Ayam Petelur Telur Gradin g PENYIMPANAN PRODUK PEMASARAN

Ayam Petelur Telur Gradin g PENYIMPANAN PRODUK PEMASARAN

WHOLE EGG PETA KETAHANAN PANGAN UNGGAS PASAR MODERN INDUSTRI PRIMER BIBIT UNGGAS / ITIK

PAKAN AIR SYSTEM OBAT KANDANG R. POTONG; SENTRA POTONG; REFRIGERATOR; DLL INDUSTRI TERTIER FROZEN;

SOSIS; NUGET; BASO DLL INDUSTRI SEKUNDER TEPUNG TELUR; TELUR ASIN DLL PASAR BASAH JASA BOGA

INDUSTRI KUE/ROTI MIE K O N S U M E N KULINER

6 Permasalahan: Telur 5 7 hari rusak MENUTUP BAGIAN LUAR KERABANG: Pencelupan parafin 60oC PROSESING AWAL Pembersihan Kerabang Direndam larutan sodium

silikat (air kaca) 1 : 9 = Sodium silikat : Air Direndam NaOH atau deterjen dibersihkan Direndam kapur jenuh Dicuci dengan aliran air 60oC dilap kain PENYIMPANAN DINGIN: Digosok amplas halus

(cangkang menjadi tipis) MENUTUP BAGIAN DALAM KERABANG: Dicelup air mendidih selama sekitar 5 detik Suhu 0oC, RH 85-90%, Vudara 125-175 ft/menit Suhu 0oC dan CO2 10% Teknologi pengolahan berdasarkan kondisi telur dibagi 2 : 1. Pengolahan pada telur utuh (whole egg) 2. Pengolahan telur yang telah dipecah (isi

telur) Telur yang Digarami Seleksi Telur Itik Mutu yang Baik Sanitasi Telur Higienis PEMBUATAN MEDIA + TELUR ASIN Bahan: bubuk batu bata, abu Garam : Media = 1 : 1 s/d 1 : 5 (tergantung tingkat keasinan)

Campur dan tambah air diaduk sampai homogen pasta Telur dibungkus dengan media pengasinan Tempatkan dalam wadah simpan NILAI GIZI Komposisi Tidak asin Asin

Protein % 13,1 13,6 Lemak % 14,3 13,3 Air %

70,8 66,5 Kalsium mg/100g 56,0 120,0 Fosfor mg/100g 175,0

157,0 ASAP Komposisi Asap Asap cair mengandung berbagai senyawa yang terbentuk karena terjadinya pirolisis 3 komponen kayu yaitu selulosa, hemiselulosa dan lignin. Lebih dari 400 senyawa kimia dalam asap telah berhasil diidentifikasi. Komponen-komponen tersebut ditemukan dalam jumlah yang bervariasi tergantung jenis kayu, umur tanaman sumber kayu, dan kondisi pertumbuhan kayu seperti iklim dan tanah. Komponen-komponen tersebut meliputi asam yang dapat mempengaruhi citarasa, pH dan umur simpan produk asapan;

karbonil yang bereaksi dengan protein dan membentuk pewarnaan coklat dan fenol yang merupakan pembentuk utama aroma dan menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidan Komponen asap yan berpengaruh Komponen-komponen tersebut meliputi asam yang dapat mempengaruhi citarasa, pH dan umur simpan produk asapan karbonil seperti aroma karamel yang unik yang bereaksi dengan protein dan membentuk pewarnaan coklat contoh senyawa ini vanilin dan siringaldehida. Fenol (10-200 mg/kg) yaitu guaiakol, dan siringol yang merupakan pembentuk utama

aroma dan menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidan Temperatur pengasapan kandungan maksimum senyawa-senyawa fenol, karbonil, dan asam dicapai pada temperatur pirolisis 600oC. Tetapi produk yang diberikan asap cair yang dihasilkan pada temperatur 400 oC dinilai mempunyai kualitas organoleptik yang terbaik Proses pembuatan asap cair Telur asin (cara kering) Telur itik

Abu gosok+garam = 1:1 Pencucia n Penirisan Pelapisa n Pemeraman Telur asin asap (asap cair) Telur itik Abu gosok+garam

= 1:1 Pencucia n Penirisan Pelapisa n Pemeraman Asap cair 1-2% Telur asin (cara basah) Telur itik garam jenuh

Pencucia n Penirisan Perendaman Pemeraman Telur asin (cara basah) Telur itik garam jenuh Pencucia

n Penirisan Perendaman Pemeraman Asap cair 1-2% Pemasakan Telur asin ASAP Telur itik garam jenuh

Pencucia n Penirisan Perendaman Pemeraman Pengasapan Pemasakan Proses pengasapan

Century Egg Century egg is a Chinese cuisine ingredient made by preserving duck, chicken or quail eggs They are placed in mixture of clay, ash, salt, lime, and rice straw for several weeks to several months After the process is completed, the yolk becomes a dark green, cream-like substance with a strong odor of sulphur and ammonia the white becomes a dark brown, transparent jelly with little flavor or taste Century eggs can be eaten without further preparation, or added to porridge Century Egg

