ARTILLERY AMMUNITION 1 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Learning Objectives Classify

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION 1 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Learning Objectives Classify artillery ammunition weapon bore, weapon system, filler, and use. Describe the types of artillery ammunition. Evaluate safety precautions inherent to artillery ammunition. Utilize the TM 43-0001-28, Artillery Ammunition Datasheets, to obtain technical information about artillery ammunition items. Recall general markings, color coding, and packaging specifications inherent to artillery ammunition. Describe the components and applications of artillery ammunition. ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery ammunition is designed for use in guns, howitzers, and mortars. Size designations for artillery ammunition range from 37MM through 280MM. Artillery ammunition items are designated by the

following FSCs: 1310 1315 1320 1390 Artillery ammunition can be classified according to weapon system (gun, howitzer, mortar), filler composition (explosive or chemical), 3 and military use (practice or service). ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Weapon Bore The diameter, or interior, of a weapon barrel is designated by the term weapon bore. A weapon bore may be characterized as smooth or rifled.

The barrel of a smooth weapon bore, as illustrated at bottom left, has a relatively flat, smooth surface. The size of the smooth bore weapon is simply its diameter (width of the barrel). A rifled weapon bore, as illustrated at bottom right, contains lands and grooves inside the weapon barrel. The lands are raised edges in the bore and the grooves are unraised edges. The size of a rifled bore weapon is measured by the diameter from land to land. 4 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Weapon Systems Weapon systems used with artillery ammunition include the following: Gun Howitzer

Mortar On the following pages, you will be provided with a brief description and example of each type of weapon system. 5 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Gun A gun is a cannon with a long barrel which fires projectiles at a low angle trajectory and high muzzle velocity. The bore of a gun can be smooth or rifled.

6 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Howitzer A howitzer is a cannon with a medium length barrel which fires projectiles at a moderately high angle trajectory and medium muzzle velocity. The bore of howitzer weapons are rifled. 7 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Mortar A mortar is a short tube, usually mounted on a tripod stand, which fires projectiles at a high angle trajectory and relatively short range.

60MM, 81MM, and 120MM mortar launchers are smooth bore weapons, while 4.2-inch is a rifled bore weapon. 8 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery ammunition may be classified according to military use as service, practice, dummy, or blank. Click each of the terms below for a definition. Service Artillery Ammunition is used in combat and in training. Practice Artillery Ammunition: Practice rounds contain a low explosive such as a propelling charge or spotting charge. The rounds are used for practice in firing a weapon. In most instances, practice ammunition simulates a service round in weight, configuration, and ballistic properties. Dummy artillery ammunition items are completely inert. They resemble actual artillery items; however, they are not designed for use in conjunction with delivery systems. Lack of internal, functional components makes dummy ammunition suitable for exhibits (i.e.,

permanent museum displays), for such training operations as assembly and handling, and for dry-run operations of weapons and weapon systems. Blank Artillery Ammunition: Similar to practice ammunition, blank ammunition rounds contain some type of low explosive and are used to simulate live fire. In certain artillery 9 weapons, Blanks are used for limited firing practice, maneuvers, and salutes. ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Filler Artillery ammunition may be classified by filler according to material composition such as chemical, explosive, or inert. Click each of the terms below for a definition.

Explosive-Filled Artillery Ammunition- Artillery ammunition items with explosive fillers typically consist of an explosive composition such as TNT or Composition B. Chemical-Filled Artillery Ammunition- Artillery ammunition items with chemical fillers typically consist of a chemical composition such as a screening smoke, incendiary (firecausing) agent, or lethal/incapacitating agent. Inert Artillery Ammunition- Inert items contain no explosive or chemical filler and are normally filled with sand, concrete, or plaster to simulate the actual weight of a service round. Artillery ammunition items classified as inert will be marked "Inert." 10 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery Ammunition Components

Artillery ammunition is composed of the following five general components, each depicted in the illustration below: Projectile Cartridge case Fuze

Propelling charge Primer 11 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Projectile The projectile is the component that is propelled from the weapon towards the intended target.

