Victorian Era: Faith As Seen Through Poetry Session

Victorian Era: Faith As Seen Through Poetry Session # 1 Vince Tollers University Presbyterian Church January-February, 2016 January 3, 2016 Challenging Changes Religious Reforms Anglicans: Oxford Movement Roman Catholicism legalized Explosive growth of Protestantism

Religious studies Science Industrialization Social justice War Why Literature? Public looked to Tennyson, Dickens, and other writers to answer large, new questions of the Era Poetry focusedeasier to cover in these

sessions Explosive publication of poetry, essays, and novels Purpose of Literature to Victorians To teach and delight I was once a graduate student in Victorian literature, and I believe as the Victorian novelists did, that a novel isn't simply a vehicle for private expression, but that it also exists for social examination. I firmly believe this. Margaret Atwood Scheduled Topics

January 3 Introduction and Change January 10 Science January 17 Education January 24 God and Christ January 31 Nature

February 7 Sense of self February 14 Romance/love (St. Valentines Day) Background Monarchs Leading characteristics Dateline of poets and novelists Monarch and Events Victoria: 1937-1901

183048: stressful growth--first railways and Reform Parliament 184870: prosperity, optimism, and stability 18701901: breakdown of internal and external compromises Edward VII: 1901-10 1901-19 modernism meets indolence and indifference George V: 1910-36

WWI (1914-19) Old World ends Victoria and Albert Mourning Widow At 21, Victoria married her cousin Albert and bore him 9 childrenall of whom assumed thrones across Europe. When Albert died at age 42,

she mourned him for the next 40 years setting a somber official tone. Edward VII and George V Edward, the 2nd longest monarch in waiting George, reigned through WWI Edwardian and Georgian Times (1901-19) Rise of women and working class Great economic disparitysocial unrest

Foreign threats to sun never sets on British Empire WWI ended this leisured world for the wealth Downton Abbey Upstairs, Downstairs Leading Characteristics of the Age Famous Quotes Ah, but a mans reach should exceed his grasp, or whats a heaven for? (Browning) 'Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all (Tennyson)

The history of the world is but the biography of great men (Carlyle) The best which has been thought and said (Arnold) English Churches Central to Industrialism James Watts steam engine 1775 Morals and Manners Romanticism, Realism, and Naturalism

Morality Continues Today Transitions of Types Romanticism (1830s-70s) gave way to Realism (after 1870s) and Naturalism (after 1880s) Morality and the ideal less popular Coarser, fuller treatment of life New topics considered openly, e.g.,

Colonialism The Woman Question Lower class life Sexuality Romantic View Domestic Bliss: Angel in the House I worshipp'd Kate with all my will. In idle moods you seem to see A noble spirit in a hill, A human touch about a tree.

Coventry Patmore Realistic View Domestic Horror Repulses Readers In the preface to Jude the Obscure (1895), Thomas Hardy writes: For a novel addressed by a man to men and women of full age; which attempts to deal unaffectedly with the fret and fever, derision and disaster, that may press in the wake of the strongest passion known to humanity [as in sexuality], and to point, without a mincing of words, the tragedy of unfulfilled aims, I am not aware that there is

anything in the handling to which exception can be taken. Naturalistic, Sometimes Crude View T The Victorians of all classes were sexier than is generally assumed. Major Writers and Genres Poetry and fiction flourished

New readers, new subjects, new outlets First financially successful: Scott, Dickens, Tennyson After 1880s, New Theatre flourishes: Ibsen, Shaw, Wilde Stage filled with bawdry, burlesques, reviews William Blake 1757 1827

Elizabeth Barrett Browning 1806 1861 Alfred, Lord Tennyson 1809 1892

Edward Fitzgerald 1809 1883 Charles Dickens 1812 1870 Robert Browning

1812 1889 George Eliot 1819 1880 Matthew Arnold

1822 1888 Dante Gabriel Rossetti 1828 1882 Christiana Rossetti 1830

1894 James Thomson 1834 1882 Edward Swinburne 1837

1909 Thomas Hardy 1840 1928 Gerard Manley Hopkins 1844 189

Henley 1849 1903 Robert Louis Stevenson 1850 1894

Oscar Wilde 1854 1900 Francis Thompson 1857 1907 A. E. Housman

1859 1936 William Butler Yeats 1865 1939 Rudyard Kipling

1865 1936 T. S. Eliot 1888 1965 Wilfred Owens 1893

1918 W. H. Auden 1907 1973 Scheduled Topics

January 3 Introduction and Change January 10 Science January 17 Education January 24 God and Christ January 31 Nature February 7 Sense of self February 14 Romance/love (St. Valentines Day)

