GCSE SHORT COURSE CITIZENSHI P CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT IMPROVEMEN

GCSE SHORT COURSE CITIZENSHI P CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT IMPROVEMEN T LESSON - Books out - - Everything stuck in? RESPONSE? - - Date and title- presentation code please. - - return of old books? - - Mocks stuck in? - - purchase revision guide? 2 - - Brains turned on!?

To do/checklist! Controlled Assessment record sheet at the front Any missing sheets-table of discussion? -Ppts from the visitor? - Create your own Q and A for the visitor? Extra lined paper in the relevant pages Research including photocopy I gave you ? Photo evidence and evidence of you action ie facebook page? Questionnaire evidence? Witness statement? CANDIDATE NUMBER ON EVERY PAGE OF EVIDENCE? Hole punched through all MARK SCHEME FOR THE CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT EXAMINER FEEDBACK

Moderators noticed that there was improved research and presentation of work by candidates; as well as literacy skills in grammar, punctuation and spelling. Also there was evidence of good internal standardising by the teachers, which is so essential where more than one teacher delivers the course. It can be evidenced by the second teachers initials on the front cover of the Candidates work. However, there is need to take care when transferring these marks should there be any changes. EXAMINER FEEDBACK ON CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT Especially noticeable were: The number of candidates who persevered against the odds/unplanned events that would inevitably have an impact

their work, and possibly their level of achievement. Instances of no response from the people of power, yet undeterred, they either used their back-up plan, or contacted suitable alternatives Instances where group efforts were extremely co-operative The success rates of raising awareness, fund raising or changing the situation for the better eg bullying in schools Those who were mentioned in school newsletters or the local press. EXAMINER FEEDBACK Examples of good practice from candidates included: Clear indication of the issue to be researched and appropriate evidence submitted. This was in many cases cross referenced. Very good evidence of the participation in action, well referenced or labelled for identification,

Many who could identify and use citizenship skills of planning, communication discussion and negotiation. Many demonstrated good evaluative skills, when analysing and reflecting on the whole process, including peer evaluation and questionnaires with sound analysis Clear links with Citizenship Enthusiasm, honesty and over-coming shyness were characteristics of a lot of candidates GCSE SHORT COURSE CITIZENSHI P SECTION 1 IMPROVEMEN T

- 15 MINUTES ONLY SECTION 1 FEEDBACK Where candidates had not considered an issue within the local community, they had chosen one that is a topic that concerns them in some way, and sought to raise awareness through their action. Hence candidates have taken the local link to mean raising awareness locally, but a number of candidates were unable to explain why their issue was important locally. For full marks candidates must describe the link from a local perspective, give their own personal view and explain how the issue is linked to a Citizenship Theme from Unit 1. Candidates are not penalised for discussing links with more than one theme. Candidates should not be penalised for only linking their issue with one of the themes, as this was asked in the question. A number of centres were awarding marks where candidates had just included the words national and local without explanation, however, credit cannot be given without an explanation. There was a wide variation of responses relating to the links with citizenship themes. Some were just one sentence, without any explanation or analysis, others included comments from more than one theme (quite acceptable), but just one sentence from each does not fully meet the criteria; candidates should explain in part 1b how this issue fully links to the theme/s.

There should be some reference made to the research, with explanations and annotation to indicate their personal research. The two sections are taken as a whole for the awarding of marks and need not be equal in length. GCSE SHORT COURSE CITIZENSHI P SECTION 2 IMPROVEMEN T - 15 MINUTES ONLY SECTION 2 FEEDBACK