12 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Projectile Subcomponents The projectile body, as illustrated below, may have a combination of the following subcomponents: Ogive Bourrelet

Rotating Band Boat-tailed Base 13 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Ogive The ogive is the curved forward portion of a projectile. The curved shape of the ogive

provides a more aerodynamic shape and aids in cutting drag as the projectile travels to the target. 14 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Bourrelet The bourrelet is the raised (widest) portion of the projectile that rides on the lands of the weapon bore, thus a bourrelet would only be seen on ammunition used in rifled bore weapons. The bourrelet centers the front end of the projectile as it travels through the weapon. 15

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Rotating Band The rotating band is a cylindrical ring of soft metal (copper) designed to engage the grooves of the weapon bore, which impart spin to the projectile as it moves through the weapon bore. The rotating band also provides for obturation (sealing against the bore to prevent the release of propellant gases). The pressure that builds inside the bore from the propellant gases is what forces the projectile out of the weapon and towards the target. 16 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Boattail

The boattail is the rear portion of the projectile behind the rotating band to the base. The purpose of its distinctive shape is to decrease the vacuum at the base of the projectile as it flies through the air, lowering the drag and allowing for longer range. 17 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Types of Projectiles The type of projectile used for a specific military application depends on the intended purpose and potential target of the item.

High Explosive-High explosive or HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) projectiles can have an antipersonnel or anti-tank effect. They are filled with a high explosive (HE) filler and are intended to be detonated. Submunition- Submunition projectiles carry cargo (i.e. grenades or mines) that are to be ejected. They can have an anti-personnel or anti-tank effect. Submunitions are expelled with an expelling charge of either black powder or small arms propellant. Common submunitions are the ADAM (Aerial Denial Anti-Personnel Mine), RAAM (Remote AntiArmor Munition), and DPICM (Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munition). Chemical- Chemical projectiles may be loaded with a toxic, harassing, or smoke-producing agent. Of the smoke agents, white phosphorus (WP) is the most frequently used. WP projectiles are designed to produce heavy smoke and an incendiary effect. 18

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Types of Projectiles Cont. Rocket Assisted- Rocket Assisted Projectiles (RAP) are designed to extend the range of howitzer weapons. RAP are filled with HE material and produce blast and fragmentation in their target area. High Explosive Rocket Assisted (HERA) projectiles provide increased range and lethality. HERA projectiles consist of loaded TNT with a high fragmentation steel warhead. Practice (Inert)- Practice projectiles contain a low explosive such as a propelling charge and spotting charge and are not classified as inert. These are projectiles used for practice in firing a weapon and are not

used in combat. In most instances, practice projectiles simulate a service projectile in weight, configuration, and ballistic properties. Illuminating- Illuminating projectiles are used to illuminate a target area under conditions of reduced visibility. These projectiles are hollow and contain a payload consisting of a parachute and illuminant assembly. Once ejected, the parachute and burning illuminant assembly slowly descend, lighting the target area. 19 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Cartridge Case The cartridge case serves as the container for the propelling charge and houses the primer. Cartridge cases

can be made of steel, brass, or a combustible material. 20 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Fuze The fuze is the device used with a projectile to cause it to function. The fuze determines when and under what conditions a projectile will function. Artillery fuzes are an internal component for fixed ammunition or an external component assembled to the nose of a projectile as seen in semi-fixed, separate loading, and mortar ammunition.

21 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Propelling Charge The propelling charge propels the projectile from the weapon and is carefully designed for the particular role of the ammunition. There are several different configurations of propelling charges as listed below. Each will be explained in more detail in a later section. 1.Loose (or in a polyethylene or a polyethylene/rayon bag) in the cartridge case consisting of grains or sticks. The grains or sticks vary in size and configuration based upon the different types of artillery ammunition.

2.Small increments in sheets, bags, or combustible cases used with mortar ammunition. 3.Large bag charges or combustible charges. 22 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Primer The primer is the initiating component in an item that produces the flame to ignite the propellant. Primers used in artillery ammunition are classified according to their method of firing as either electric or

percussion. Electric primers are initiated by an electric current while percussion primers are initiated by the impact of a firing pin. 23 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Component/Type Summary You should now be able to identify and describe the major components of artillery ammunition. Specific to most components are subcomponents that better differentiate artillery ammunition items from one another.

