Style Tutorial - University of West Georgia

Style Tutorial Chicago/Turabian Mental Condition of the Student What disciplines use this style? History Art Philosophy Business Communications General Concerns

Formatting Issues Internal Citations/Footnotes Bibliography Credible Sources Step One: Student Questions The first thing to do in any tutorial is to discover what the student needs and answer his/her questions. Typical questions: Is my format correct? How do I ____________? Incorporate parenthetical citations Create footnotes

Etc. Are my footnotes correct? Is my bibliography set up right? Content We cannot help with subject content, but we can help with the structure of the students argument. Make sure that the student understands that if they prioritize formatting or style concerns, there will not be much time left in the tutorial to address content concerns or structure issues.

Step Two: Answering Concerns Formatting: Margins: 1 inch Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt. Courier, 12 pt. Paragraph: Double space

Header: Page numbers start on the second page with page number two (2). Headings (below directly from Purdue OWL) Chicago has an optional system of five heading levels. Chicago Headings Level Format 1. Centered, Boldface or Italic

Type, Headline-style Capitalization 2. Centered, Regular Type, Headlinestyle Capitalization 3. Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 4. Flush left, roman type, sentencestyle capitalization 5. Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentencestyle capitalization, terminal period. Quotations Block quotes: Formatted like APA, but block quotes start at 100

words or moreor at least eight lines. Capitalizations: Capitalize the first word in a direct quote. Do not capitalize a direct quotation when it is blended into the main sentence (Houghton 2008, 16). Above citation is an example of Turabian Author-Date Style. Full citation would be found in a reference list: Houghton, Peggy M. 2008. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Easy Way. Flint, MI: Baker College. Ellipses: Omissions are indicated using ellipses free of

brackets. Parenthetical Citations: Chicago Author-Date Style Full source following quote: Ex: (Robert K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods [Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2003], 83). Ex: As stated in Yins Case Study Research: Design and Methods (SAGE Publications, 2003), the design of the study is extremely important. Ibid: Used [to replace the] bibliographic information in the second

parenthetical reference if the passage is from the same source and is cited closely to the first (Peggy M. Houghton, The Chicago Manual of Style: The Easy Way [Flint, MI: Baker College, 2008], 20). Ex: (ibid., 85) Bibliography: Title the Bibliography References Bibliography Style: Chicago (below direct examples from CSM: The East Way) Paraphrase in text: In the military, publicly berating a subordinate in order to achieve positive behavioral change is

accepted.1 Footnote: 1. Anthony J. Bonanno, Argumentative Strategies in the Military, (Chicago: Sinclair Books, 2008), 212. Bibliography: Bonanno, Anthony J. Argumentative Strategies in the Military. Chicago: Sinclair Books, 2008. Bibliography Style: Turabian (below direct examples from style manual): Quote in text: He concludes that being a person is not a pat formula, but a quest, a mystery, a leap of faith.1

Footnote: 1. Jaron Lanier, You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto (New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2010), 5. If cited again, source information can be shortened: 5. Lanier, Not a Gadget, 133-34. Bibliography: Lanier, Jaron. You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. Bibliography

(Below from Purdue OWL) Leave two blank lines between Bibliography or References and your first entry. Leave one blank line between remaining entries. List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry. Use and, not an ampersand, &, for multi-author entries. For two to three authors, write out all names. For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first authors name plus et al. in notes and parenthetical citations.

When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. Write out publishers names in full. Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable. If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation n.d. Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.). For further examples

Chicago: The Easy Way A Writers Resource

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