Teaching Science Vocabulary Conceptually

Teaching Science Vocabulary Conceptually Genise Orberson KYEDHH Conference 2012 Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. Vocabulary is the storehouse of word meanings that we draw on to comprehend what is said to us, express our thoughts, or interpret what we read.

Moats, 2005 Necessity of Content Vocabulary Instruction National Avg. with 20% below 2nd grade Research indicates that students who are D/HH experience delays in building their vocabulary knowledge, have smaller lexicons, acquire new words at a slower rate, and have a narrower range of contexts that result

in word learning. (Lederberg & Spencer, Necessity of Content Vocabulary Instruction Research and observation suggest a variety of reasons why students who are deaf or hard of hearing struggle to become fluent readers and writers. Five problems often cited are: obstructed access to the phonological code, limited fluency at the onset of formal schooling, inadequate literacy experiences in early childhood, delayed acquisition of vocabulary, and problems with lower-level skills.

(Luckner, et al, 2005) Goal of Science Vocabulary Instruction The goal of vocabulary instruction is for students to read (comprehend) science genre text and use appropriate terminology in their written explanations. Common Vocabulary Misconceptions

Definitions do the trick Weekly vocabulary lists are effective Teachers should teach all the hard words, especially those printed in bold or italics Latin and Greek roots are too difficult for young learners

Word learning cant be fun Vocabulary Exposure Every word if it pops up Define the word, once Introduce terms Vocabulary Instruction Emphasize and review critical terms Planned Multiple definitions

and opportunities for practice Explicit, Engaging, Extra Practice, Embeds literacy vs. Vocabulary Instruction Must be Explicit Preselect Critical Vocabulary

Teaching Whole to Part Text feature and glossary skills Utilize a variety of strategies Emphasis on item-specific rather than relational processing strategies reduce global understanding of text. (Richardson, et al, 1999) Strategy 1: Question of the Day

Daily homework Preview/Review vocabulary Text feature practice Organization skills, locating information Strategy 2: Vocabulary PowerPoint

Introduction Scaffolding Homework Reference Formative Assessment Strategy 3: Item/Card sorts

Classification is a science process skill Students can create their own categories and analyze relationships Provides insight into student thinking Collaboration Try again Strategy 4: Justified Lists

Big concepts Identify misconceptions Example: Which of these are organisms? Strategy 5: Word Wall or Folder Picture representation

For a chapter or unit Older students could find or draw pictures Or make a poster for each unit or chapter Ecosystem s Vocabulary 3rd Grade Strategy 9: Chaining & Sandwiching

Chaining and sandwiching bridge the sign with the print or fingerspelling and need to be a regular part of classroom instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. (Padden and Ramsey, 1998) Chaining can include speech or visual Strategy 10:

Semantic Association Sacred cow in deaf education Protons have a positive charge Neutrons have no charge Electrons have a negative charge Human Cell Models Strategy 11: Semantic Maps /Graphic Organizers

Show the big picture Summarizes big concepts on one paper Excellent resource for homework, notes Strategy 11: Semantic Maps /Graphic Organizers

Show relationships between words and concepts Strategy 11: Semantic Maps /Graphic Organizers Show a process (Mitosis) Students add labels and a brief description Strategy 11: Semantic

Maps /Graphic Organizers List, Group, Label Strategy 11: Semantic Maps /Graphic Organizers Vocabulary knowledge rating scale Elementary Resource

Strategy 12: Guided Notes Can be fill in the blank, draw a picture Foldables Strategy 13: Word Study

Helps students recognize the difference between words that look similar in print (fraction and friction) Distinguish scientific meaning vs. every day use of the word (work) Teaching key prefixes and suffixes bio = life prefix

meaning example a micro not tiny endo exo hetero within outside

different homo hydro/a inter same water between abiotic microorganis m endothermic exothermic heterogeneou

s homogeneous hydrosphere interactions prefix meaning photo light trans therm epi

meteor qual quant solu example photosynthesi s Across transpiration Heat thermometer above epicenter weather

Meteorologist characteristic qualitative data how much quantitative dissolve insoluble suffix asis ist meaning example

condition homeostasis someone dentist who specializes in ology study of geology synthesis put together photosynthesi make s ular of, cellular resembling

ism condition parasitism mea pass through permeate Vocabulary Instruction Must be Engaging Begin with student ideas Promote independent work

