The Early Years of the People's Republic

The Early Years of the Peoples Republic 1949- 1956 s e r f A t r a t s h

Optimism Determination to create a new society Huge prestige and trust for the CCP amongst ordinary people, the poor, the peasants etc Cleaning up society (closing brothels, opium dens etc)

Problems after the war devastation, unemployment, inflation, breakdown of public order. Campaigns 1951 The three antis anti-waste; anticorruption; anti-inefficiency 1952 The five antis anti-industrial sabotage; anti-tax evasion; anti-bribery; antifraud; anti-theft of government property

e m r p o f f o e r ife d l n e a L h t g

n i v o r mp i d n a ts n a s a

Land reform, by 1952 land to the tiller movement was complete. Speak bitterness as a way to encourage peasants to speak out against their oppressors. division of people into categories landlords/rich peasants/middle peasants/poor peasants/landless labourers. Importance of peasants key to ensuring food supplies (increasing urban population) and export of food stuffs to get foreign currency to buy industrial machinery.

Some opposition by peasants themselves to land reform eg when the land was owned by a lineage (extended family) or where family tombs were located. s u d n I d n e a g n n a a h

b c r U l a i r t The policy to confiscate assets of big capitalist monopolies but protect the national bourgeoisie small businesses

State to run banks, trade, transport Iron rice bowl jobs in the state sector (by 1958 30% of workforce were in the state sector) Private sector still existed till the mid 1960s. n a Pl r a e

Y e 7 v i 5 F 19 t s r i F 3 5 e 19 h T

The First Five-Year Plan 1953 - 1957 Increase production of coal, steel and petrochemicals Spectacular civil-engineering projects eg the Nanjing Bridge Education investment, high quality urban schools set up.

Statistics show it was successful but the figures may have been distorted. n o ti a r e p o h o t i ) C

w ia n o s Uni s Ru iet v o S e h (T Sino-Soviet Friendship treaty 1950 (cultural/industrial co-operation and exchanges)

China wanted Russian industrial expertise and equipment. USSR wanted an ally in the world. Russian language taught, Russian books translated, lots of students sent to study in Russia r a W n 3

a e r 5 o 9 K 1 e Th 950 1 Korean War 1950-53 The USSR, China and North Korea on one side

The US, many other western countries and South Korea on the other. t c i fl n o C ith ) w ia n o s Uni s

Ru iet v o S e h (T Mao and Stalin didnt get on, both wanted to be leader of the Communist world. Mao felt insulted that Stalin treated him as a little brother 1953 Stalin died. Mao also didnt really rate his successor Krushchev even though

Krushchev was more appreciative of China m o r f t a e r h n t a e aiw h T T

Threat from Taiwan The US supported Chiang Kai-shek in Taiwan as a way of stopping the tide of Communism External threat gave the CCP the reason to clamp down on dissent l a n o i

t a y n t i r r e t a In olid s o c l a c

i t i l Po l o r t n PRC a one party state by 1952 (in 1949 there had been 10 separate political parties

Neighbour hood committees of between 15-40 households. dan wei looked after your housing, food, schools, marriages etc hu kou residence permit dang an political record Democratic Centralism and the Mass Line

Democratic Centralism true democracy in the Communist Party lay in the obedience of the members to the authority and instructions of the leaders. ..as representatives of the workers, all Communists were genuine revolutionaries [but] only the leaders were sufficiently educated in the science of revolution to understand what needed to be done The Mass Line qn zhng the masses, the people) (l xin route, guideline)

The mass line is the political, organizational and leadership method developed by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the Chinese revolution. The essential element of the mass line is consulting the masses, interpreting their suggestions within the framework of Marxist-Leninism, and then enforcing the resulting policies c e l l e t In

s l a u t Expertise needed there was a chronic shortage after the war of personnel to run the country. Had to use former GMD officials to implement policies

thought reform distrust of intellectuals class enemies 1956 Hundred Flowers campaign o W n e m improvement in maternity care (high birthrate) (1949 58 million people in China, by 1957 100 million)

The marriage law of 1950 1949-59 a ten-fold increase in female employment But still in low-skilled jobs and responsible for domestic labour. Ed a c

u n o ti Literacy drive to upskill the labour force and transform political consciousness of workers and peasants Simplification of characters list of 1,500 aimed at teaching peasants to read.

Lack of teachers, text books, poor teaching methods. Th u c e f o lt o a M

The cult of Mao Maos growing paranoia. The more authority he gained, the more he feared that opposition to him was growing. It is a feature of his personality that explains why he was so ready to launch..purges against those he suspected irrationally of plotting to overthrow him

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