Standardized Certification Training Module

COMMON TURFGRASS WEEDS AND INSECTS Lesson 3 of In-Person Educational Module Learning Objectives 2 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify plant species suited for site-specific environmental qualities, pest pressure and use Identify and describe how to

manage common turfgrass weeds Identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass insect pests Identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass IPM for Lawn and Turfgrass 3 IPM for lawns and turf includes: Site assessment Monitoring Prevention Management Evaluation of practices Components of an IPM Program on School Grounds

4 Promoting turfgrass health: Select grass species Prepare the site Cultural care Consider the use of the turf when selecting cultivars Selecting Turfgrass 5 1. 2. 3. 4. Select a suitable turfgrass seed mix Grasses with disease resistance are

generally only resistant to one disease Certain grasses containing endophytes can prevent outbreaks of above-ground insect pests Select grass types that tolerate the level of play Turfgrass Identification University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences 6 Seedhe ad Sheath Blade

Ligule Auricles Node Midrib StolonTiller Collar Bud Leaf Crown Rhizom e Roots comprise almost half of the entire grass plant Turfgrass Selection

Kentucky Bluegrass 9 Perennial Ryegrasses Tall Fescue Fine Fescue Growth habit Rhizomatous Bunch Bunch Bunch, some rhizomes Leaf texture Medium-Fine (blade width) Medium

Course Very Fine Establishme nt from seed Slow Fast Medium-Fast Medium Seeding rate 1 to 2 lb./1,000 ft.2 5 to 9

lb./1,000 ft.2 5 to 9 lb./1,000 ft.2 3 to 5 lb./1,000 ft.2 Annual nitrogen fertilizer 3 to 4 lb./1,000 ft.2 2 to 4 lb./1,000 ft.2 2 to 4 lb./1,000 ft.2 1 to 2

lb./1,000 ft.2 Drought tolerance Poor Poor Some Some Shade tolerance (min. 4 hours direct sun) Poor Poor

Good Excellent Census Regions and Division of the United States - Inks 8 Examples of Turfgrass Species North Central 9 Turfgrass Characteristics Grass species Kentucky bluegrass Supina bluegrass Perennial ryegrass

Tall fescue Fine fescue Preferred environment Well drained, sunny areas High nutrient and water requirements Sun to dense shade High nutrient and water requirements Well drained soils Moderate fertility and water requirement Well drained soils Open sunny areas. Low fertility requirement Cool, dry, well drained, shade Examples of Turfgrass Species Northeastern 10

Turfgrass Characteristics Grass species Kentucky bluegrass Fine fescue Preferred environment Sunny, well drained Cool, dry, well drained, shade tolerant, well drained Perennial ryegrass Well drained, moderate fertility Tall fescue Sun and shade

Examples of Turfgrass Species Western 11 Turfgrass Characteristics Grass species Kentucky bluegrass Supina bluegrass Bermudagrass (southwestern) Perennial ryegrass Tall fescue Preferred environment Sunny, well drained High elevation Sun to dense shade

High nutrient requirements Sunny, tolerates most soil conditions High fertility requirement Low medium elevation Well drained, moderate fertility Sun and shade Examples of Turfgrass Species Pacific Northwest 12 Turfgrass Characteristics Grass species Kentucky bluegrass Fine fescue Preferred environment Sunny, well

Drained Recovery slow in late fall Cool, dry, well drained, shade tolerant, well drained Perennial ryegrass Well drained, moderate fertility, sunny Tall fescue Sun and shade Examples of Turfgrass Species Southern 13 Turfgrass Characteristics Grass species

Bermudagrass Zoysiagrass Centipede Preferred environment Sunny, tolerates most soil conditions Sun to moderate Shade Recovery is slow Sunny, tolerates low pH conditions Tall fescue Sun and shade Fine fescue Cool, dry, well drained, shade tolerant, well drained

Managing Turf Weeds 14 Keep turfgrass healthy to out-compete weeds Use certified seed for overseeding Soil pH can be a huge factor in turf health Avoid fertilizer applications when annual weed seeds may be germinating Establish weed population thresholds by zone Low visibility, low

maintenance zones can tolerate more weeds Weed Monitoring: The Transect Method 15 Randomly choose a series of transects Walk each transect, stop after 20 paces and record the presence/absence of weeds in a 3x3 foot area Estimate the percentage of area covered by weeds in each 3x3' sample and calculate

Common Turfgrass Weeds: Northeast 16 Weeds Velvetleaf Common ragweed Common lambsquarters Hairy galinsoga Eastern black nightshade Common chickweed Giant foxtail Yellow foxtail Large crabgrass Yellow nutsedge Common Chickweed - John D. Byrd, Mississippi State University, bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Weeds: Midwest 17

Weeds Bull thistle Canada thistle Carolina geranium Chicory Common purslane Curly dock Large crabgrass Mouseear chickweed Common mallow Perennial sowthistle Bull thistle Eric Coombs, Oregon Department of Agriculture, bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Weeds: Pacific Northwest 18

Weeds Annual bluegrass Buttercup Chickweed Clover Crabgrass White clover Moss Plantain Thistles Red sorrel White clover - Tim Miller, Washington State University Common Turfgrass Weeds: South 19 Weeds Dallisgrass Bahiagrass