Vocabulary Dash & other games Mix it up Geologic Time Answers middle/late history early history

hard body homo sapiens dinosaurs soft body 570 millions years Paleozoic

Mesozoic Cenozoic Precambrian 4.6 billion years 225 million years 65 million years Vocabulary Instruction Must Be Engaging Behaviors such as learned helplessness can be minimized when teachers use the following techniques: give students more opportunities to respond to questions (more opportunities to be right) and provide praise, praise the process, and model how to deal with difficult tasks (by

thinking aloud). (Sutherland & Singh, 2004) Vocabulary Instruction Includes Extra Practice Humans understand words in a sequence of stages: (1) unknown, (2) acquainted, (3) established.

(Armbruster, et al, 2003) Creating Models and Diagrams Rephrase definitions Formative assessments Vocabulary hangman Teaching Atomic Structure

What is a model? notes Diagram on the board with colored magnets or markers Floor model Worksheet (definitions and diagram) Using the periodic table M&M models - independently Atomic particles worksheet Individual sticker models A Helpful Resource Vocabulary Instruction Embeds Literacy

Question of the Day Anticipation Guides Use science genre (leveled) text Science Journal prompts Teaching Text Features Self Assessment Scientific Explanations: Claim, Evidence,

Reasoning (Michaels, et al, Vocabulary Instruction Embeds Literacy Model the skills of summarization: Identify the main information Delete trivial information Delete redundant information Relate the main idea and supporting information (Pressley, et al, 1995) Reading Process for

Scientific Literature 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Possess the ability to read scientific or scientifically related texts Recognize the salient science Identify sources of uncertainty and methodological flaws Distinguish observations from inferences, arguments from explanations, and claims from evidence

Judge the validity of claims (previous research and potential bias of researcher) Instruction with Authenticity Newman (2001) drives for authentic pedagogy where (1) students use their prior knowledge to address real problems/tasks, (2) the skills and standards match that of true professionals, and (3) the tasks have value beyond school or connections beyond the classroom.

NGSS Science & Engineering Practices Asking questions & defining problems Developing & using models Planning & carrying out investigations

Analyzing & interpreting data Using mathematics information & computer technology, & computational thinking Constructing explanations & designing solutions Engaging in argument from evidence Obtaining, evaluating, & communicating information Bibliography Chang, M. (2006). Science graphic organizers & mini-lessons. New York, New York: Scholastic. Daily skill builders science and technology grades 3-4. (2004). Portland, ME: Walch. Frazee, M. (n.d.). List-Group-Label | Classroom Strategies | Reading Rockets. Reading Comprehension & Language Arts Teaching Strategies for Kids | Reading Rockets. Retrieved July 5, 2012, from http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies

Howell, J. J., & Luckner, J. (2003). Helping one deaf student develop content literacy skills: An action research report. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 25(1), 23-27. Keeley, P. (2008). Science formative assessment 75 practical strategies for linking assessment, instruction, and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Luckner, J., & Cooke, C. (2010). A summary of the vocabulary research with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 155(1), 38-67. Luckner, J., Sebald, A., Cooney, J., III, J. Y., & Mur, S. G. (2005). An examination of the evidence-based literacy research in deaf education. American Annals of the Deaf, 150(5), 443-456. Bibliography Marschark, M. (2003). Interactions of language and cognition in deaf learners: from research to practice. International Journal of Audiology, 42, 41-48. Michaels, S., Shouse, A., & Schweingruber, H. (2008). Ready, set, science! Putting research to work in K-8 science classrooms. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.

Padak, N., Bromley, K., Rasinski, T., & Newton, E. (2012). Vocabulary: five common misconceptions. Strong Readers All, 69. Retrieved July 12, 2010, from http://www.readingrockets.org/blog/52186 Padden, C., & Ramsey, C. (1998). Reading ability in signing deaf children. Topics in Language Disorders, 18(4), 30-47. Palmer, D. (2005). A motivational view of constructivist-informed teaching. International Journal of Science Education, 27(15), 1853-1881. Science Interactions Course 3. (1995). Columbus, Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill. Splitter, L. (2008). Authenticity and constructivism in education. Springer Science and Business Media, 28, 135-151.

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