We will now break down artillery ammunition into more specific categories, and in the remainder of this course, you will learn about mortar ammunition and fixed, semi-fixed, separate loading, and separated (Navy) ammunition. 24 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Mortar Artillery Ammunition Mortar artillery ammunition is different from other types of artillery ammunition because it is loaded into the muzzle end of the weapon when fired.

Mortar weapons are generally short-barreled weapons fired at a high trajectory. Mortars enable crews to fire at targets behind hills or in field fortifications such as foxholes and trenches. Mortar weapons systems are more portable than gun and howitzer weapons, which require large vehicles for transport. 25 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Size Classification Mortar ammunition is differentiated by the following size classifications: 60MM 81MM 120MM

4.2-inch 60MM, 81MM, and 120MM mortars are all fired from smooth bore weapons and contain a fin assembly to provide for stability. The maximum target range of this group of mortars is 2 to 3.5 miles from the smallest (60MM) to largest (120MM) mortar. 4.2-inch mortars are fired from rifled-bore weapons and have a maximum target range of up to four miles. 4.2-inch mortars are not frequently used and are currently being replaced by 120MM, however, many still remain in storage facilities. 26 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Components

The following are the components of 60MM, 81MM, and 120MM mortar artillery ammunition. Fuze Projectile Propellant Increments Fin Assembly Fin Ignition Cartridge

Roll your mouse over the text in the illustration at right to see where these components are located. On the following pages, you will learn more about the components specific to mortar ammunition, which are the fin assembly, fins, and propellant increments. 27 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Fin Assembly

Since 60MM, 81MM, and 120MM mortar artillery ammunition are fired from smooth bore weapons, a fin assembly is required. The fins provide stability during flight. The fin assembly consists of a flash tube with flash holes used to ignite the propellant increments, the fins, and ignition cartridge. 28 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Fins Fins are attached to the fin assemblies of 60MM, 81MM, and 120MM mortar artillery ammunition rounds and are used to provide stability during the flight of the round. They are located at the base of the fin

assembly as illustrated in the image below. 29 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Propellant Increments Propellant increments consist of thin sheet propellant bags of granular propellant or propellant grains in a combustible case (horseshoe-shaped). Sheet increments are designed to fit over the flash tube of the fin assembly. All types of mortar propellant increments are issued with a predetermined number of increment charges that can be adjusted (removed) prior to use.

30 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Functioning 31 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION 4.2-Inch No longer in U.S. Army service, the 4.2-inch mortar was phased out in the 1980s in favor of the newer 120MM. The 4.2-inch, however, can still be found in U.S. storage and within

NATO and other nations. In comparison to the 4.2-inch, the 120MM provides for increased range, lethality, smoke obscuration effectiveness, reliability, and safety. The 4.2-inch mortar was transported via the M106 Mortar Carrier, part of the M113 family of vehicles. It provided basic protection from small arms fire as well as from shell fragments. 32 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION There are four general categories of artillery ammunition. Each type of artillery ammunition differs based upon the component structure, weapon system use, and loading configuration. There are four general categories of artillery ammunition:

Fixed Semi-fixed Separate loading Separated (Navy) 33 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Fixed Artillery Ammunition

In fixed artillery ammunition, the complete round is issued with the cartridge case (containing a nonadjustable propelling charge and a primer) permanently crimped or otherwise attached to the projectile. The complete round is loaded into the weapon as a single unit. The image below depicts components common to fixed artillery ammunition.. 34 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Fixed Artillery Ammunition Examples