BALUT Famous Food Balut: duck egg with chick and yolk It looks disgusting, but with delicious flavor. To produce balut 1. fertilized duck eggs are incubated at 40-42.5C in incubators with a relatively high humidity. 2. These conditions allow for the development of the embryo until the eggs are removed at 18 days; a period of time which results in the

formation of a partially developed embryo. Complete development and hatching of duck eggs typically occur at 28 days. 3. Throughout the incubation period, the eggs are candled to monitor the growth and development of the embryos; infertile eggs or those containing a non-viable embryo are removed. 4. Cooked Seleksi Sanitasi Proses Pemindangan PROSES PEMINDANGAN Siapkan Media: air + garam (1:1 sampai 1:10) + daun jambu kluthuk secukupnya

Rebus telur dalam media sekitar 10 menit Angkat telur dan dianginanginkan PEMASAKAN TELUR: Telur dimasak dalam air panas (80-85oC) selama 20 menit Dinginkan dalam air (22-24oC) dikupas PENYIAPAN LARUTAN CUKA: Larutan cuka (3%), gula (40%) dan bumbu (6%) atau cuka (5%), gula (45%) campur sampai homogen dalam keadaan panas PENYIMPANAN: Rendam telur dalam wadah dan disimpan

Teknologi pengolahan telur yang telah dipecah : Kuliah bagian II Berfungsi sebagai pengawetan Pengolahan lanjut PASTEURISASI PEMANFAATAN 57-66oC selama 3 menit 61oC selama 3 menit 63oC selama 3,5 menit

74oC selama 2-3 detik Whole Egg Custard Telur Beku Telur Beku PAN VACUM PAN DRUM METODE: Drum drying: pengeringan dengan alat model drum

Pan drying: pengeringan dengan alat model nampan Spray drying: pengeringan dengan alat model semprot MACAM PRODUK: Tepung telur albumen Tepung telur yolk NOZZEL Tepung telur penuh SPRAY FERMENTASI Temperatur 20oC selama 36-60 jam atau 23-29,4oC selama 12 jam. Maksimal 72 jam Starter bakteri: Aerobacter atau Escherichia

Pemisahan ovomucin dan glikoprotein lapisan gelatin Penghentian: penambahan asam laktat, asam tertat atau ammonia PENGERINGAN Pan drying: 45-50oC selama 6-16 jam Spray drying: hidrolisis dengan asam atau tripsin dikeringkan PRODUK PENGERINGAN SPRAY DRYING Pemanasan pendahuluan 70oC TEPUNG TELUR Disemprotkan lewat nozzel 3.000 psi 160oC Tepung telur bersifat instan

MAYONNAISE General Definitions Mayonnaise is an emulsified semisolid food prepared from: Vegetable Oil(s) 1 or both Acidifying Ingredients 1 or more Egg Yolk Containing Ingredients 1 or more of the Optional Ingredients Contains not less than 65% by weight of vegetable oil Food Chemistry of Regular

Mayonnaise CH3(CH2)xCOOH Whole Eggs Egg Yolks H2O CH3COOH NaCl C12H22O11

Lemon Juice (C10H16O8N2)-Ca-Na2 Food Chemistry of Low/Reduced-Fat Mayonnaise H2O CH3(CH2)xCOOH x-O-C6H8O2-O-C6H8O2-O-x C12H22O11

Egg Whites CH3COOH NaCl (C6H10O5)x Mustard C6H5COONa (C35H49O29)x (C10H16O8N2)-Ca-Na2

Basic Emulsion Theory Homogenous mixture of oil and water stabilized by an emulsifier Two classifications Macroemulsionsthermodynamically unstable Microemulsionsthermodynamically stable Interfacial tension Net interaction between dispersed phase Addition of van der Waals and electrostatic forces

Emulsion Theory Emulsifiers Functionality direct result of chemistry Consists of 2 parts Hydrocarbon chain lipophilic Polar group hydrophilic Three types of emulsions Temporary Example: oil mixed with vinegar

Semi-Permanent Example: pourable salad dressing Permanent Example: Mayonnaise Regular Mayonnaise Formulation Addition pathway

Vinegar mixed with emulsifiers Oil added slowly Stabilizers and Preservatives Spices and flavor agents Results in closely packed foam of oil droplets Emulsifiers used Lecithin, lipovitellin, livetin (all found in egg yolk) Lecithin also in soybean oil Major emulsifier: Lecithin

Functional component: phospholipids Phospholipids Hydrophilic polar head Lipophilic portion consists of 2 lipophilic tails Regular Mayonnaise Formulation Adsorption of lipoprotiens to O/W interface Diffusion of native protein molecules to interface Penetration of interface by these molecules Rearrangement of adsorbed molecules to state of lowest free energy Ideal Emulsions

Dispersed droplets account for maximum of 74% volume Mayonnaise Dispersed phase accounts for 75% or more volume Low-Fat Mayonnaise Formulation Same basic addition pathway Other ingredients used to achieve low-fat Example: egg whites Interfacial chemistry problem Emulsifiers found in egg yolk not as abundant in whites Emulsifiers

Lecithin Added through addition of more soybean oil Fine mustard particles TELUR DIPECAH PUTIH/ KUNING/ PENUH MASUK WADAH/PAK MASUK FREEZER Suhu minus 18-21oC selama 72 jam

(bisa juga minus 23,3-28,9oC atau minus 40-45,6oC)

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