What gets on your nerves? STIMULUS Any change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react. EX:
A soccer ball comes zooming toward you. EX: A friend tells you a funny joke. EX: You touch a hot stove. How do you react? RESPONSE What
your body does in reaction to the stimulus. EX: You kick the soccer ball toward the goal. EX: You laugh at the joke. EX: You scream, pull your hand away, hop
around, and shake your arm. VOLUNTARY VS. INVOLUNTARY RESPONSES VOLUNTARY Body chooses to respond to the stimulus.
EX: Choose to kick the ball, choose to not answer the phone when a friend calls. INVOLUNTARY Body
automatically responds to the stimulus. EX: heart beats, salivate when something yummy is
put in front of you, wrinkle your nose when you smell something stinky. HOMEOSTASIS The process by which an organisms internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the
external environment. The nervous system helps maintain homeostasis by directing the body to respond appropriately to the information it receives. EX:
When you are hungry, your nervous system directs you to eat. This action maintains homeostasis by supply your body with energy it needs. The Three Functions Of The Nervous System Receive information
1. RECEIVES INFORMATION Your body checks conditions outside of the body and inside the body. SENSES help monitor changes and keeps
the body informed externally. Nerves also receive information of changes happening internally. Respond to information voluntary involuntary
2. RESPOND TO INFORMATION Any change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react to a stimulus. Body
(Brain) voluntarily or involuntarily chooses to react to the stimulus. Maintain homeostasis 3. MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS The nervous system maintains
homeostasis by directing the body to respond appropriately to the information it receives. EX: Keeping body temp., glucose levels, and blood pressure regulated. HOW IS A STIMULUS AND
RESPONSE TRASMITTED? NERVE CELLS NEURONS! A cell that carries information through your nervous system.
The message that a neuron carries is called a nerve impulse. The neuron Dendrites
Dendrites axon axon Cell body and Cell body and nucleus nucleus Dendrites
DENDRITE Thread-like Carries extensions on a cell body. impulses toward the cell body. Impulse
will be transmitted from the dendrite, to the cell body, and down the axon. axon AXON Carries All
impulses away from the cell body. nerves cells have ONE axon. The end of the axon is an AXON TIP. The
AXON TIP transmits the piece of information to the next nerve cell. Each neuron can have one or more axon tip. PATH OF NERVE IMPULSE (STIMULUS/RESPONSE)
SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON MOTOR NEURON SENSORY NEURON
Picks up stimulus from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse. The impulse travels along the sensory neurons until it hits an INTERNEURON.
EX: Nerve receptors (dendrites) in ears pick up the sound of the phone ringing. The stimulus is converted to a nerve impulse that travels to the interneuron. INTERNUERON From
the sensory neurons, the nerve impulse passes to interneurons in the brain. The brain interprets the impulses from many interneurons. EX: The interneurons make you realize the phone is ringing. Your brain decided that
you should answer the phone. MOTOR NEURONS The message from the brain travels from the INTERNEURON to the MOTOR NEURON. The
motor neurons send the impulses (message) to the muscles to carry out the response. EX: Your muscles walk you to the ringing phone, you pick up the phone, and say hello? Path of a nerve impulse
Sensory neuron Stimulus Response Motor neuron interneuron
PATH OF A NERVE IMPULSE How does the nerve impulse cross the gap between the axon tip and the next neuron? The axon tips release chemicals that enable the impulse to cross the gap at the synapse.
Synapse SYNAPSE Space between each axon tip and the next dendrite.
Chemical messengers cross this space to pass the message to the next nerve cell. REACTION TIME The
time it takes for a message to travel along your nerve pathways beginning from picking up the stimulus to the delivery of the response
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