Cell Structure and Function AP Biology Activities of

Cell Structure and Function AP Biology Activities of Life Most everything you think of a whole organism needing to do, must be done on the cellular level Reproduction Growth and development Energy utilization Response to environment Homeostasis AP Biology

Cell Characteristics What do all cell types have? Plasma membrane Cytosol Chromosomes Ribosomes What organelles are found only in animal cells? Lysosomes Centrosomes What organelles are found only in plant cells? Cell wall Vacuole Plasmodesmata

AP Biology Types of Cells Prokaryote DNA in nucleoid region No nuclear membrane separating DNA from rest of cell No organelles made of membranes AP Biology Eukaryote Chromosomes in nucleus Chromosomes enclosed in

nuclear membrane Membrane bound organelles present (compartmentalization) Limits to cell size Lower limit Smallest bacteria, mycoplasm 0.1 to 1.0 microns Upper limit Eukaryotic cells 10-100 microns Micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter Diameter of human hair = 20 microns

AP Biology Fig. 6-8 Surface area increases while total volume remains constant 5 1 1 Total surface area [Sum of the surface areas (height width) of all boxes sides number of boxes] Total volume

[height width length number of boxes] Surface-to-volume (S-to-V) ratio [surface area volume] 6 150 750 1 125

125 6 1.2 6 What limits cell size? Surface area to volume ratio As cell gets bigger volume increases faster than surface area Smaller objects have greater surface area to volume ratios

AP Biology Limits to cell size Metabolic requirements set upper limit large cells, cannot move material in and out of cell fast enough to support life What process is this? O2 aa CHO CHO NH3 aa

AP Biology aa CHO O2 NH3 O2 O2 CHO aa aa

NH3 O2 Whats the solution? How to get bigger? Become multi cellular (cell divides) AP Biology Cell membrane Exchange organelle Functions as a selective barrier Allows passage of oxygen, nutrients and wastes AP Biology

Organelles and Internal Membranes In eukaryotic cells, internal membranes: Partition cell into compartments Create different local environments Compartmentalize functions Different structures for specific functions Unique combination of lipids and proteins AP Biology Endomembrane System Play key role in synthesis (& hydrolysis) of macromolecules in cell Organelles

Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes (animals only) Vacuoles (plants only) Vesicles Pay attention to How structure relates to function Cell type in which you would typically find structures What happens if organelle is not functioning correctly AP Biology Fig. 6-16-1 Nucleus

Rough ER Smooth ER Plasma membrane Fig. 6-16-2 Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER cis Golgi

trans Golgi Plasma membrane Fig. 6-16-3 Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER cis Golgi trans Golgi

Plasma membrane Peroxisomes Other digestive enzyme sacs Found in plant and animal cells Break down fatty acids into sugars Easier to transport and use sugar as energy source Detoxifies cell Alcohol and other poisons Produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Waste product Harmful to cell Must be broken down to H2O

AP Biology Apoptosis Programmed Cell death Occurs when digestive enzymes from lysosomes or peroxisomes are released into cell Critical role in programmed destruction of cells in multicellular organisms Some cells have to die in an organized fashion, especially during development Cancer over rides this to enable tumor growth AP Biology Theory of Endosymbiosis

internal membrane system aerobic bacterium Eukaryotic cell with mitochondrion Ancestral eukaryotic cell chloroplast Eukaryotic AP Biology

mitochondrion photosynthetic bacterium cell with chloroplasts Paramecium & symbiont Chlorella Cell Specializations What would be the function of a cell with the following properties? Large number of mitochondria Large amount of RER, SER and Golgi

Absence of mitochondria, RER, SER, Golgi Absence of nucleus Presence of Chloroplast Large, flattened cell Elongated cell with many extensions Flagella, nucleus and mitochondria Large number of ribosomes AP Biology

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