Bullying in the Digital Age Amy Seery MD Via Christi Medical Center Family Medicine Residency September 2013 Objectives Is
avoiding technology the answer? Is this really affecting my child? How Is does cyberbullying occur? cyberbullying really that harmful for anyone?
What if my child is the victim? Or the bully? Do we need this technology? Cultural Inertia Cultural Inertia Exposure, Not
Saturation Just Ignore It! WRONG! Class School City State Nation Worldwide Bullying defined
Overt Physical (hitting, kicking, gym aggression, personal items stolen) Verbal (name calling, mocking, teasing) Relational Social exclusion, spreading rumors
Cyberbullying having Cyberbullying defined "Cyberbullying" is when a child, preteen or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child, preteen or teen using the Internet, interactive and digital
technologies or mobile phones. Adult involvement is cyber-harassment or cyber-stalking Stopcyberbullying.org Bullying has changed
Cyberbullying is different from traditional faceto-face aggression because of the anonymity of the mediums used. The distance between the perpetrator and the victim prevents the perpetrator from seeing the harmful consequences of their actions or to experience any sympathy/empathy for their victim.
Broken Feedback Loop Escalation Phenomenon Does this really include my child? Mean 24.4 24.4 Mean
Victims Bullies The Real Online Predators Cyberbullying & School Violence Ryan Halligan, old
13 years October 2003 He was repeatedly sent instant messages from middle school classmates accusing him of being gay, and was "threatened, taunted and
insulted incessantly" Bullying on the internet "amplified and accelerated the hurt and pain he was trying to deal with, that started in the real world". Growing Up Online (Chapter 6: "Cyberbullying"). [Television production]. Boston: PBS. January 22, 2008. Event occurs at 0:08:160:08:30. http://www.pbs.org/frontline/video/share.html?s=frol02n3b7q4e. Retrieved 2010-10-27. Megan Meier, old
13 years October 2006 Witnesses testified that the women intended to use Meiers e-mails with "Josh" to get information about her and later humiliate her, in retribution for her allegedly spreading gossip
about Drew's daughter Steinhauer, Jennifer (November 26, 2008). "Verdict in MySpace Suicide Case". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/27/us/27myspace.html?_r=1&hp. Retrieved 2010-10-27. Jesse Logan, old 18 years July 2008
She had sent nude pictures of herself to a boyfriend. When they broke up, he sent them to other high school girls. The girls were harassing her, calling her a slut and a whore. She was miserable and depressed, afraid even to go to school. Celizic, Mike (March 6, 2009). Her teen committed suicide over sexing". Today Parenting- MSNBC. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/29546030. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
Jaheem Harrera, 11 years old April 2009 "There is namecalling, there is teasing, but I will tell you that it is almost always done outside the presence of adults. There is a code of silence among the students."
Time Magazine. Bullying: Suicides Highlight a Schoolyard Problem By Paige Bowers Wednesday, May. 20, 2009 Seth Walsh, old 13 years September 2010 The bullying took
every form. "It was eye to eye, over the telephone, personal, over the Internet. He spent a lot of his life frightened." Time Magazine. The Bullying of Seth Walsh: Requiem for a Small-Town Boy By Bryan Alexander / Tehachapi Saturday, Oct. 02, 2010 Tyler Clementi, 18 years old
September 2010 His roommate had secretly recorded a video of Clementi kissing a guy; the video went up on YouTube. On Facebook, Clementi offered a final status update: "jumping off gw bridge Jonathansorry."
Lemire, Michael J. Feeney And Larry Mcshane (1 October 2010). "He Wanted Roomie Out Rutgers Suicide Complained Of Video Voyeur Before Fatal Fall". Daily News (New York): p. 2. Retrieved 2010-10-27. Rhianna Lynn Morawitz, old September 21st 2011Freshman at NE High "We never even thought in a million years this would happen. It was a complete shock,"
Morawitz said. "We knew she was being bullied and that some crap was going on at school. . . . We tried to make the school aware of it. They knew what was going on, but they didn't do anything about it." 14 yr
The How A continuum of cyberbullying: 1. Instant Messaging/ Text Messaging Harassment 2. Stealing Passwords / Impersonation 3. Blogs / Online Journals
4. Sending Pictures or Videos through E-mail and Cell Phones Revenge Pornography Minors involved = illegal Taken without consent = illegal
Taken by the subject and handed over freely illegal 5. Memes 6. Internet Polling
7. Interactive Gaming 8. Sending Malicious Code / Spyware 9. Sending Porn to Online Accounts 10. Targeting the victim for harassment by a third party (aka: cyberbullying-by-proxy)
The Harmful Effects of Bullying and Cyberbullying People who bully othersAre more likely to Abuse alcohol and other drugs in adolescence and as
adults. Get into fights, vandalize property, and drop out of school. Engage in early sexual activity. Have criminal convictions and traffic citations as adults. In one study, 60% of boys who bullied others in middle school had a criminal conviction by age 24. Be abusive toward their romantic partners, spouses or children as adults. People who witness bullying
Have increased use of tobacco, alcohol or other drugs. Have increased mental health problems, including depression and anxiety. Are more likely to miss or skip school. Emotional Reactions to Being the Cyberbully Did not feel anything 41%
They felt they were funny 25% Guilty 21% Powerful 9% Popular 6% Better than others 4% Mishna F, et al. Cyber Bullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students. American Journal
of Orthopsychiatry. 2010. Vol 8, No 3, 362-374 The Why Anger, revenge, frustration, jealousy Vengeance for the wronged friend Entertainment Boredom Ego booster Readily accessible Revenge of the Nerd- victim becomes the bully Impersonal nature of a screen
So whats happening to the cyberbullying victims?
