCES The first clause is negative; the second, positive. Splice: Petric is not a nurse, she is a doctor. Revised: Petric is not a nurse; she is a doctor. The second clause amplifies or illustrates the first. Fused: She did well in college her average was 3.9. Revised: She did well in college; her average was 3.9. The second clause contains a conjunctive adverb or other transitional expression, such as however or for example. Splice: She had intended to become a biologist, however, medicine seemed more exciting. Revised: She had intended to become a biologist; however, medicine seemed more exciting. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition

18.1a Situations that May Produce Comma Splices and Fused Sentences (continued) The subject of the second clause repeats or refers to the subject of the first clause. Fused: Petric is an internist she practices in Topeka. Revised: Petric is an internist. She practices in Topeka. Splicing or fusing is an attempt to link related ideas or to smooth choppy sentences. Splice: She is very committed to her work, she devotes almost all her time to patient care. Revised: Because she is very committed to her work, she devotes almost all her time to patient care. Words identifying the speaker divide a quotation between two complete sentences. Splice: Medicine is a human frontier, Petric says, The boundaries are unknown. Revised: Medicine is a human frontier, Petric says. The boundaries are unknown.

Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 18.1b EXERCISE Revising: Comma splices and fused sentences Identify and revise the comma splices and fused sentences in the following paragraph. All those parents who urged their children to eat broccoli were right, the vegetable really is healthful. Broccoli contains sulforaphane, moreover, this mustard oil can be found in kale and Brussels sprouts. Sulforaphane causes the body to make an enzyme that attacks carcinogens, these substances cause cancer. The enzyme speeds up the work of the kidneys then they can flush harmful chemicals out of the body. Other vegetables have similar benefits however, green, leafy vegetables like broccoli are the most efficient. Thus wise people will eat their broccoli it could save their lives. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 18.2a

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE All those parents who urged their children to eat broccoli were right; the vegetable really is healthful. Broccoli contains sulforaphane; moreover, this mustard oil can be found in kale and Brussels sprouts. Sulforaphane causes the body to make an enzyme that attacks carcinogens, substances that cause cancer. The enzyme speeds up the work of the kidneys so that they can flush harmful chemicals out of the body. Other vegetables have similar benefits; however, green, leafy vegetables like broccoli are the most efficient. Thus wise people will eat their broccoli; it could save their lives. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 18.2b IDENTIFYING AND REVISING DANGLING MODIFIERS Identify the modifiers subject. If the modifier lacks a stated subject, identify

what the modifier describes. Compare the subject of the modifier and the subject of the sentence. Verify that what the modifier describes is in fact the subject of the main clause. Revise as needed. Either recast the dangling modifier with a stated subject of its own, or change the subject of the main clause to be what the modifier describes. Dangling: When in diapers, my mother remarried. Revised: When I was in diapers, my mother remarried. Or: When in diapers, I attended my mothers second wedding. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 21.1 EXERCISE Revising: Dangling modifiers Revise the following sentences to eliminate any dangling modifiers.

1. After accomplishing many deeds of valor, Andrew Jacksons fame led to his election to the presidency in 1828 and 1832. 2. By the age of fourteen, both of Jacksons parents had died. 3. To aid the American Revolution, service as a mounted courier was chosen by Jackson. 4. Though not well educated, a successful career as a lawyer and judge proved Jacksons ability. 5. Winning many military battles, the American public believed in Jacksons leadership. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 21.2a ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1. After Andrew Jackson had accomplished many deeds of valor, his fame led to his election to the presidency in 1828 and 1832. 2. By the time Jackson was fourteen, both of his parents had died. 3. To aid the American Revolution, Jackson chose service as a mounted courier. 4. Though not well educated, Jackson proved his

ability in a successful career as a lawyer and judge. 5. Because Jackson won many military battles, the American public believed in his leadership. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 21.2b WAYS TO EMPHASIZE IDEAS Use the subject and verbs of sentences to state key actors and actions. Use the beginnings and endings of sentences to pace and stress information. Arrange series items in order of increasing importance. Use an occasional balanced sentence. Carefully repeat key words and phrases. Set off important ideas with punctuation. Write concisely. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 23.1

WAYS TO ACHIEVE CONCISENESS Make the subject and verb of each sentence identify its actor and action. Cut or shorten empty words or phrases. Cut unnecessary repetition. Reduce clauses to phrases and phrases to single words. Avoid construction beginning with there is or it is. Combine sentences. Cut or rewrite jargon. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 23.2 EXERCISE Revising: Emphasis of subjects and verbs Rewrite the following sentences so that their subjects and verbs identify their key actors and actions. 1. The work of many heroes was crucial in helping to emancipate the slaves. 2. The contribution of Harriet Tubman, an

escaped slave herself, included the guidance of hundreds of other slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad 3. A return to slavery was risked by Tubman or possibly death. 4. During the Civil War she was also a carrier of information from the South to the North. 5. After the war needy former slaves were helped by Tubmans raising of money for refuges. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 23.3a ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Possible answers Many heroes helped to emancipate the

slaves. Harriet Tubman, an escaped slave herself, guided hundreds of other slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad. Tubman risked a return to slavery or possible death. During the Civil War she also carried information from the South to the North. After the war Tubman helped needy former slaves by raising money for refuges. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 23.3b WAYS TO COORDINATE INFORMATION IN SENTENCES Link main clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Independence Hall in Philadelphia is now restoredm but fifty years ago it was in bad shape. Relate main clauses with a semicolon alone or a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.

