Speciation and Distribution of Atmospheric Mercury ...

Overview of Mercury Measurements in East Asia and over the North Pacific Ocean Guey-Rong Sheu Department of Atmospheric Sciences National Central University Jhong-Li, Taiwan Anthropogenic Hg Emissions in 2010 Country Cambodia China Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Mongolia

Philippines Singapore Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Emission (tonnes) 3.9 575.2 78.2 17.2 7.1 1.3 6.1 6.9 33.1 0.9

5.5 14.9 11.6 (UNEP, 2013) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec http://maps.geog.umd.edu/ Biomass Burning Hg Emissions in 2005 SEAS + EQAS = 249 Mg Hg/year Friedli et al., 2009

Distribution of Atmospheric Hg Concentrations and Deposition Fluxes: Modeling Results Corbitt et al., 2011 Costa et al., 2012 Selin et al., 2007 Mercury Speciation in the Marine Boundary over the North Pacific Ocean (Laurier et al., 2003) GEM and RGM were measured using Tekran 2537A/1130 aboard a cruise from Osaka, Japan to Honolulu, Hawaii between May 1 and June 4, 2002.

GEM ranged between 1.6 and 4.7 ng m-3 with an average of 2.5 ng m-3. RGM ranged between 0.15 and 92.4 pg m-3 with an average of 9.5 pg m-3. A distinct diurnal variation in RGM concentrations with maxima at midday suggests a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM in the marine boundary layer over the North Pacific Ocean. Enhanced RGM formation could be related to halogen chemistry. Mercury Speciation at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan (Chand et al., 2008)

GEM, RGM and PHg were measured using Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 at the Cape Hedo Observatory between March 23 and May 2, 2004. Mean values of GEM, RGM and PHg were 2.04 ng m-3, 4.5 pg m-3, and 3.0 pg m-3, respectively. In Asian outflow, most mercury export in the MBL is due to the GEM form, and direct outflow of RGM and PHg is low. RGM showed a diurnal cycle with a peak near local noon, suggesting photochemically driven oxidation of GEM. Air from China has a higher GEM concentration compared to the air coming from southern Japan.

On-going Hg Monitoring Sites in Japan Sites Organizations Hg speciation (GEM, GOM, PHg) In air Cape Hedo (Background) MOEJ and NIES Continuous ( by Tekran ) Minamata

(City) NIMD Manual sampling 1 week a month Fukuoka (Urban) NIMD Continuous ( by Tekran ) TGM Hg in

precipitation Wet-only Weekly Continuous Wet-only Weekly Wet-only Weekly Since, Jun. 2013 (Courtesy of Dr. Kohji Marumoto) Mercury Speciation in Seoul, Korea (Kim et al., 2009)

TGM was measured using Tekran 2537A, whereas RGM and PHg were measured manually, in Seoul between Feb. 2005 and Feb. 2006. Mean values of TGM, RGM and PHg were 3.22 ng m-3, 27.2 pg m-3, and 23.9 pg m-3, respectively. RGM and PHg were higher in daytime than at because of high photochemical activity. Long-range transport episodes with air from China has a higher TGM concentration compared to that of local episodes. Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring Network of Korea Objective

- To monitor the atmospheric mercury concentration levels in Korea - To evaluate the long-range transports of mercury between nations Status - Started from 2009 and currently operated at 12 sites to monitor TGM. -

Operated by KECO (Korean Environmental Cooperation) and data are reported to NIER - Extended to the monitoring of wet mercury deposition at all sites and the monitoring of speciated mercury at 4 sites until 2015. TGM monitoring methods - Instrument : Teckran 2537 - Sampling frequency : Every 5 mins.

- Frequency of data report : Every 2 hours (Courtesy of Dr. Young-Hee Kim) Mercury Speciation at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station in Taiwan (Sheu et al., 2010) Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) LABS LABS is located atop Mt. Front Lulin in central

Taiwan, with an elevation of 2862 m above sea level. GEM, RGM and PHg have been measured using Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 at the LABS since April 13, 2006. Summary of Atmospheric Hg in 2006/04-2013/11 GEM (ng m-3) RGM (pg m-3) PHg (pg m-3)

Mean 1.6 18.2 2.6 S.D. 0.4 14.8 4.0 GEM is the dominant atmospheric Hg species measured at LABS,

constituting on average 98.7% of the total atmospheric Hg. Average GEM (1.6 ng m-3) is within the Northern Hemisphere background value of 1.5-1.7 ng m-3 at sea level. However, about 30% of the GEM is greater than 2 ng m-3, suggesting sources other than the background atmosphere are influencing the background station. Diurnal Distribution of Hg and Other Chemicals Concentrations of CO, PM10 and WV mixing ratio all exhibited diurnal patterns similar to that of GEM. On the other hand, O3 concentrations showed diurnal pattern similar to that of RGM. Upslope movement of boundary layer air in daytime and subsidence of free tropospheric air at night resulted in these diurnal patterns.

RGM and Humidity 07/14-21/2014 2013 Seasonal Pattern of Nighttime GEM Spring Summer Fall Winter 2007/03 MODIS fire detection

LABS is the only site to observe Hg from anthropogenic emissions from China and biomass burning from Indochina Peninsula. Correlation between GEM and CO April 2007 July 2007 Oct. 2007 Good GEM/CO correlations were observed in non-summer months, indicating influence of anthropogenic emission sources. GEM seasonal pattern, backward trajectory analysis and GEM/CO correlations indicated that air mass origins plays an important

role in determining the GEM levels. These results also demonstrate the significance of East Asian Hg emissions and their long-range transport to downwind regions. Source-Receptor Relatioship: Concentration-Weighted Trajectory Wet and Dry Deposition Fluxes in 2010 Location Site Type GEM

RGM PHg Wet Reference LABS, Taiwan Mountain 58.8 10.6 0.1

33.7 This study AMNet, USA Rural/urban 13-35 0.3-7.8 0.1-0.8 6-12.6 Zhang et al. 2012 Unit: g m-2

Summary Location Site Type Cruise over NPO Cape Hedo, Japan Seoul, Korea LABS, Taiwan Ocean Ocean Urban Mountain GEM RGM

PHg (ng m-3) (pg m-3) (pg m-3) 2.5 9.5 2.0 4.5 3.0 3.2 27.2 23.9 1.6 18.2 2.6 Higher atmospheric mercury concentrations at urban sites than in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere. RGM levels peak at noon at surface sites, likely due to in situ photochemical production. However, RGM peaks at

night or in the early morning at high-elevation sites as a result of transport from higher altitudes. Lack of atmospheric mercury measurements in SE Asia. Contact: [email protected] w

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