Dont tell 58% have not told their parents or an adult about something mean or hurtful that happened to them online. Cyberbullying is rarely reported Fear of retaliation or worsening of the bullying A major barrier is fear of losing internet or
phone privileges. isafe.org Kowalski R, et al. Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S22-S30. 2007. Digital Isolation One of the most damaging effects is that a victim begins to avoid friends and activities, often
the very intention of the cyberbully. Digital isolation becomes physical / social / emotional isolation In general, peer harassment leads to: Depression
Emotionally labile Decreased selfworth Hopelessness Loneliness Lower GPA / Grad rates Poor sleep patterns Withdrawal Avoidance of media
Lying Poor health (up to 3 yr) Use of violence in confrontations Hinduja S, et al. Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide. Archives of Suicide Research. 14:206-221, 2010. Suicide CDC: suicide was the 2nd leading cause of death
among 10-24 year olds in 2010. Even though suicide rates have decreased between 1990-2000 among young people, there has been an upward trend in 10- to 20-year olds from 2000-2010. Baldry A, et al. Direct and vicarious victimization at school and at home as risk factors for suicidal cognition among Italian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence. 26(6). 703-716. 2003. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56(35),
905-908. Suicide and Bullying Youth who are bullied are at an elevated risk for suicidal ideation, attempts, and completion of suicides. Among boys who were frequently bullied (at least once
per week) 4% had severe suicidal ideation versus 1% in boys not bullied. In girls, of those bullied 8% had severe SI versus 1% in those not. Of those who bullied others at least once per week both boys and girls showed 8% increase of severe SI.
Kaltiala-Heino R, et al. Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: School Survey. British Medical Journal. 319(7206). 348-351. 1999. Suicide and Cyberbullying Youth who experienced traditional bullying or cyberbullying, as either offender or victim, scored higher on suicidal ideation scales.
Cyberbullying victimization was a stronger predictor of suicidal ideation than bullying or cyberbullying offending. Hinduja S, et al. Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide. Archives of Suicide Research. 14:206-221, 2010. Helping Victims and Bullies as a Parent Making a difference
R a Be el d Mo e ol
art t S ing k As
Recognize the importance of online relationships for children and adolescents Counsel and demonstrate internet safety and responsibility Encourage efforts by schools and lawmakers Ask about your childs screen time (cell, tv, games, computer, etc.) Talk about your childs online life Talk about suicide with your child Encourage open communication between
your child and their teachers, physician, and other trusted adults Privacy vs. Protection Is it okay to snoop? Play-date analogy Use
parental monitoring software and site filters Do NOT rely on these methods only An opportunity to reward good behavior Keep passwords for emergencies Check your childs internet History A Special Privilege With
Rules Talk about allowable and unallowable sites BAN Ask.fm and sites that promote negativity Set
a time limit for use Consistently apply firm consequences for inappropriate online behavior Media Agreements To post, or not to post Risk Factors for Victimization Sexual Race
Orientation Disability Mental health Poverty Responding to Inappropriate Posts Use the right words
(Avoid me & you) NO- I dont like what you posted about me. YES- That post doesnt belong on Facebook Using assertive language is most effective!
A Slowly Changing Industry Facebook is making changes. Links provided allow children to respond to posts or images that they dont like in a constructive manner When Cyberbullying Occurs
Keep evidence of cyberbullying. Record the dates, times, and descriptions of instances when cyber bullying has occurred. Save and print screenshots, emails, and text messages. Use this evidence to report cyberbullying to web and cell phone service providers. Block the person who is cyberbullying.
