Ch. 9 Motivation: Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed

Ch. 9 Motivation: Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed Teams INTRINSIC REWARDS *The Value of Motivation Intrinsic Rewards: Personal satisfaction felt for a * job well done. Kinds of Intrinsic Rewards: - Pride in your performance - Sense of achievement 10-2

EXTRINSIC REWARDS Extrinsic Rewards: Something given as a *The Value of Motivation * recognition of good work. Kinds of Extrinsic Rewards: - Pay Raises - Promotions - Awards 10-3 FREDERICK TAYLOR: FATHER of SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT *

Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management * LG1 Scientific Management Studying workers to determine the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching those techniques. Three Key Elements to Increase Productivity 1. Time 2. Methods of Work 3. Rules of Work 10-4 TAYLORS FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES

* Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management LG1 * 1. Study how a job is performed. Gather time & motion information. Check different methods. 2. Codify the best method into rules. 3. Choose workers whose skill matches the rules. 4. Establish a fair level of performance and pay. 10-5

TIME-MOTION STUDIES * Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management * LG1 Time-Motion Studies: Studies of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task. Led to the development of the Principle of Motion Economy: Every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions; developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.

10-6 HAWTHORNE STUDIES: PURPOSE AND RESULTS * Elton Mayo and the Hawthorne Studies LG2 * Researchers studied worker efficiency under different levels of light. (Elton Mayo, Harvard) Productivity increased regardless of light condition. Researchers decided it was a human or psychological factor at play.

Hawthorne Effect: People act differently when they know they are being studied. 10-7 MASLOWS THEORY of MOTIVATION * Motivation and Maslows Hierarchy of Needs LG3 * Hierarchy of Needs: Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social and

esteem needs to self-actualization needs. Needs that have already been met do not motivate. If a need is filled, another higher-level need emerges. 10-8 MASLOWS HIERARCHY of NEEDS * Motivation and Maslows Hierarchy of Needs LG3 * 10-9

HERZBERGS MOTIVATING FACTORS *Herzbergs Motivating Factors LG4 * Herzbergs research centered on two questions: - What factors controlled by managers are most effective in increasing worker motivation? - How do workers rank jobrelated factors in order of importance related to motivation? 10-10 JOB CONTENT

*Herzbergs Motivating Factors LG4 * Herzberg: Found that job content factors were most important to workers. Workers like to feel they contribute to the company. Motivators: Job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction. 10-11 JOB ENVIRONMENT *Herzbergs

Motivating Factors LG4 Job environment factors maintained satisfaction but did not motivate employees. * Hygiene Factors: Job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased. 10-12 * HERZBERGS MOTIVATORS and Herzbergs HYGIENE FACTORS Motivating Factors LG4

Motivators Hygiene Factors Work itself Company policy and administration Achievement Recognition Responsibility Supervision Working conditions Interpersonal relations Growth and advancement Salary, status and job

security * 10-13 * COMPARISON of the THEORIES Herzbergs of MASLOW and HERZBERG Motivating Factors LG4 * 10-14 THEORY X and THEORY Y *McGregors Theory X and

Theory Y * LG5 Douglas McGregor proposed managers had two different sets of assumptions concerning workers. Their attitudes about motivating workers was tied to these assumptions. McGregor called them Theory X and Theory Y. 10-15 ASSUMPTIONS of THEORY X MANAGERS *McGregors Theory X and Theory Y LG5

* Workers dislike work and seek to avoid it. Workers must be forced or threatened with punishment to get them to perform. Workers prefer to be directed and avoid responsibility Only effective motivators are fear and money. 10-16 ASSUMPTIONS of THEORY Y MANAGERS *McGregors Theory X and Theory Y LG5 *

People like work, its a part of life. Workers seek goals they are committed toward. Commitment to goals depends on perceived rewards. People can use creativity to solve problems. Intellectual capacity is only partially realized. People are motivated by a variety of rewards. 10-17 * GOAL-SETTING THEORY Goal-Setting Theory and Management by Objectives LG6 Goal-Setting Theory: Setting ambitious, but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve

performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated. * Management by Objectives (MBO): Involves a cycle of discussion, review and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors and employees. Managers formulate goals in cooperation with everyone. Monitor results and reward achievement. 10-18 EXPECTANCY THEORY in MOTIVATION * Goal-Setting Theory and Management by Objectives

* LG6 Expectancy Theory: The amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome. Employees ask: Can I accomplish the task? Whats my reward? Is the reward worth the effort? Expectations can vary from person to person. 10-19 * 5 CHARACTERISTICS of WORK Motivation Through Job

Enrichment LG7 Job Enrichment: A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself. Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy

Feedback * 10-20 TYPES of JOB ENRICHMENT * Motivation Through Job Enrichment * LG7 Job Enlargement: A job enrichment strategy that

involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment. Job Rotation: A job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another. 10-21 USING OPEN COMMUNICATION * Motivating Through Open Communication LG7 * Create a culture that rewards listening.

Train managers to listen. Use effective questioning techniques. Remove barriers to open communication. Ask employees whats important to them. 10-22 RECOGNIZING GOOD WORK *Recognizing a Job Well Done LG7 Raises are not the only ways to recognize an employees performance. Recognition can also include: * - Paid time off

- Flexible scheduling - Work from home opportunities - Paid child or elder care - Stock options or profit sharing - Company awards - Company events or teams 10-23 WORK WELL with OTHERS Keys for Productive Teamwork *Recognizing a Job Well Done LG7 * Have a common understanding of your task. Clarify roles and responsibilities. Set rules.

Get to know each other. Communicate openly and often. Source: Wall Street Journal Research, September 2007. 10-24 MOTIVATING ACROSS the GENERATIONS * Motivating Employees Across Generations * LG8 Baby Boomers (1946 1964)

- Experienced great economic prosperity, job security, optimism about their future Generation X (1965 1980) - Raised in dual-career families, attended day care, feeling of insecurity about jobs Generation Y or Millenials (1980 2000) - Raised by indulgent parents, used to many comforts like computers and cell phones 10-25 GENERATION X in the WORKPLACE * Motivating Employees Across Generations

* LG8 Desire economic security but focus more on career security more than job security. Good motivators as managers due to emphasis on results rather than work hours. Tend to be flexible and good at collaboration and consensus building. Very effective at giving employee feedback and praise. 10-26 GENERATION Y in the WORKPLACE * Motivating Employees Across

Generations LG8 * Tend to be impatient, skeptical, blunt and expressive. Are tech-savvy and able to grasp new concepts. Able to multi-task and are efficient. Highlight a strong sense of commitment. Place a high value on work-life balance. Fun and stimulation are key job requirements. 10-27 IN CONCLUSION *Progress Assessment * Why is it so important to understand motivation in

the workplace? Why is it important to adjust motivational styles to individual employees? Are there any general principles of motivation that todays managers should follow? 10-28

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