The Development and Measurement of Attunement Among Adults in ...

THE DEVELOPMENT AND MEASUREMENT OF ATTUNEMENT AMONG ADULTS IN THE YOUTH MENTORING SYSTEM INVOLVE CONFERENCE, WELLINGTON, NZ AUGUST 14, 2018 Julia Pryce, Ph.D., LCSW In collaboration with community partners, Linda Gilkerson, Ph.D., & Kelsey Deane, Ph.D. Pair and share

What the day What hhas as the day been likelike for yfor been ou soyou far? so far? Our Time Together

Introduction of key concepts --Attunement --Mentoring FAN Overview of findings from work with agencies on Mentoring FAN training Introduction of Mentor Attunement

Scale (MAS) Q & A and wrap up Photo Credit: http://w ww.clker .com/cli partchecklis tform.ht ml Practicing Presence

What we know from research and practice Relationships are central We say this program is all about relationships, but we dont often talk about how to do that, to create the relationships we so value. This process finally gives us a way to think about & practice that. Photo credit: http://www.pdx.edu/youth-mentoring/diversity-in-youthmentoring-relationships

Better understanding of relationship process holds Definition of Attunement (Pryce, 2012) Capacity to respond flexibly to verbal and nonverbal cues by taking into account others needs and desires

Represents broad strategy to elicit, read, interpret and reflect on others cues Requires adaptation of expectations based on others interests Involves level of intentionality in approve toward building the relationship

Attunement as Theory of Change When someone feels truly understood, known, the attunement that occurs creates a space where it is possible to try new ways of interacting. Siegel & Hartzell, 2003 in Lewis, 2011, p. 446. Photo Credit: https:// www.hearf oundation. org/hearfoundation mentoring -program/

7 Initial Observed Attunement of Mentors Category Characteristics Highly Attuned (40%) Consistently seeks to attend flexibly and creatively to verbal or nonverbal signs as to preferences, concerns, feelings

Moderately Attuned (45%) Although generally attuned, attention and flexibility varies due to challenges connecting with other, involvement with other group members, or lack of program support. Minimally Attuned (15%) Slow or unable to adjust approach based on verbal or nonverbal signs as to preferences, concerns, or feelings. Fussy Baby Network

National model prevention program FAN Approach to Family Engagement and Reflective Practice (Gilkerson & Gray, 2013; Gilkerson et al, 2013). International Network FAN approach applicable to communication and

engagement processes across settings Mentoring FAN: How you do the work PLEASE EMAIL [email protected] IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN THIS MODEL FAN Matching Process during interaction Observe/Listen For Cues What is the person showing me in the moment? Offer Which core process matches their cues?

Check the Match Is this working? If you are in the right FAN wedge, should be flowing Re-attune Move on the FAN based on the others response FAN Interactions vs Moments Interaction refers to contact that allows for entire FAN process to take place FAN Moments refer to brief encounters where FAN skills can be useful FAN Moments http://www.advancedfamilyvisioncare.com/about/schedule-appointment/

Take A Peek Cues Related to the FAN Core Processes MENTORING FAN HELPS YOU READ CUES AND MATCH WITH OTHERS 1 When you do something that doesnt work, you have an opportunity to learn something and grow closer. Dr. Brazelton

Misattunement Pacing moving too quickly moving too slowly Cultural Misattunement Pushing our agenda and jumping to doing Other common kinds of or reasons for misattunement and disconnect? Photo Credit: https:// www.wi

kihow.c om/Bea-GoodMentor Your Mismatch Story Think of an interaction that you had with someone that didnt go so well, ideally in professional context Draw a picture of this interaction in your mind so you can come back to it Share with colleague: What were you needing? What actually happened?

How did it feel for you? Staff reflections on importance of attunement I was able to grow just in terms of really attending to the mentor. I developed a real intentionality about observing their cues & asking probing questions, depending on where they are. I became a better listener in the process. I think we have a tendency to jump to the fixing maybe quicker than

this model would like for I think I really reflected on what were they feeling, what us to do. was going on with them and the student, how can I be a Pair & Share on FAN What might be your comfort wedge? Where is your growing wedge? In your team of colleagues/program, comfort or growth areas? From what you know about the FAN, what way might you shift your approach to increase attunement?

Empathic Inquiry: Example First she wanted to explain everything and defend herself and shes obviously not in a position yet to move forward with me to try and solve the problem. She was in that processing stage where all of us get where someone thinks weve done something wrong and that makes us feel uncomfortable. [FAN] enabled me to hear more: Ok she is not yet ready for us to move into this, what is it going to look like next stage. I need to just let her vent some. - Sara, Site Coordinator Empathic Response? Yes or No I think Im ready to give up.

Sounds like things have been really rough. Dont give up. You will make it through this. Hang in there. It must feel hard sometimes. What do you mean when you say that? Strategies for Empathic Inquiry Holding Feelings Listening with compassion and acceptance: just letting it be shared Exploring Feeling

What did it feel like for you when that happened? about that? That sounds really difficult. Would you like to talk more Validating Feelings I can hear how worried you are about your mentor. You are working so hard to figure this out. Containing Feelings I can imagine this feels overwhelming. Did you see any glimmers of hope in this situation? I hear how concerned you are. Im wondering if there has been a time when things went differently? Weve had a while to think about how stressful this is. Do you think you have the space now to move into thinking about what youd like to do? Pair and Share

Think of times your mentor, colleague, or mentee/youth that you know was in FEELINGS Write two empathic statements that validate or explore the feelings Share with partner Group discussion Findings on training of mentoring Statistically significant differences in staff staff interpersonal reactivity: t(28) = -2.22, p=.04.