Change When you are a kid, you think nothing will change. When you are old, you think nothing should change except in retrograde. In between lots of us want to be the change. Art Menius Chapel Hill News November 25, 2015 Victorians and Modern US Patterns Population explosion Migration from farms to cities

Industrialization/Technological/scientific advances Changing sense of time Religion not meeting new needs England: 1740-2011 Population (in millions) 1740 1800 1851 1901 2011 6 10

17 31 63 Increased population and the Enclosure Acts led to massive rural to urban migration US: Today vs 1940 Population: total: (2014): 318 m; (1940): 132 m Rural/urban: (2014): 2% Lowest since 1850 Southern Diaspora and Depression drove

Americans to urban centers US Parallel: Today vs 1940 Technology Cellphones (1983); Phones: (1940)25% Education High school (2014): 91%: 1940: 50% College (2014): 34% 1940: 6% (urban) 1.3% rural-farm View of Time Shapes Our Response Personally

Religiously Nationally Cosmically Views of Jesus Change Over Time 5th-6th C BC Jewish writers shape Genesis 1 & 2: creation stories tell their history 2nd C AD Christian writers reshape stories to make Jesus central 17th C Theologians: Life starts at evening on Saturday, October 22, 4004 BC. (Bishop Ussher of Armitage, Ireland) 19th C European Scholars Search for historical Jesus

as a man 1980s > Jesus Seminar: Jesus vs myths Knowledge Leads to Change Various religious emphasesfocus on God, Jesus, Mary Languagesclearer meaning Archaeologygreat finds Historyview of time determines expectations Methodologyquestions determine answers Scientific approach: great advances in 19th C Victorians on Time/Change/Faith Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1842)

Matthew Arnold (1849) Thomas Hardy (1890s-1900) William Butler Yeats (1919) Causes/Types of Change Great people (Carlyle) Progression of events/ scientific principles (Tennyson and Buckle/Green) Cyclical (Arnold and Yeats) The gods (Hardy) Turning to the Poets son

y n n e T Arnold Yeats y d r

a H Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-92) Locksley Hall (1842) Faith in future Ulysses (1842)- Life of action Locksley Hall (1842) Jilted by Amy, who married a loutish wealthy lord, the poem seeks then rejects solace in Nature Escape to an island paradise

Has faith and hope in an orderly progression of events Locksley Hall (continued-1) For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see, Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be; Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails, Pilots of the purple twilight dropping down with costly bales;

Heard the heavens fill with shouting, and there rain'd a ghastly dew From the nations' airy navies grappling in the central blue; Far along the world-wide whisper of the south-wind rushing warm, Locksley Hall (continued -2) So I triumph'd ere my passion sweeping thro' me left me dry, Left me with the palsied heart, and left me with the jaundiced eye; Eye, to which all order festers, all things here are out

of joint: Science moves, but slowly, slowly, creeping on from point to point: Slowly comes a hungry people, as a lion, creeping nigher, Glares at one that nods and winks behind a slowlydying fire. Yet I doubt not thro' the ages one increasing purpose runs, And the thoughts of men are widen'd with the process Locksley (continued 3)

Mated withHall a squalid savagewhat to me were sun or The poet rejects escaping to the Orient and places his faith clime? the Mother-Age I theinheir of all the ages, in the foremost files of time I that rather held it better men should perish one by one, Than that earth should stand at gaze like Joshua's moon in Ajalon!

Not in vain the distance beacons. Forward, forward let us range, Let the great world spin for ever down the ringing grooves of change. Thro' the shadow of the globe we sweep into the younger day; Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay. Mother-Age (for mine I knew not) help me as when life begun: Rift the hills, and roll the waters, flash the lightnings, weigh the Sun. Ulysses (1842)

The hero, away at the Trojan Wars, etc. for 20 years, returns to his wife and son. Restless with the tame world that knows not me, Ulysses sets out with his men to sail beyond the sunsetuntil I die. I cannot rest from travel: I will drink Life to the lees. Death closes all: but something ere the end, Some work of noble note, may yet be done, Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods. .Come, my friends, 'T is not too late to seek a newer world.

Push off, and sitting well in order smite The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds To sail beyond the sunset, .Tho' much is taken, much abides; and tho' We are not now that strength which in old days Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are; One equal temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. Next Week: Science and Industry

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