Candidates were frequently awarded marks in level 4 where there was either no interview, or a reported interview but no evidence of such, or any analysis, or a mix of all of these observations. Depending on who candidates tried to communicate with, very much depended on their success. Writing to David Cameron was commendable, but highly unlikely to receive a response. However, it was amazing how many local MPs replied to candidates and for this there should be thanks offered. Sadly there were many candidates this year who experienced lack of replies from invitations to interview. SECTION 2 FEEDBACK Centres ought to consider the reasons for this:

have appropriate people been contacted? They are less likely to receive replies from Obama and David Cameron than a teacher or other local representative. > how was the invitation worded? If it was just along the lines of 'please tell me what you think of .... it probably wont have a response. > was the person actually in a position to reply? Centres really need to give some guidance as to appropriate people to contact, and how such letters need to be addressed/worded to elicit a response. When replies were received there was often very little analysis of the views held and even less comparison with their own view (which was not always made evident). Many candidates did approach staff in their school, including Senior Managers. In some cases this was very effective, but others were inadequate-little more than requests to put up posters or something else in school which required permission. This missed the point of trying to find out the views of others and compare such with their own view. There were also a few instances where credit was given for the action which was also the interview so in effect crediting twice in Sections 2 and 3. Another misinterpretation is where the candidate contacts (usually by email) to ask permission for use of a display board, assembly or to carry out the action-to identify some of the misconceptions. The key words of the question are to find out the views of the person contacted. Often candidates had described fully how and when they interviewed rather than stating the actual views obtained through questioning. Centre Assessors need to refer to the level descriptors carefully to ensure they mark in the right level. There was a tendency to over mark by assessors, especially where there was no analysis that could be credited. Well organised groups had contacted and interviewed more than two people and submitted views from a wide variety of people. Generally these were well

recognised by the centre. Centres should remind candidates that there is a requirement of evidence to support these interviews: copies of emails, transcripts of questions and answers or CDs are appropriate and acceptable. However, a number of centres arranged for all candidates to cover the same issue which is quite acceptable but, where the centre arranged for the person to attend a question and answer session, it was difficult to assess the individual candidates contribution. > GCSE SHORT COURSE CITIZENSHI P SECTION 3 IMPROVEMEN T - 15 MINUTES ONLY

SECTION 3 FEEDBACK Section 3 Marks are not awarded for a description of the activity. Section a) requires a candidate to suggest ways in which action could be taken, what could be ascertained by doing so and whether it would be feasible to carry it out. Credit should be given for group discussion when considering these actions, the description of negotiation and how the evidence demonstrated the citizenship skills, and the impact that is anticipated from the participation in the action. It should also be noted that responses should be written in paragraphs, rather than bullet points. A Witness Testimony Form, fully completed and personalised, would be a good way to inform the assessors as to the performance of the candidate. Where there is a generic Witness Testimony Form, it does not inform of an individual candidate's performance. All it witnesses is the fact that the candidates have taken part in an activity. The next part, section b) is the place for candidates to describe their action taken. More able candidates clearly described their actions and often outlined the actions of the others in the group and the negotiating skills in allocation of tasks. However, in other cases, it was rather more difficult to ascertain exactly what contribution the candidate made. There should be evidence of the action/s, annotated to indicate the candidates participation.

GCSE SHORT COURSE CITIZENSHI P SECTION 4 IMPROVEMEN T - 15 MINUTES ONLY SECTION 4 FEEDBACK Section 4 It was rather surprising how many centre assessors did not accurately credit Quality of Written Communication which should be assessed in this section.

It was also noted that credit was rightly given to candidates who had extended their action to social networking which would give a national perspective or even international perspective to their investigation, and proved to be well documented in this section. More able candidates described their personal view at the end of their action and evaluate their own performance. In many cases, this was the weaker section of the task and it would be advised to consider how teachers can help candidates to understand what is required in order to evaluate The Way Forward Centres should ensure that candidates have sufficient time allocated for effective communication with the people of power and have a back-up plan. Arrangements should be made when candidates are absent from writing up sessions. The Centre Assessor should draw attention to the requirements: i. The importance of discussion of their own personal view ii. It must be evident as to what the individual candidate actually did if

this was part of group work. iii. Successful communication is where the candidate has expressed the reason for their concern and suggested a way in which this could change. iv. A contingency plan is advised for use in instances where there is no replies. v. Support documents and training details are available on: www.edexcel.com GCSE SHORT COURSE CITIZENSHI P THEME 3The Global community