Report the cyberbullying to social media sites and internet service providers Cyberbullying behavior usually violates the terms of service Police Involvement Cyber activities that include the following are crimes and should be reported to police: Threats of violence or extortion Child pornography or sending sexually
explicit messages or photos Taking a photo or video of someone in where he or she would expect privacy Stalking and hate crimes a place School Responsibility
K.S.A. 72-8256 Introduced 2007 Amended in 2008 to include Cyberbullying March 2011- first week of Oct is Bullying Awareness Week Additional amendments to strengthen this law died in committee June 2012
USD 259 P1464 PUPIL BEHAVIOR REGULATIONS Bullying occurs in all forms including, but not limited to, appearance, status with a peer group (social power), intellectual, socio-economic, gender, race, sexual orientation, ethnicity, etc. Bullying in any form is prohibited on school property, in a school vehicle, or at a schoolsponsored activity or event. In addition, bullying is prohibited while utilizing school property. Bullying includes Cyberbullying. The Schools Are Learning!
What doesnt work: Zero-tolerance policies Conflict resolution with peer mediation Group treatment for student who bully Simple, short-term solutions What does work: Role playing, practice scenarios as part of year-long curriculum Acknowledging bullying outside of school affects school
performance and attendance Protecting students that report cyber bullying Strict monitoring of digital media use Helping to educate parents When Schools Fail School Violence Hotline 1-877-626-8203 If a child is bullied because of their race,
ethnicity, or disability and local help is not working to solve the problemContact the U.S. Department of Educations Office on Civil Rights Federal Involvement No federal laws currently against bullying Only Harassment / Discrimination protection
Qualifiers for Federal protection: Changing Legal Definitions D.D. v. R.R. In this cyberbullying case, D.C., a 15 year old student, and his parents brought a hate crime, defamation, and other claims against another student, R.R., and his parents concerning the posting of threatening and derogatory comments on the student, D.C.'s, web page. One comment
referred to R.R.'s desire to "pound your head in with an ice pick". The court denied the special motion to strike under California Code of Civil Procedure 425.16. The Court of Appeal found that the defendants statements were true threats and were not protected speech and not a public issue. This case demonstrates that some instances of cyber bullying may not necessarily be protected under Freedom of Speech. D.C. v. R.R., 182 Cal. App. 4th 1190 (2010) Provider/Family Resources
www.stopbullying.com www.stopcyberbullying.org www.ncpc.org provides information about stopping cyber bullying before it starts. www.wiredsafety.com Growing Up Online Frontline- PBS, purchase DVD or view on-line at: www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/kidsonline/
view/ www.commonsense.org Amanda Todd, 15 yr October 10th, 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ej7afkypUsc Thank you Questions? References
Baldry A, et al. Direct and vicarious victimization at school and at home as risk factors for suicidal cognition among Italian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence. 26(6). 703-716. 2003. Bandura A. 2002. Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. J Moral Edu 31:101-119. Celizic, Mike (March 6, 2009). Her teen committed suicide over sexing". Today Parenting- MSNBC. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/29546030. Retrieved 2010-10-27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56(35), 905-908. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Injury Prevention: Youth Violence: National Statistics. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/stats_at-a_glance/national_stats.html . Retrieved 201309-09. Common Sense media agreement for parents and kids (teens). www.commonsense.org. Retrieved 2013-0909. Growing Up Online (Chapter 6: "Cyberbullying"). [Television production]. Boston: PBS. January 22, 2008. Event occurs at 0:08:160:08:30. http://www.pbs.org/frontline/video/share.html?s=frol02n3b7q4e. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
Hinduja S, et al. Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide. Archives of Suicide Research. 14:206-221, 2010. KSDE Bullying Prevention. Statement from the Kansas State Board of Education. Access from http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=KGbmh5hB-fY%3D&tabid=4732 on December 5th, 2012. Kaltiala-Heino R, et al. Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: School Survey. British Medical Journal. 319(7206). 348-351. 1999. Kowalski R, et al. Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S22S30. 2007. Kowalski R, et al. 2008. Cyber Bullying. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Jonathan Lemire, Michael J. Feeney And Larry Mcshane (1 October 2010). "He Wanted Roomie Out Rutgers Suicide Complained Of Video Voyeur Before Fatal Fall". Daily News (New York): p. 2. Retrieved 2010-10-27. Mishna F, et al. Cyber Bullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students. American Journal of
Orthopsychiatry. 2010. Vol 8, No 3, 362-374. Pornari CD, et al. Peer and Cyber Aggression in Secondary School Students: The Role of Moral Disengagement, Hostile Attribution Bias, and Outcome Expectancies. Aggressive Behavior. Vol 36, pg 8194. (2010) Steinhauer, Jennifer (November 26, 2008). "Verdict in MySpace Suicide Case". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/27/us/27myspace.html?_r=1&hp. Retrieved 2010-10-27. Young, R. (Writer), & Ashlock, A. (Director). (2013). Facebook Debuts New Bullying Reporting Messages [Radio series episode]. In K. McKenna (Producer), Here and Now. Boston: NPR, WBUR. A Positive Internet Tale
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