Fixed artillery ammunition rounds include 40MM grenades, tank ammunition, and recoilless rifle ammunition. The examples below illustrate the characteristics of a fixed artillery ammunition round each having a cartridge case permanently attached to the projectile and a nonadjustable propelling charge. 35 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Semi-Fixed Artillery Ammunition Fixed artillery ammunition rounds include 40MM grenades, tank ammunition, and recoilless rifle ammunition. The examples below illustrate the characteristics of a fixed artillery ammunition round each having a cartridge case permanently attached to the projectile and a

nonadjustable propelling charge. 36 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Semi-Fixed Artillery Ammunition Examples Semi-fixed artillery ammunition rounds include 105MM howitzer ammunition and mortar ammunition ranging from 60MM to 120MM. The examples below illustrate the characteristics of a semi-fixed artillery ammunition round each having an adjustable propelling charge and the rounds loaded into the weapon as a single unit. 37 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

Separate-Loading Artillery Ammunition Separate-loading artillery ammunition is issued with the major components (projectile, propelling charge, and primer) unassembled. This type of projectile is generally issued unfuzed, with an eyebolt lifting plug threaded in the fuze well. Fuzes are assembled to the projectile upon use. The propelling charge, loaded into cloth bags or assembled with combustible increments, is adjustable. 38 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Separate-Loading Artillery Ammunition Examples

155MM and 8-inch projectiles are common separate-loading artillery ammunition items. All components of separate loading ammunition (projectile, fuze, propelling charge, primer) are separate items of issue and are loaded into their weapon system separately except for the fuze, which is assembled to the projectile prior to loading. 39 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Fuzes used with Separate-Loading Artillery Ammunition The purpose of the fuze is to initiate the projectile explosive train. Artillery fuzes are classified according to their methods of functioning: impact, time, and proximity. You will learn more about each type of fuze on the following pages.

Impact Fuze An impact fuze functions upon impact with a target. Impact fuzes may contain a delay element that can be selected to allow the projectile to penetrate the target before detonation occurs. Impact fuzes can be further classified by their delay element according to superquick, delay, and nondelay. Superquick impact fuzes function immediately upon impact with their target, while nondelay impact fuzes slightly penetrate their target before impact. Delay fuzes, on the other hand, 40 may be manually set to function after a delay time of 0.025 to 0.05 seconds after impact. ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

Proximity Fuze Proximity fuzes transmit and receive radio waves to determine their proximity to the target. Once the projectile reaches the predetermined proximity to the target, the fuze will function. On a proximity fuze, the time is set to when it should begin transmitting and receiving. This feature helps ensure that the fuze does not function too soon when passing an object that could be confused with the target. 41 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

Separated Artillery Ammunition Separated artillery ammunition consists of a sealed projectile and a sealed, primed cartridge case containing a propelling charge. The propelling charge of separated artillery ammunition items is not adjustable. This type of ammunition is used by the Navy to facilitate automatic loading. 42 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Separated Artillery Ammunition Examples The example at right illustrates the characteristics of a separated (Navy) artillery ammunition

having a projectile and propelling charge assembly. The projectile assembly consists of the projectile body containing the load and applicable fuze. The propelling charge assembly consists of the cartridge case, primer, propellant charge, wad, distance piece, and a plug to close the open end of the cartridge case. The following excerpt provides more detailed information on Navy gun ammunition. Browse Section III through Section V of Chapter 2, SW030-AA-MMO-010.

43 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Navy Artillery Ammunition Navy and Army artillery ammunition and weapon systems share many similarities, although there a few unique differences between the two. Army weapons, by necessity and mission, are mounted on ground-moveable carriage systems. Navy weapons, on the other hand, are mounted on ships. Naval guns are used for both anti-aircraft and surface targets and to provide ground support for troops ashore.

Navy artillery ammunition falls into the category of separated ammunition as discussed in the previous section. 44 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Size Designations Artillery size designations for Navy weapons are determined by using the bore diameter and length of the gun barrel. For example, a .54 caliber artillery cartridge would be used in a gun barrel having a bore diameter of 5 inches and a barrel length of 270 inches. The barrel length of 270 inches divided by the weapon bore diameter of 5 inches equals 54, hence .54 caliber. 45

