The Cold War and Canada - Helmer

Canada After the War The Returning Soldiers To be generous to its soldiers Canada passed the Veterans Charter in 1944 $1.2 billion was set aside to help them They could claim $100 for clothing,

10,000 life insurance $7.50 for each 30 days of service a private with 3 yrs service could collect about $500 1944-46 300,000 women (25% of Canada After the War About The Returning Soldier Many had difficulty adjusting to civvy street (Reflected in magazine fiction) Tension year after war record in marriages and divorces. By 1947 the divorce rate began to decline Reaction - More importance placed on traditional gender roles Idealized image of normal family life a

middle class illusion (by 1951 25% of women worked outside the home) Canada After the War The Baby Boom 1946-1955 3.9 million babies; By 1961 6.7 million (Total 1961 - 18,238,247)

By end of the boom (1964) 9/10 born in hospitals (Previous generation largely born at home (From 1/5 just after the war) Whats new - child psychologists, public health nurses 100s of books, articles, radio shows focus on how to raise children well Trend to permissiveness (from 1900s sternness) for fear of harming childs mental health On a separate piece of paper I want you to write down 3-5 points describing what you see. THE COLD WAR AND CANADA

Mrs. Helmer - JHSS ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR The Cold War would dominate global affairs from 1945 until the breakup of the USSR in 1991 After being Allies during WWII, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. soon viewed each

other with increasing suspicion Their political differences created a climate of icy tension = THE COLD WAR SUSPICIONS DEVELOPED DURING THE WAR ISSUES

Even during the war, the two nations disagreed on many issues The U.S. was furious that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had been an ally of Hitler for a time Stalin was upset that the U.S. had kept Man in the Mask In September 1945, Igor Gouzenko, a Russian clerk at the Soviet embassy in Ottawa left with several documents

hidden under his clothes, proving there was a soviet spy ring in Canada - His discovery helped ignite the Cold War in Canada Gouzenko Continued The spy ring was likely trying to discover the secrets of the atomic bomb, but the

Soviets had learned very little During WWII the US and the Soviet Union were allies Once the war was over, tensions between the two countries surfaced, and they soon became openly hostile to one another (US and USSR) The Cold War With the celebration of the end of WWII,

Canadians realized that they were going to be involved in another type of war The military strength of Soviet Union and the US made them superpowers each capable of massive destruction However, they did not fight a direct war with one another. Introduction Continued

Canada aligned itself with the US The basis of the Cold War lay in the different views that the US and the USSR had both politically and economically: The Soviets were Communist The US were Capitalists/Democratic This rivalry was known as the COLD WAR because it did not erupt into an open war, but it lasted over 40 years. Underlying Causes of the Cold War

1. Ideology There were 2 opposing systems of government 2. Economic The US wanted free trade on a global scale, the USSR feared that trade in the West would encourage a western influence and erode their strength (USSR scared) 3. Power Rivalry After WWII power was largely shared between the USSR and the US, as one wanted to dominate over the other conflicts arose = (power struggle between US and USSR) As a class

What are the differences between communism and capitalism? GAME TIME! (Rock Paper Scissors) Capitalism Land and capital ($) are privately owned Economic activity is regulated by buyers and sellers in a market economy Consumers are free to spend their income as

they wish Government intervention is minimal competition is key Communism Property is owned by the community rather than by the individual Seeks to establish a classless society with all people economically and socially

equal Government intervention should be minimal or non-existent Western countries were suspicious of communism and the Soviet Union was worried that the Western countries would try to invade their territory, through Europe via East Germany = The Red Scare The USSR took over the countries in

Eastern Europe and establish a communist government there The Red Scare was justified! 1949 Communists took over China The US took drastic measures to stop the spread of communism and put

US Senator Joseph McCarthy in charge Anyone suspected of being a communist or associating with one, could be persecuted, fired and black listed. = McCarthyism HUAC = The House

Committee on Un- Look at this photo and what do you notice? CHURCHILL: IRON CURTAIN ACROSS EUROPE Churchill, right, in Fulton, Missouri delivering his iron curtain speech, 1946 Europe was now

divided into two political regions; a mostly democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern Europe In a 1946 speech, Churchill said, An iron curtain has descended across the continent

The phrase iron curtain came to stand What is the Iron Curtain? Video clip speech from Winston Churchill The Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947 President Truman created the Truman Doctrine This was a policy of the US to free people were resisting being overthrown by outside pressure. For example it was first used in Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s and vowed to provide aid (money & military supplies)

$400 million had been given to Greece and Turkey The US would provide economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent the USSR from taking them over Satellite States? This was a concept established during

the Cold War The 6 countries mentioned previously controlled by the Soviet Union were known as satellite states The Soviet Union had complete control over the satellite states. The Division of Germany The Division Of Germany Berlin was divided into 4 sections as a result of post-war agreements (Germany divided into 2)

Berlin was in the Soviet portion of Germany, the Western countries were permitted access through East Germany But only on specific highways, railways and corridors The Berlin Blockade *** Take out your events chart! ***

Western powers introduced a new currency into East Germany Soviets refused to have this in Berlin Sothe Soviets decided to create a blockade, blocking the transportation corridors, so that supplies could not be sent to Berlin

The Berlin Airlift The Western countries (including Canada) decided to counter the blockade with a massive airlift = Transfer of supplies Supplies were being

transferred for 15 months by air Every 2 minutes a plane landed in Berlin with supplies In the end, the Soviets realized the blockade The Cold War at Home 1949 the leader of the Conservative

Party tried to make the spread of communism or the red menace or the Red Scare the term used to describe the communists an issue Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent refused to outlaw communism, such tactics were of dictatorships and not democracies Some Canadians feared the spread of Communism The Cold War at Home

Anyone who was suspicious may have been dismissed for no apparent reason The RCMP looked out for anyone that they feared may be a problem The Padlock Law was used to shut down suspicious organizations 1951 a bridge collapsed in Trois Rivieres and the communists were blamed for sabotage.

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