The Dismantling of the Engineering Education Pipeline

The State of the Engineering Education Pipeline: History, Status, and Goals Robert Cassidy Erik Dunmire Overview Role of CCC in CA Engineering Education Status of CCC Engineering Programs Status of ENGR Articulation & Transfer Inconsistency in transfer requirements Proposed Solution CA Engineering Transfer pre-1999 (Ancient?) History > 41% of BS ENGR Degrees from CC Transfers The Core = Common Set of LD Courses Required for Nearly All Engineering Majors & Institutions Courses: Calculus I, II, III, Diff Eqns, Chem IA, IB, Physics IA, IB, IC Engineering: Intro, Graphics, Statics, Materials, Circuits Computer Programming Community Colleges still represent a major part of the Engineering Education Pipeline in CA CSU 41% CCC 33% 23% UC Estimates from CPEC data. B.S. Engineers especially in terms of under-represented students Number of Latino Students 600000 UC CSU CC 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2002 2003 2004 2005

2006 2007 F re q u e n c y (# o f c o lle g e s ) but these transfers are highly distributed. 80% of CCs Size Distribution of CC Engineering Programs transfer 30 or fewer Engineering students per year 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Engineering Transfers to UC + CSU in 2010 70 75 80 CC Engineering course offerings are therefore limited. Frequency of Course Offerings by CCC Engineering Programs Intro to Engr Not available Once per year Every semester Graphics

Materials Science Statics Circuits Matlab Dynamics Mechanics of Matls 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Percentage of Colleges Surveyed CA Higher Ed: Largest System in the World Course-to-Course Articulation: 112 CCs x ( 23 CSUs + 10 UCs ) x 5 courses = a Mess! X X R R X3 X3 R R R R R X 1 R = Recommended X = Required choose one 4 specialized Civil Materials course only 2 R R2 R R R2 R R R choose two R1 R R R2 R2 R R R 3 R R

R R R R R R R R R R R R R choose three R Thermo Intro Progr Circuits R1 R R R4 X3 R Data Struct X X1 X3 Materials Solid Mech Graphics R R Adv Progr X1 X3 X X3 X X X X X X X X X X X X Intro Design X

X X X X X X X X X X X Gen Chem II X X R X X X X X X X X X Gen Chem I X X X X X X X X X X X X Physics III Physics I, II Bioengineering Bio/Materials Chemical Civil Computational Electrical/Comp Environmental Industrial Manufacturing Materials Mechanical Nuclear Diff Eq & L.A. COURSES MAJORS Calc I, II, III Inconsistency Among Majors (at UCB) R2 R

R X2 X1 X X R5 R5 X4 X5 R X X X3 X X X X1 X1 R = Recommended X = Required 3 4 Careers/soft skills Design 6 specialized Civil Materials course only X5 X3 X4 X X2 R X X X X6 X X X X X X X R X R X X X X R2 X X

X R R R R R R2 R X1 X X X X2 X X R X X X X X X X X X 2 choose one combined course 5 specialized Intro to Civil only 7 microelectronic circuits 1 Geology R7 X Surveying R6 X Dynamics Statics R2 X R R2 X X X X X X X X X X

Circuits R4 Strgth Matls X X X X X X Graphics X1 X R X R X1 Intro X X X X X X X Materials X1 X R X X X1 X X X X X Comp/Progr X2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Gen Chem II X2

X R X X2 Gen Chem I X2 X R X X2 X X X2 X X X X X2 X Physics III Linear Alg X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Physics I, II Diff Eqns UC Berkeley UC Davis UC Irvine UCLA Cal Poly SLO CSU Chico CSU Fresno CSU Fullerton CSU LA CSU LB CSUS SDSU SF State San Jose State Calc I, II, III Inconsistency Among Institutions (for Civil) R X1 X - Major not offered 3. Fortran

7. Excel/MATLAB 10. Other 9 10 2 - Any 10 2 2 2 2 6 2 0 9 8 2 2 7 0 2 0 3 2 0 7 2 2 10 1,2 5 2 2 4 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 4 10 2,8 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2

9 2 2 2 6,7 7 2 9 7 2,4 9 7 - 9 10 3 2 2 6,7 0 0 Mech Materials Manufrng Industrial Envirmtl Electrical Computer Civil Chemical Biomed 9 8 5 2 2 2 7 - Structural 3 2 2 0 2 0 2 Nuclear UC Berkeley UC Davis UC Irvine UC Los Angeles UC Riverside

UC San Diego UC Santa Barbara UC Santa Cruz Cal Poly SLO CSU Chico CSU Fresno CSU Fullerton CSU LA CSU LB CSU Sacramento San Diego State SF State San Jose State Biochem Aero Inconsistency in Content (Programming) 9 - 9 - 9 8 3 2 7,8 2 6 6,7 2 1 3 2 10 7 2 2 0. No required course 1. C 2. C++ 4. Java 5. Python 6. C/MATLAB 8. MATLAB problem-solving focus 9. MATLAB programming Impacts on Students Data from RP Group (The Research & Planning Group for Calif. Community Colleges) Surveys and Data Analysis of Transfer Engineering Graduates A Long & Leaky Pipeline: Inconsistent lower-division major requirements represent a significant barrier to transfer for Engineering students. Complexity of academic planning, Large number of pre-transfer units, and Long times to transfer (84% took >2 years, 38% took >4 years) Decreasing availability of CC Engineering courses causes Swirl (attend multiple CCs), Incomplete LD Prep, Decreased success