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Size Designations Artillery size designations for Navy weapons are determined by using the bore diameter and length of the gun barrel. For example, a .54 caliber artillery cartridge would be used in a gun barrel having a bore diameter of 5 inches and a barrel length of 270 inches. The barrel length of 270 inches divided by the weapon bore diameter of 5 inches equals 54, hence .54 caliber. 46 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION In this section you gained a wealth of knowledge about the different types and configurations

of artillery ammunition and you should be familiar with the similarities and differences among fixed, semi-fixed, separated, and separate-loading artillery ammunition: The cartridge case of fixed projectiles is permanently attached to the projectile. Semi-fixed and separate-loading projectiles have adjustable propelling charges. Fixed, semi-fixed, and separated projectiles are loaded as a single unit. Semi-fixed, separated, and separate-loading projectiles are issued unassembled. Separate-loading projectiles are loaded separately. Apply the knowledge that you have gained thus far in your artillery training experience (i.e., artillery ammunition classifications, components, types) to what you will learn in the

following section which will cover artillery ammunition identification. In this section, you will learn how to identify artillery ammunition by color coding specifications and how artillery ammunition is marked for storage, issue, and accountability 47 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery Ammunition Color Coding and Marking Color Coding Color coding specifications have been established for artillery ammunition through appropriate publications and other forms of military guidance. These color coding specifications are used to identify and distinguish artillery ammunition for use and

classification. For example, service and practice rounds would be color coded differently in order to avoid confusion in storage, handling, transportation, and use. 48 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Specifications The following table, extracted from Table 1-1 of TM 9-1300-200, provides general color coding specifications used for artillery ammunition. These color coding specifications may be recognizable by a combination of projectile body color, stencil markings, bands, and other identifying symbols. 49 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

Marking Artillery ammunition items include identification markings on their bodies. Such markings might include the item nomenclature (description), type of explosive filler, weight/classification, DODIC, model number, or other markings as appropriate. In the image at right, the following standard markings have been applied: 155H - indicates 155MM howitzer round.

TNT - indicates a TNT explosive filler. M549A1RA w/SUPPL CHG - indicates the model number and that it has a supplemental charge. D579 - indicates the DODIC. At the base of the projectile the type of propellant is listed as well as the propellant lot number. The yellow squares at the top of the round are called zone markings, which will be covered in more detail on the following page. 50 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Zone Markings When 155MM through 8-inch projectiles are filled, there is some variance in weight that must be considered prior to firing. To assist our soldiers in identifying this weight variance, zone markings (the yellow row of squares) are painted on the projectile bodies. Punch marks

are also present in the middle of the zone markings to allow the weight of the projectile to be identifiable by touch when the markings might not be visible. Zone marking specifications vary among types of artillery ammunition. This information can be found in the respective pages of the TM 43-0001-28. Browse the Weight Zone Information section of the TM 43-0001-28 (bottom of page 2) for this 155MM howitzer. The three squares indicate that the projectile has a weight range greater than 91.8 pounds but less than or equal to 93.6 pounds. Soldiers use this marking when determining what adjustments need to be made to the propelling charge. 51 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

Row of Triangles A row of triangles is used to identify artillery ammunition loaded with mine submunitions. The letter "L" may be placed among the row of triangles to indicate a long self-destruct time (greater than 24 hours). The letter "S" may be placed among the row of triangles to indicate a short self-destruct time (less than 24 hours). In the image of the 155MM projectile at right, a row of triangles with the letter "L" placed among them indicates that this item is loaded with mine submunitions that have a self-destruct time greater than 24 hours. A submunition is a self-contained munition that is carried in multiples inside a large ammunition item and must be released from the parent munition in order to perform its task.

52 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Row of Diamonds Ammunition loaded with submunitions is referred to as ICM (Improved Conventional Munition) rounds in many inspection and safety publications and references.

