The Informal Economy, innovation and the role of IP Project implementing WIPO Development Agenda Recommendation 34 Sacha Wunsch-Vincent (WIPO); Jeremy de Beer, Erika Kraemer-Mbula November 19, 2012, Pretoria, South Africa November 22, Cape Town, South Africa Context: The IE is important contributor to GDP /employment in Africa and elsewhere The IE makes for over 40% of the gross national product of many sub-Saharan African countries Employment accounts for on average 48% of nonagricultural employment in Sub-Saharan Africa,
and for 51% when South Africa is excluded Source: IERI/WIPO conceptual study, based on ILO data and Charmes (2012) The peoples economy Diversity in urban and rural sector Lindile L. Ndabeni IERI and Shamnad Basheer Context: Evolving views on the IE Continuum
The sector loosel y conne cted to the formal econo my. Impor tant
pillar and sourc e of livelih ood and critica l suppli er of goods and
servic es. Project rationale: The Informal Economy, innovation and the role of IP Despite the importance of the IE, little is known about how new processes, products, and other innovations are generated and monetized in the IE. The projects objective is to gain a better understanding of how innovation occurs in the IE and how innovation efforts are appropriated. offer policy guidance in assessing how IP is or could be influencing innovation in the IE, and what IP-related or
other innovation measures could help expand output/jobs. Project outputs (1) The project consists of two major outputs: 1. the drafting of a study providing an analytical framework to the country case studies 2. the completion of three case studies exploring herbal medicines in Ghana metal manufacturing in Kenya, the chemical sector in South Africa. Conceptual questions: Innovation and IE Is innovation in IE different from in formal sector?
How do existing innovation definitions /surveys apply? What is the link between technology and innovation? What is the role of learning and skills? Apprenticeships / links with formal sector Barriers to innovation and scalability? How are innovation efforts appropriated? Are there new and alternative, community-based appropriation mechanisms? Learning from the informal system? To which extent does the absence of appropriation harm the scalability and impact of innovation? Existing and suggested policy approaches
The use of formal and informal appropriation mechanisms The main Semi-formal means and contracts Informal Project outputs (2) The project consists of two major outputs: 1. the drafting of a study providing an analytical framework to the country case studies
2. the completion of three case studies exploring herbal medicines in Ghana metal manufacturing in Kenya, the chemical sector in South Africa. Agreed project tools and methods 1. Final conceptual study 2. Common case study structure 3. Adaptation of Survey interview instrument/questionnaire - For production units and suppliers - For consumers BETWEEN OPEN ENDED CONVERSATION AND FORMAL INTERVIEW STRUCTURE
4. Survey methodology guide (how to approach resondent; trust building, confidentiality, sampling strategy, others) Artefacts and pictures Interview recordings Follow up [email protected] http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/mdocs/en/cdip_8/cdip_8_3_rev.pdf http://www-dev.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/mdocs/en/cdip_8/cdip_8_3_rev_study_inf_1.pdf Informal Expert Group: Mr. Mark Dutz, Leader, Work Program on Innovation and Growth, Economic Policy & Debt Department, Poverty Reduction & Economic Management Network, World Bank Mr. Fred Gault, Professorial Fellow, UNU-MERIT, Professor Extraordinaire, TUT/IERI, and
former Chair of OECDs NESTI Ms. Adriana Mata Greenwood, Department of Statistics, International Labor Organization Mr. Anil Gupta, Professor, Indian Institute of Management, Founder, Honey Bee Network Mr. Johannes Jtting, Principal Economist, OECD Mr. Dick Kawooya, Assistant Professor, School of Library and Information Science, University of South Carolina, and contributor to the OPENAIR project, Uganda Mr. Almamy Konte, African Observatory for Science, Technology and Innovation, South Africa Mr. Sisule F. Musungu, Senior Partner, Sisule Munyi Kilonzo & Associates and President, IQsensato, Kenya Mr. Emmanuel Sackey, Chief Examiner, Industrial Property Directorate, ARIPO, African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO), Zimbabwe
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*Corresponding author at Ophthalmos Research and Educational Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus. E-mail address: [email protected] (Dr. Tassos Georgiou) Results: The median visual acuity was 6/18 at the start of treatment and the mean age was 73 years.
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