- Books out - - Everything stuck in? - - Date and title- presentation code please. - - return of old books? - - Mocks stuck in? - - purchase revision guide? 2 - - Brains turned on!? Its CRAMMER TIME! EXAMINATION MATERIALREVISION GCSE Citizenship SHORT COURSE UNIT 1 Citizenship Today (exam)

UNIT 2 Participatin g in Society Rights and Responsibilit ies Controlled Assessment Power, Politics and the Media The Global Community 02/27/2020

Your exam date is May 16th ! Revision needs to happen from NOW! Useful website: www.edexcel.com Look for past papers to help you prepare. Or see me and I can out all onto a stick for you straight away! YOUR EXAM KEY INFORMATION 1 HOUR TITLE- CITIZENSHIP TODAY THREE THEMES

THEME 1 RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES THEME 2 POWER POLITICS AND THE MEDIA THEME 3 THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY MARKED OUT OF 50 SECTION A QUESTIONS ON ALL THREE THEMES TO BE ANSWERED DIFFERENT SOURCES GIVEN TO ANSWER SET OF QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWER/MULTIPLE CHOICE SECTION B ESSAY QUESTION YOU CHOOSE 1 ESSAY TO ANSWER FROM A CHOICE OF THEE- 12 MARKS. PICK A THEME OF YOUR CHOICE BUT READ THE QUESTION AND CONSIDER THE STRUCTURE OF A 12 MARK QUESTION. THEME 3 THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY RESOURCES The specification outline- resource?

12 mark question plan/guidance photocopy resource/ BUY A REVISION GUIDE 2 NEXT LESSON!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Homework/apply it Small questions on your hand out- use your revision guide to answer and find the answers to these due in next lesson the rights and responsibilities section x 3 are also due now! THEME 3- THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY- PART A THE UK AND EUROPE

THE COMMONWEALTH THE UNITED NATIONS BRITISH ISSUES ABROAD GLOBAL ISSUES REVISION SUMMARY THE UK AND EUROPE You became a citizen of Europe when you were born so you need to understand what this means then! The European Union is growing- the EU has 27 member countries at the moment: France, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxemburg, Italy, Spain, Portugal, UK, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Sweden, Finland, Austria- joined before 2004 since then, the EU has admitted Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania. (More countries may join in the future!) The member countries agree to work together, obey EU laws and contribute money to the EU budget (WOLCM) THE UK AND EUROPE The EU GOVERNMENT IS A COMPLICATED ORGANISATION EU countries share laws about things like human rights and follow rules about things like fishing and farming.

the EU government is complicated. Here is how EU decisions get made The European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human rights interpret EU laws- they can overrule the decisions of national courts. EU citizens can appeal to the European courts for a judgement. Drafts new laws on economic, social. Foreign policy. Members can be questioned and their decisions blocked by the parliament European commission 27 membersappointed by the government of the member countries

736 members (MEPS) directly elected by EU citizens) European parliament Debates and amends laws proposed bu the commission. Controls the EU budget along with the council Made up of one minister from the government of Must agree each member country. with the parliament on amendments

to new laws. Council of the European Union Once policies have been approved by the parliament and the council they are passes back to the commission to implement THE UK AND EUROPE THE EUROPEAN UNION IS A SINGLE MARKET EU countries trade between themselves without tariffs (tariffs are charges imposed on imported goods). This single market means businesses have a huge number of people to sell their goods to- which can boost economies and create jobs. However, some small business have found it hard to compete. EU citizens are allowed to live, work, study and get healthcare and social welfare in any EU country EU membership brings other benefits too- e.g. environmental laws are more effective, consumer rights laws are the same

