Engineering Ethics: The Basics Arthur E. Schwartz, CAE

Engineering Ethics: The Basics Arthur E. Schwartz, CAE Deputy Executive Director & General Counsel National Society of Professional Engineers Alexandria, Virginia [email protected] pg. 1 Engineering Ethics Among the universal ethical values are honesty, integrity, promise-keeping, fidelity,

fairness, respect for others, responsible citizenship, pursuit of excellence and accountability. Michael Josephson pg. 2 Engineering Ethics

Black and White Areas Easy Right vs. Wrong Gray Areas Tougher Right vs. Right Lesser of the Evils/Dilemma Other Factors Time/Money Family Career Reputation pg. 3 Engineering Ethics

Why Study Engineering Ethics? To Understand the Standards Governing What is Acceptable Behavior in the Practice of Engineering Why Practice Engineering Ethically?

Personal Injury/Property Damage Disciplinary Action Impact on Reputation, Employer, Clients, Profession Possible Loss of Job, Business, etc. pg. 4 Engineering Ethics All products of technology present some potential dangers, and thus engineering is an

inherently risky activityEngineering should be viewed as an experimental process. It is not, of course, an experiment conducted solely in a laboratory under controlled conditions. Rather, it is an experiment on a social scale involving human subjects Martin and Schinziger, Ethics in Engineering pg. 5 Engineering Ethics Engineering Ethics:

Among the Most Important Issues Facing the U.S. Engineering Profession - NAE Role of Media and Appearances/Perceptions Engineering as a Profession Growing Public Expectation of Engineer: Perfection vs. Reasonableness pg. 6 Engineering Ethics Professional Codes of Ethics A code of professional ethics results when a field

organizes itself into a profession. The resulting code is central to advising those professionals how to conduct themselves, to judge their conduct and to understand the profession. pg. 7 Engineering Ethics

Hierarchy of Ethical Obligations Primary: Ethical Obligations to the Public Secondary: Ethical Obligations to Employer or Client Tertiary: Ethical Obligations to Other Professionals and Other Parties pg. 8 Engineering Ethics

Three Basic Ethical Obligations (1) Public, (2) Employer/Client and (3) Other Professionals... Never Mutually Exclusive - Reciprocal Not A Zero Sum Game All Need To Be Considered At All Times Should Be Complementary to Integrated With One Another To The Fullest Extent Possible Ethical Integration = Professional Integrity pg. 9 Engineering Ethics

Seven Principles Impacting Each Obligation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Protecting The Public Health, Safety and Welfare Demonstrating Professional Competence Maintaining Objectivity/Truthfulness Addressing Conflict of Interest

Preserving Confidentiality Receiving and Providing Valuable Consideration Emerging Areas/Emerging Challenges pg. 10 Engineering Ethics 1. Protecting The Public Health, Safety and Welfare - Conformance with Applicable Standards - Approval/Signing and Sealing of Engineering Drawings - Responsible Charge/Responsible Control - Judgment Overruled - Awareness of Safety Violations

- Awareness of Illegal Practice pg. 11 Engineering Ethics 2. Demonstrating Professional Competence - Education, Experience, Qualifications - Acceptance of Assignment - Signing and Sealing of Work - Coordination of Work - Scope of Practice pg. 12

Engineering Ethics 3. Maintaining Objectivity/Truthfulness/NonDeception - Inclusion of All Relevant Information - Issuance of Public Statements - Disclosure to Interested Parties - Expression of Technical Opinions - Reviewing Work of Another - Sales and Marketing Practice pg. 13 Engineering Ethics 4. Addressing Conflicts of Interest -

Faithful Agent and Trustee Avoid vs. Disclosure Appearances Acceptance of Compensation from More Than One Party Serving on Public Bodies Accepting Contracts from Government Bodies Part-Time Engineering Work Contingent Fee Arrangements Representing Adversary Interests Consent pg. 14

Engineering Ethics 5. Preserving Confidentiality - Business or Technical Affairs of Employers/Clients - Proprietary Information/Files - Arranging for New Employment or Business Opportunities - Consent pg. 15 Engineering Ethics 6. Receiving and Providing Gifts and Other Valuable Consideration

- Accepting Consideration from Suppliers for Specifying Product - Accepting Commissions/Allowances Directly from Contractors - Political Contributions - Bribery pg. 16 Engineering Ethics 7. Emerging Areas/Emerging Challenges - Technology - Use of Internet and Electronic Practice - Sustainable Design/Development

- Environmental Considerations - Alternative Project Delivery - Integrated Project Delivery - Building Information Modeling - Design/Build pg. 17 Engineering Ethics The social responsibility of business is to increase profit within the bounds of the law which is to say, engage in open and free

competition, without deception or fraud Milton Friedman pg. 18 Engineering Ethics The reputation of a thousand years may be determined by the conduct of one hour Japanese proverb pg. 19

Engineering Ethics Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws Plato pg. 20 Engineering Ethics Always do the right thing this will gratify

some and astonish the rest Mark Twain pg. 21 Engineering Ethics A long habit of not thinking a thing wrong gives it a superficial appearance of being right Thomas Paine pg. 22

Engineering Ethics Internal Mechanisms Hotlines

Attempt to Resolve At Lowest Level/Earliest Point Take Advantage of Internal Procedures Do Not Circumvent Act in Good Faith Maintain Confidentiality Exhaust All Procedures Act Consistently With All Agreements Maintain Good Records/Keep a Log Understand the Implications of Your Actions pg. 23 Engineering Ethics

United State Army Core Values

Loyalty Duty Respect Selfless Service Honor Integrity Personal Courage Engineering Ethics "There may be times when we are powerless to prevent injustice, but there must never be a time when we fail to protest. - Elie Wiesel

Engineering Ethics Questions & Answers Arthur E. Schwartz, CAE Deputy Executive Director & General Counsel National Society of Professional Engineers Alexandria, Virginia [email protected] pg. 26

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