The building was standing; however, it suffered from neglect. Within clauses, link words and phrases with a coordinating conjunction. The people and officials of the nation were indifferent to Independence Hall or took it for granted. Link main clauses, words, or phrases with a correlative conjunction. People not only took the building for granted but also neglected it. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 24.1 WAYS TO SUBORDINATE INFORMATION IN SENTENCES Use a subordinate clause beginning with a subordinating conjunction. Although some citizens had tried to rescue Independence Hall, they had not gained substantial public support.

Use a subordinate clause beginning with a relative pronoun. The first strong step was taken by the federal government, which made the building a national monument. Use a phrase. Like most national monuments, Independence Hall is protected by the National Park Service. Use an appositive. The National Park Service, a branch of the Department of Interior, also runs Yosemite and other wilderness parks. Use a modifying word. At the red brick Independence Hall, park rangers give guided tours and protect the irreplaceable building from vandalism. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers

Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 24.2 EXERCISE Sentence combining: Coordination Combine sentences in the following passages to coordinate related ideas in the ways that seem most effective to you. You will have to supply coordinating conjunctions or conjunctive adverbs and the appropriate punctuation. 1. Many chronic misspellers do not have the time to master spelling rules. They may not have the motivation. They may rely on dictionaries to catch misspellings. Most dictionaries list words under their correct spellings. One kind of dictionary is designed for chronic misspellers. It lists each word under its common misspellings. It then provides the correct spelling. It also provides the definition. 2. Henry Hudson was an English explorer. He captained ships for the Dutch East India Company. On a voyage in 1610 he passed by Greenland. He sailed into a great bay in todays northern Canada. He thought he and his sailors could winter there. The cold was terrible. Food ran out. The sailors mutinied. The sailors cast Hudson adrift in a small boat. Eight others were also in the boat. Hudson

and his companions perished. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 24.3a ANSWERS TO EXERCISE Possible revisions 1. Many chronic misspellers do not have the time or motivation to master spelling rules. They may rely on dictionaries to catch misspellings, but most dictionaries list words under their correct spellings. One kind of dictionary is designed for chronic misspellers. It lists each word under its common misspellings and then provides the correct spelling and definition. 2. Henry Hudson was an English explorer, but he captained ships for the Dutch East India Company. On a voyage in 1610 he passed Greenland and sailed into a great bay in todays northern Canada. He thought he and his sailors could winter there, but the cold was terrible and food ran out. The sailors mutinied and cast Hudson and eight others adrift in a small boat. Hudson and his companions perished. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers

Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 24.3b PATTERNS OF PARALLELISM Use parallel structures for elements connected by coordinating conjunctions or correlative conjunctions In 1988 a Greek cyclist, backed up by engineers, physiologists, and athletes, broke the worlds record for human flight with neither a boost nor a motor. Use parallel structures for elements being compared or contrasted. Pedal power rather than horse power propelled the plane. Use parallel structure for lists, outlines, or headings. The four-hour flight was successful because (1) the cyclist was very fit, (2) he flew a straight course over water, and (3) he kept the aircraft near the waters surface. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition

25.1 EXERCISE Identifying parallel elements Identify the parallel elements in the following sentences. How does parallelism contribute to the effectiveness of each sentence? 1. Eating an animal has not always been an automatic or an everyday affair; it has tended to be done on solemn occasions and for a special treat. Margaret Visser 2. They [pioneer women] rolled out dough on the wagon seats, cooked with fires made out of buffalo chips, tended the sick, and marked the graves of their children, their husbands and each other. Ellen Goodman 3. The mornings are the pleasantest times in the apartment, exhaustion having set in, the sated mosquitoes at rest on ceiling and walls, sleeping if off, the room a swirl of tortured bedclothes and abandoned garments, the vines in their full leafiness filtering the hard light of day, the air conditioner silent at last, like the mosquitoes. E. B. White 4. Aging paints every action gray, lies heavy on every movement, imprisons every thought. Sharon Curtin Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers

Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 25.2a ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 1. The two sets of parallel phrases (an automatic or an everyday affair; on solemn occasions and for a special treat) and the parallel main clauses (. . . has not always been . . . has tended to be) emphasize the differences between then and now. 2. The parallel verbs (rolled out . . . cooked . . . tended . . . marked) stress the number and variety of the womens responsibilities. 3. Supporting pleasantest is a wealth of detail expressed in five parallel absolute phrases: exhaustion . . . in; the sated mosquitoes . . . off; the room . . . garments; the vines . . . day; and the air conditioner . . . mosquitoes. The phrases convey no action, emphasizing the stillness of the scene. 4. The limiting effects of aging are emphasized by the increasingly narrow parallel verbspaints, lies, imprisonsand the parallel objectsevery action, every movement, every thought. Copyright 19952004 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman Publishers Fowler/Aaron, The Little, Brown Handbook, Ninth Edition 25.2b

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