across all EU countries, and fighting international crime and illegal immigration is easier. some people reckon that being part of the EU is good because it helps keep the peace in Europe as well as giving countries a bigger say in world events. THE UK AND EUROPE NOT EVERYONE AGREES WITH THE EU GOVERNMENT 1. a lot of people in this country disagree with the EU government The European Parliament has a reputation as a talking shop that doesnt actually achieve much eg saying that bananas must not be too bent that sort of thing. the European commission is sometimes seen as undemocratic, because its members are appointed not elected- some people do not like the idea that laws and economic decision get made by people we haven't voted for. some people are concerned that the UKS given up too much independence or that the member countries are too diverse for the EU to be effective Free trade campaigners criticise the single market for imposing tariffs on poor countries outside of the EU.

2. Big decision have good and bad sides. E.g. the common agricultural policy which guarantees prices for farmers produce, meant that too much of some things were made (wine lakes and butter mountains). YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE PROS AND CONS OF BEING PART OF THE EUESPECIALLY WITH THE CURRENT GOVERNMENT AT THE MOMENT REFERENDUM ON WHETHER TO STAY PART OF THE EU OR NOT. Pros and cons of being part of the EU. THE COMMONWEALTH The British Empire was the name for all of the countries around the world that were ruled by

Britain. By the end of the 19th century the British Empire included about a quarter of the Earths population, but after World War II the colonies started to become independent. The days of the Empire are long gone- but it was the foundation of the commonwealth of Nations. THE COMMONWEALTH THE BRITISH EMPIRE BECAME THE COMMONWEALTH Nearly all the members of the Commonwealth of Nations are former British colonies. After they gained independence they chose to join the commonwealth (once called the British commonwealth of nations) There are now 54 members of the Commonwealth of Nations. The British Monarch is still its official Head (she's also the monarch of 15 other countries including Canada Jamaica and Australia). The commonwealth is mainly a forum for discussion. Heads of each country meet every two years to discuss thing that

concern all members like human rights issues, economic and social development and the environment Its principles are outlined in the Harare Declaration (1991) They are basically - international peace and the rule of international law democracy and equal rights for all opposition to racism and racial oppression economic development to improve living standards in poor countries. THE COMMONWEALTH MEMBERW CAN BE SUSPENDED FROM THE COMMONWEALTH In 1995, the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group was set up. This group has the power to discipline governments that go against the Commonwealths principles. In March 2002 Zimbabwe was suspended from the Commonwealth after reports of intimidation and vote rigging by the Zanu PF party during the countries elections.

Zimbabwe withdrew from the commonwealth in 2003 Apart from suspension the commonwealth doesnt have any real power. It doesnt act as a single political entity or have any influence over non member countries. THE COMMONWEALTH THE COMMONWEALTH PROMOTES CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING The Commonwealth was originally about trade agreements and defence but these links have become less important. Cultural and sporting links still are important thought. The commonwealth Games is held every four years. It is known as the friendly games and aims to improve relations between commonwealth countries. its a competition including lots of sports like athletics, swimming, gymnastics, rugby sevens and netball. in 1987 the Commonwealth Writers Prize was set up to encourage new writers and make sure good books were read outside the country they came from.

Whether you think the British Empire was a good things or a bad thing it changed the face of the world. Make sure you understand what the commonwealth actually means today and how it came about. THE UNITED NATIONS the United nations was formed after World War II to try to stop wars. Nearly every country is a member. THE UNITED NATIONS TRIES TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS AND PROTECT VICTIMS The UNs 192 members countries all signed the UN charter agreeing to - RESOLVE DISPUTES PEACEFULLY AND PREVENT ACTS OF AGGRESSION RESPECT INTERNATIONAL LAWS AND PROTECT HUMAN RIGHTS COOPERATE TO SOLVE INTERNATION ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND HUMANITARIAN PROBLEMS