Annual bluegrass Spurge Chickweed Crabgrass Dandelion Common chickweed Ohio State Weed Lab Archive, The Ohio State University Identify, Monitor, Manage Turfgrass Weeds 20 Annual Weed Species Summer annual weeds Germinate in spring

Mature during summer Die by fall or winter Herbicides applied as pre-emergents in the spring Winter annual weeds Germinate in the fall and winter Grow actively in spring Die by summer Identify, Monitor, Manage Turfgrass Weeds 21 Biennial weeds

Perennial weeds Grow during the spring, summer and fall of their first year Survive the following winter Produce seed in the second growing season Live more than two years Spread by seeds and vegetative means If herbicides are needed use fall Site Selection and Preparation

22 Get difficult perennial weeds under control before planting Irrigate the site before planting to allow weed seeds on site to germinate before grass seed is planted Poor sites for turfgrasses: Sites with limited water Less than four to six hours of direct sunlight Minimal nutrients Identifying and Monitoring Turfgrass Insects 23 Insect pests vary by

region Monitor and record data on pests Masked chafers (white grubs) - University of California IPM, http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu Common Turfgrass Pests: Northeast 24 Insects Beetle grubs Sod webworms Chinch bugs Billbugs Cutworms Army cutworm - Frank Peairs,

Colorado State University, Bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Pests: Intermountain West 25 Insects Billbugs Chinch bug Banks grass mite Leafhoppers Beet leafhopper G. Oldfield, USDA, Bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Pests: Midwest 26 Insects White grubs

Billbugs Sod webworm Aphids Crickets Field Cricket Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org Common Turfgrass Pests: Pacific Northwest 27 Insects European cranefly White grubs Chinch bug Billbugs European Common Turfgrass Pests: Gulf Coast 28

Insects Armyworms Red imported fire ants Grasshoppers Mole crickets Southern chinch bugs Tropical sod Mole cricket Common Turfgrass Pests: South 29 Insects Fire ants Chinch bugs Spittlebugs Sugarcane beetles Henbit Spurges

Twolined spittlebug Clemson University, USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series, Bugwood.org Managing Turfgrass Insect Pests 30 Healthy turf rarely requires insecticide treatment Insect pest problems are often limited to small areas of turf that have cultural issues: pH

Fertility Drainage Root growth Overwatering Managing Turfgrass Insect Pests 31 In regions affected by grubs, avoid planting roses, grapes or oaks Grub-infested turf suffers root loss, increasing irrigation needs Avoid excessive night lighting which can attract beetles Managing Turfgrass Insect Pests 32

Dethatching reduces chinch bug activity Consider grass cultivars that contain endophytes for areas with chinch bug, billbug, cutworm or sod webworm If insecticides are needed, irrigate and remove thatch first to draw grubs up Treat affected spots only Chinch Bugs 33

Reach peak populations during high heat Dry turf is particularly susceptible Particularly susceptible turf: Kentucky bluegrass Perennial and annual ryegrass Tall and fine fescue St. Augustine grass Chinch bugs feed on grass blades and can cause damage at high densities Ohio State University Extension White Grubs 34

Turf damage can peak in late summer Managing Grubs 35 Use a shovel to determine the number of grubs per square foot before initiating any treatment Establish action threshold levels Square foot of turf removed David Shetler, Ohio State University White Grubs

36 White grubs are typically one of the following species: Japanese beetle June beetle European chafer Asian garden beetle Oriental beetle May-June beetle white grubs Asiatic garden beetle Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org Northern masked chafer Creative Commons License

Black turfgrass ataenius beetle Billbug 37 Billbug larvae tunnel through plants while feeding on the stem Late June through early August Signs of damage include spotty, straw-colored patches of grass

Billbug David Shetlar, Ohio State University, Bugwood.org Identifying Turfgrass Vertebrates 38 Pocket gophers Prairie dogs Meadow voles Moles Rabbits and hares Ground squirrels Deer Collared peccary (Javelina) Javelina Monitoring and Managing Turfgrass Vertebrate Pests

39 Vertebrate pests can harm turfgrass looking for pests to eat Monitor for signs of vertebrate activity Check In! 40 This lesson you learned: 1. How to identify plant species suited for a sites environmental qualities, pest pressures and use 2. How to identify and describe how to

manage common turfgrass weeds 3. How to identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass insect pests 4. How to identify and describe how to manage common turfgrass vertebrate pests Resources 41 Insect Images. (2010). Lawn and Turf. Retrieved from http://www.bugwood.org/ Iowa State University. (2010). Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/info/plant-diseases/turf-grass-rust

Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry. School IPM. Retrieved from http://www.maine.gov/dacf/php/integrated_pest_management/school /index.shtml Rutgers Cooperative Extension. IPM Report Card for School Grounds: General Requirements. Retrieved from http://entomology.osu.edu/schoolipm/IPMfiles/ReportCardGeneral.pdf Texas A&M Agrilife Extension. Landscape IPM Module 6. Retrieved from http://schoolipm.tamu.edu/videodvd/ Umass Extension Center for Agriculture. Best Management Practices For Lawn and Landscape Turf. Retrieved from

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