Statistically significant differences in staff ability to self-reflect, and increased level of insight regarding work t(9) = -2.77, p = .024; t(9) = -4.10, p=.003. Measures of empathy and mindfulness yielded positive trends Staff self-reported growth in ability to be empathic and self-aware, and an increased use and comfort in employing mindfulness practice techniques Qualitative findings Central Themes from Interviews

Attunement: Listening and reading cues I was able to grow just in terms of really attending to the mentor. I developed a real intentionality about observing their cues, um, and asking more probing questions depending on where theyre at. I came to a place where I can really sort of watch them. I guess I became a better listener in the process. Just thinking more about where theyre at and what theyre ready for before I begin to provide feedback provide guidance, provide suggestions, um, and observe where theyre at before I jump into those things. - Tyrone

Photo Credit: https:// growthf reaks.co m/ activelistenin g-skills/ Qualitative findings (cont). Attunement: Awareness of self and other But now Im much more conscious of what other people in the situation are thinking or feeling. Um, and allowing them to not only share their ideas, but implementing their ideas as effective as mine would be[the FAN] allows me to

take a step back and be empathetic that not everybody thinks or feels the way that I think. -Kelly Supervision as a collaborative relationship: shift in nature of supervision from hierarchical problem-solving to collaborative exploration I think before [FAN training] I kind of took on more of a teacher role and I would tell them, you know, maybe you should do this or that, and now, I just kind of let them be and let them try to figure it out instead of always try to solve everything. doing the FAN has allowed me to see them [the mentors] in a little bit of a different role. Before, they were my mentors and I would tell them what to do and they would just do itand now its like were working together. -Amanda

Qualitative findings (cont). Improved ability to support relationships between mentors and youth: As staff developed skills in attunement, more able to understand the mentors and mentoring relationships Just working with that mentor and not um, giving upthere were very many times when I know he wanted to give up, and I kind of wanted to terminate the match because of the frustration I was feeling because of the mentor. Meeting together, problem solving to think of solutions, and just affirming his worth, his value in the relationship, really helped change the relationship. -Charlotte Increased sense of staff purpose in work supporting mentors

Mentor feedback further reinforces the strengthening of connection between staff and mentors as associated with Mentoring FAN training Process Evaluation Data Mentoring FAN Post-Contact Reflection Tool self-report process evaluation data collected from sites during the practice phase Results from open- and closedended questions showed trends

of increased confidence of staff and self-awareness (ability to identify own feelings and feelings of mentors they support), and increased use of tool over time Findings to date from mentor Strengthening of relationship between staff and mentor feedback The opportunity for more in-depth conversation with my site coordinator has also led to other more in-depth conversations

about personal lives, which has allowed us to get to know each other better and develop a relationship, which I think aids in the retention of mentors to the program. Increased use of self-reflection Conversations helped because it provided me as a mentor the opportunity to stop and reflect upon my interactions with my mentee, which allowed me to recognize the changes that were occurring in our relationship. Opportunities for staff to reflect with the mentor and highlight strengths and successes Our extended conversations have given me the confidence Findings on training of mentors

Enhanced listening skills Increased attention to balance of curriculum content and relationship development Increased use of calming practices during stressful interactions with mentee Overview of partner agencies to School-Based Mentoring of Champaign/Urbana date Big Brothers/Big Sisters of Dallas

Spark Chicago DePaul University Cities Mentor Project Higher Education Mentoring Initiative Read Ahead New York City Arrupe College Chicago Overview of Training Structure First level training: One day training on Mentoring FAN 5 month follow up (which included monthly calls or meetings used to practice Mentoring FAN) Can consider virtual training as well to accommodate New Zealand context Train-the-trainer option

Trainer participates in first level training Trainer conducts Mentoring FAN trainings and is observed and receives feedback Overview of findings from Feedback from one day training across two cases trainings Overall Mentoring FAN Training consistently well received 86% of participants rated training as helpful or very helpful (4.4/5 on average rating across evaluation) The materials provided were clear and engaging and eye-opening. The training was clearly well thought-out and organized. I appreciated the variation in activities. Great experiential learning.

I will find the time for this! This will really make a difference! Most helpful aspects of training include: Focus on Mentoring Relationships FAN Matching Process and Self-Awareness Attention to Mindful Self-Regulation Shift of focus to collaboration ARC of Engagement as tool Reactions? Questions? Anticipated Challenges? One idea you would like to remember from the Mentoring FAN?

What will you take with you? Photo Credit: http://iteachblogging.co m/share-your-idea/ Measurement and monitoring of attunement (Pryce & Deane, in preparation) Next steps in measuring attunement Analyzing scale from current U.S. based sample (n = 405); promising findings to date

Piloting of scale with mentors in India-based sample and exploration of role of attunement in predicting match quality and potentially correlating with empathy Interest in ongoing cross-cultural work so field can use measure to screen and support mentors and staff Check in after workshop if curious! Wrap-Up Final questions and considerations

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