False Codling Moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta False Codling Moth Other common names: citrus codling moth, orange codling moth, orange moth, palomilla de la naranja, fausse carpocapse, and teigne de loranger Native to Africa Economic pest Not yet in the United
States Image credits: Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein, TortAI: Tortricids of Agricultural Importance, USDA APHIS ITP, Bugwood.org 5482546 Potential Distribution in the U.S. Risk Map Thaumatotibia leucotreta, False Codling Moth A singe male moth was found in Ventura, CA Often intercepted at quarantine
Image credits: Map-USDA Pest Response Guidelines Global Distribution of the False Codling Moth Global distribution Distribution in Africa Image credits: http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/6904 Pest of Fruits and Seeds Very broad host range Some primary hosts include: corn, orange, peach, oak, and cotton
Peach Corn Cotton Oak Image credits: Oak - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oak Peach - https://www.britannica.com/plant/peach Orange By Ellen Levy Finch (Elf) - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39146 Corn https://www.britannica.com/plant/corn-plant Cotton - Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=689304 Orange
Damage Image credits: Kenneth R. Law, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org 5471810 Varies depending on host Hidden inside fruit Little or no external signs Can cause premature fruit drop
Can cause secondary infections Life cycle Eggs Larvae Adult Pupae Image credit: Eggs J.H. Hofmeyr, Citrus Research International, Bugwood.org UGA5137015 Larvae Marja van der Straten, NVWA Plant Protection Service, Bugwood.org 5471822 Pupae J.H. Hofmeyr, Citrus Research International, Bugwood.org UGA5137010 Adult -Marja van der
Straten, NVWA Plant Protection Service, Bugwood.org 5471821 Adults Identification 6-9mm long, 2.5mm wide Female: 19-20mm wingspan Male: 15-16mm wingspan Color grayish brown to dark brown or black Distinctive black triangular marking beneath crescent shaped mark on wing edge Female:
Male: Image credits: Female - By Simon Hinkley & Ken Walker, Museum Victoria https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15562337 Male - By Simon Hinkley & Ken Walker, Museum Victoria https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15562343 Lookalikes - Adults Codling moth: Cydia pomonella Eastern pine seedworm: Cydia toreuta Image credits: Codling moth- Pest and Diseases Image Library, Bugwood.org 5488473 Eastern pine seedworm- Todd M. Gilligan and Marc E. Epstein, TortAI: Tortricids of Agricultural Importance, USDA APHIS ITP, Bugwood.org 5482438 Pupae
Identification 7mm long Males smaller than females Begin soft and cream colored Mature to hardened
yellow to dark brown Sensitive to low temperatures, humidity, and frequent irrigation Image credit: J.H. Hofmeyr, Citrus Research International, Bugwood.org UGA5137009 Larvae Identification
Image credits: Kenneth R. Law, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org 5471816 Larva change as they age Start 1-1.3mm long, end 15 to 20mm Creamy, yellow white bodies that later become pink or red with yelloworange sides Head begins brownish black then
turns light maroon Identification Eggs Translucent white Flattened Oval
0.9-1mm diameter Hatch in 2-22 days Sensitive to cold and low humidity Image credits: J.H. Hofmeyr, Citrus Research International, Bugwood.org UGA5137015 Monitoring Use yellow delta traps
50:50 false codling moth pheromone Stake into ground Hang in trees Image credits: stake d delta trap- http://www.invasive.org/weeds/knapweedbook.pdf two delta traps - William A. Carothers, USDA Forest Service - Bugwood.org, #1515074 Chemical Control Larvae protected inside of fruit Pheromone mating disruption Pyrethroids and chitin inhibitors
Image credits: Helecopter- USDA APHIS PPQ , USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org UGA2651006 Biological Control Image credits: J.H. Hofmeyr, Citrus Research International, Bugwood.org UGA5137008 No native parasitoids Granulosis virus Baculovirus
Sterile insect release Cultural Control Sanitize site Remove infected materials Heavy irrigation can kill pupae Cold treatments (-0.5C) Image credits: Flood irrigation - Gerald Holmes, California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo, Bugwood.org 1572692 Log removal Robert L. Anderson, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org UGA0590094
Suspect Sample Submissions Contact your State Department of Agriculture or University Cooperative Extension laboratory http://www.npdn.org/home PPQ form 391, Specimens for Determination https://www.aphis.usda.gov/library/form s/pdf/PPQ_Form_391.pdf
An example of a PPQ form for sample submissions Image credits: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/library/forms/pdf/PPQ_Form_391.pdf Communications Contact your State Plant Health Director https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ ourfocus/planthealth/ppq-program -overview/ct_sphd Contact your State Plant Regulatory Official http://nationalplantboard.org/me
mbership/ Image credits: http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome; http://nationalplantboard.org/ Author and Publication Dates Brianna Whitman, B.S. Laboratory Technician, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida Amanda Hodges, Ph.D. Associate Extension Scientist, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida Publication date: October 2016
Reviewers Catherine A. Marzolf Assistant State Plant Health Director, USDA APHIS PPQ Educational Disclaimer and Citation This presentation can be used for educational purposes for NON-PROFIT workshops, trainings, etc. Citation: Whitman, Brianna and Amanda Hodges. 2016. False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta. Accessed (add the date) www.protectingusnow.org
Our Partners United States Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA) United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA APHIS PPQ) Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey (CAPS) Program National Plant Board (NPB) States Department of Agriculture Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN) Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (Bugwood) National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
U.S. Forest Service (USFS) References 1. Andermatt Biocontrol. 2016. Cryptex. Andermat Biocontrol AG. Accessed 6/29/16. http://www.export.biocontrol.ch/sites/products/bio-insecticides/baculovirus/cryptex.html 2. Anonymous. 2015. Thaumetotibia leucotreta (false codling moth). Invasive Species Compendium. Accessed 6/29/16. http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/6904 3. Carpenter, J., S. Bloem, and H. Hofmeyr. 2007. Area-wide Control Tactics for the False Codling Moth Thaumatotibia leucortreta in South Africa: a Potential Invasive Species. Area-wide Control of Insect Pests: 351-359. U.S. Government. 4. EPPO. 2016. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization:
Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). OEPP. EPPO. Accessed 6/29/16. https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/insects/thaumatotibia_leucotreta.htm 5. Gendall, Kierryn Leigh. 2007. Agathis bishop (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): its biology and usefulness as a biological control agent for false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on citrus. Rhodes University. 6. Gillian, Todd M. and Marc E. Epstein. 2014. TortAI: Tortricids of Agricultural Importance. Colorado State University. Accessed 6/29/16. http://idtools.org/id/leps/tortai/Thaumatotibia_leucotreta.htm References 7. North American Moth Photographers Group. 2016. Mississippi State University, Mississippi Entomological Museum. Accessed 6/29/16.
http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/species.php?hodges=19685 8. Plantwise Technical Factsheet: false codling moth (Thaumatotibia leucotreta). 2016. Plantwise Knowledge Bank. Accessed 6/29/16. http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=6904 9. U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Emergency and Domestic Programs. 2010. New Pest Response Guidelines: False Codling Moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta. Riverdale, Maryland http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/online_manuals.shtml
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