A row of diamonds is used to identify artillery ammunition loaded with grenade submunitions. 53 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Fixed Artillery Ammunition Packaging configurations for fixed artillery ammunition include outerpacks, wooden boxes, and wirebound boxes. 54 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

Fixed Artillery Ammunition Packaging configurations for fixed artillery ammunition may also include cylindrical metal containers. 55 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Semi-Fixed Artillery Ammunition Packaging configurations for semi-fixed artillery ammunition include fiber containers and wooden boxes. 56

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Mortars 81MM mortars, also considered semi-fixed artillery ammunition, are packaged in fiber containers or plastic mono packs (1 round each), metal boxes (8 fiber containers per metal box), and wirebound boxes (2 metal boxes per wirebound box). 57 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Jungle Wrap

Packaging configurations for semi-fixed artillery ammunition include fiber containers and wooden boxes. 58 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Separated Artillery Ammunition Packaging configurations for separated artillery ammunition include metal pallets and metal tanks. 59 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

Separate-Loading Artillery Ammunition Packaging configurations for separate-loading artillery ammunition include pallets. Since the fuze for these types of projectiles is not assembled until use, a lifting plug is placed into the fuze well of the projectile during storage and transportation. A grommet is also fitted around the rotating band of the projectile to prevent damage. 60 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Primer Primer used with separate-loading artillery ammunition may be packaged in cardboard and wooden

boxes. 61 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Fuzes Fuzes may be packaged inside fiberboard containers and overpacked in wooden boxes or directly inside metal cans with styrofoam cushioning. 62 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

Artillery Ammunition Safety Precautions Safety precautions inherent to artillery ammunition have been established to protect personnel, soldiers, and civilians during storage, handling, and transportation. Specific safety precautions may be found by looking up the individual item in the TM 43-0001-28, Artillery Ammunition Datasheets. Projectile- Keep illuminants from coming in contact with moisture as they are particularly hygroscopic (absorb moisture) and subject to deterioration. Do not apply water to projectiles containing HC as it produces large volumes of smoke. Also, projectiles containing WP are spontaneously flammable when exposed to air. Water barrels should be available to submerge leaking WP projectiles.

Do not handle submunitions if released from a projectile as they could be armed. 63 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery Ammunition Safety Precautions Propelling Charge Protect propelling charges of all types from moisture.

Check propelling charge bag for discoloration which usually indicates propellant deterioration. Propellant stability is managed by local QASAS and current records (DSR) should be maintained with stability test results and stability categories for each propellant lot on hand. 64 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery Ammunition Safety Precautions Cartridge Case

CAUTION: Cartridge cases composed of lightweight brass or steel or felted nitrocellulose are easily damaged. Inspect packages (inner containers) and packings (shipping boxes) periodically for evidence of damage that might indicate corroded, deformed, or ruptured cases.To prevent serious damage to the weapon, do not use cartridges with damaged cases. Protect felted nitrocellulose combustible cartridge cases, which are nonmetallic, from sources of ignition such as smoldering residue, lit cigarettes, or open flame. 65

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery Ammunition Safety Precautions Fuze CAUTION: Do not disassemble any fuze at any time without specific instructions from higher headquarters. Handle fuzes carefully. They contain small amounts of sensitive high explosives, such as mercury fulminate, lead azide, and lead styphnate. Ensure fuzes are set on safe during handling, storage, and transportation.

66 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery Ammunition Safety Precautions Primer Primers contain black powder which is particularly hygroscopic (absorbs moisture). Inspect periodically for evidence of corrosion.

Keep fuzes and primers in hermetically sealed containers. Primers should be protected at all times in order to avoid unintended ignition. Protect percussion primers from impact and electric primers from stray electricity. 67 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Artillery Ammunition Safety Precautions Depleted Uranium

Depleted uranium projectiles are solid and carry no cargo yet are dense enough to penetrate heavy armor when fired with high velocity weapons. (DU) projectiles are sheathed in aluminum to prevent oxidation of depleted uranium and to reduce radiation. DU is a radioactive material which involves special handling and safety precautions. These projectiles do not pose a hazard to personnel unless the round is damaged. DU rounds are only fired during combat and cannot be disposed of by burning or detonation. 68 ARTILLERY AMMUNITION Using Artillery Datasheets

Artillery Ammunition Datasheets The TM 43-0001-28, Datasheets for Artillery Ammunition, is a publication that serves as an aid in planning, training, familiarization, and identification of artillery ammunition. For each item of materiel in the TM 43-001-28, there are illustrations and descriptions with characteristics and related data. Included in the related data are weights, dimensions, performance data, shipping and storage data, and type classification. 69 Questions 70

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