Long time to degree 61% >= 6 years total, 26% >= 8 years total And remember, these were the Completers! Proposed ^ The Solution C-ID Course Identification System Course-to-CID Articulation: ( 112 CCs + 23 CSUs + 10 UCs ) x 5 C-IDs = Better Graphics Statics Materials Circuits Intro Programming X X X X X X X4 X4 Civil X X X X1 X X X X X X2 X4 X4 Computer/SW X X X X1

X X X3 X Electrical X X X X1 X X X3 X R = Recommended X = Required 1 may be required 3 2 Strength of Materials Intro X1 Dynamics Gen Chem I X Surveying Physics III X Discrete Structures Physics I, II X Data Structures Diff Eq Aero/Mech/Manu Progr MATLAB

COURSES MAJORS Calc I, II, III Consistency Among Majors R R X2 X X CC may offer Surveying if available with lab 4 choose C++ or MATLAB course R = Recommended X = Required 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X may be required 3 2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2

X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 X3 Surveying X X X X X X X X X X X X X X MATLAB X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X Intro /Progr Materials X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Circuits Statics X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 X1 Graphics X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Intro X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X Gen Chem I Physics I, II X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Physics III Diff Eqns UC Berkeley UC Davis UC Irvine UCLA Cal Poly SLO CSU Chico CSU Fresno CSU Fullerton CSU LA CSU LB CSUS SDSU SF State San Jose State Calc I, II, III Consistency Among Institutions (for Civil) X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 X2 CC may offer Surveying if available with lab 4 choose C++ or MATLAB course

Consistency in Content C-ID (Course Identification Numbering System) Course Descriptors C-ID From a 4-Year Perspective UC Irvine Engineering is currently maintaining 2,407 course syllabi from 110 California Community Colleges, or 22 courses per school on average UCI Engineering articulates 68 distinct required courses C-ID offers 39 descriptors that overlap with UCI Engineering required courses Articulating with C-ID would reduce the number of course reviews by at least 75% (approx. 1800 reviews), and provide a roadmap to articulate with CalState UCI, along with many other UCs are under increasing pressure to articulate with universities outside of California as well as with international universities, but faculty and staff lack the bandwidth to handle this additional load Comparison of UCI Assist and C-ID for CHEM 110 (General Chemistry with Lab) UCI Assist C-ID Allan Hancock College American River College Berkeley City College El Camino College Cerritos College Cerro Coso Community College Chabot College Citrus College Columbia College CHEM 150 CHEM 400 CHEM 1A CHEM 1A CHEM 111 CHEM C111 CHEM 150 CHEM 400 CHEM 1A CHEM 1A CHEM 111 CHEM C111 CHEM 1A CHEM 111 CHEM 1A Contra Costa College Crafton Hills College Cosumnes River College Cuesta College Cuyamaca College Cypress College De Anza College Diablo Valley College Evergreen Valley College Feather River College Fresno City College Fullerton College Gavilan College

Golden West College Hartnell College Imperial Valley College Irvine Valley College CHEM 120 CHEM 150 CHEM 400 CHEM 201A CHEM 141 CHEM 111AC CHEM 1A CHEM 120 CHEM 1A CHEM 102 CHEM 1A CHEM 111AF CHEM 1A CHEM G180 CHM 1A CHEM 200 CHEM 1A CHEM 1A CHEM 111 CHEM 1A or (CHEM 2A and CHEM 2AL) CHEM 120 CHEM 150 or CHEM 150H CHEM 400 CHEM 201A CHEM 141 CHEM 111AC CHEM 1A and CHEM 1B CHEM 120 CHEM 1A CHEM 102 CHEM 1A CHEM 111AF CHEM 1A CHEM G180 CHM 1A CHEM 200 CHEM 1A 76 schools offer C-ID approved CHEM 110 General Chemistry with Lab courses. All 76 courses are identical to (or better than) UCI ASSIST entries. UCI can replace 76 school-school agreements by articulating to a single C-ID course. C-ID From a 4-Year Perspective Universities are not prevented from continuing school-school agreements for courses that lack C-ID descriptors or for tailored courses from key feeder schools Course development is a significant challenge for community colleges with small engineering populations and C-ID descriptors are the easiest path for new courses to be developed Aligning around C-ID reduces friction for students to transfer and to keep multiple schools as viable options. Students always cover their bases.

The time to grow engineering programs at California Community Colleges is now: Engineering CCC Transfer Applications to UC System-wide 2008-2014 5,000 Unduplicated transfer applications for engineering from CCC to the UC system have increased from 1,871 in 2008 to 4,663 in 2014. 4,000 3,000 Demand for engineering transfer has never been higher and with an average of 42 students per year per CCC, expanded course offerings are viable and the most realistic path for expanding offerings is by aligning with C-ID. 2,000 1,000 0 2008 2009 2010 CA Resident 2011 2012 Dom. Non-Res. Intl. 2013 2014

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