THE UNITED NATIONS The Universal Declaration of Human Rights says the UN members agree to protect everyone's right to life and to freedom from things like slavery, torture, discrimination and unfair trials. The General Assembly is an annual meeting of representatives of all UN members. One of its jobs is to vote on General Assembly resolutions eg condemning killings in Bosnia in 1993, Resolutions are only recommendations but show a strong international opinion. The Uns international court (the International Court of Justice) rules on international disagreements e.g. dispute about where borders lie. In 1998 the UN set the ball rolling to establish an independent international Criminal court of prosecute people accused of breaking humanitarian laws (committing war crimes or genocide). The court was established in 2002).

THE UNITED NATIONS THE UNITED NATION SECUTIRY COUNCIL DISCUSSES PEACE AND SECURITY The Security Council has 15 member countries. If a country acts aggressively, the security Council can pass Security Council Resolutionsallowing the UN to impose economic sanctions (stop people trading with them) or take military action. After a conflict, the UN will often send in peacekeeping troops to help make sure peace agreements are kept to. since the 1990s British forces have had big peacekeeping roles in Sierra Leone, Bosnia and Kosovo. SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS- The Security Council has 5 permanent member countries (the Victors of World War II- the USA, the UK, France, China and Russia) and 10 elected members that change every two years. The permanent members have the power to veto a resolution they can top a resolution even if all the other countries agree to it. Because of this, counties like Brazil, Germany India and Japan think they

should be permanent members too but not enough countries agree who should join the original five. THE UNITED NATIONS The Millennium Development Goals aim to help the poor Eight millennium Goals were agreed by the UN in 2000. They all aim to improve the standard of living in poorer countries. All member countries agree to try and achieve them by 2015. poorer countries promised to improve the way their countries are run, and wealthy countries promised to provide the resources to help them make the changes. The goals include these targets. 1- reduce by half those suffering from hunger and poverty 2. make sure all children get primary education 3. make sure girls get as much education as boys 4. reduce by 2/3 the death rate of children under 5 5. reduce by the death rate of mothers in childbirth 6. stop the spread of HIV and AIDS

7. Improve environmental sustainability and halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water 8. have an open trading and financial systems that doesnt make it hard for less developed countries to trade. countries like CHINA are close to meeting these goals but Many African countries are not. YOU NEED TO KNOW HOW INTERNATION AGREEMENTS AFFTECT THE UK- SO DONT FORGET WE HAVE SIGNED THE UN AGREEMENTS ON HUAM RIGHTS AND DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND THT BRITISH TROOPS TAKE PART IN PEACEKEEPING AROUND THE WORLD. MORE ON BRITISH ISSUES ABROAD A few more things the UK does abroad to know about- it is a member of the G8 and NATO and it helps poorer (also called less economically developed_ countries by giving international aid and debt relief. MEMBERS OF NATO AGREEE TO DEFEND EACH OTHER

- NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation it has 28 members including Britain, USA, France and Germany. NATO is the worlds most powerful defence alliance. Article 5 of the treaty basically states an attack on one member is considered an attack on the entire alliance NATO was set up by the USA and countries in Western Europe when there was a lot of tension between these countries and the communist East of Europe. Now three former communist countries Poland, Hungary, Czech republic are members of NATO. NATOs first military action was the former Yugoslavia in the early 90s. This was a peacekeeping mission to try and limit the bloodshed causes by the civil war in Yugoslavia. MORE ON BRITISH ISSUES ABROAD THE G8 IS A MEETING OF EIGHT RICH COUNTRIES The G8 members are the United States, UK, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Canada, Russia.

The heads of government of the G8 members meet every year to discuss world economic problems. they met in 2008 and 2009 to cooperate to deal with the financial crisis caused by banks lending money to people who couldnt afford to pay it back and to try and stop it happening again. The G8 will be replace by the G20 in the future as the main economic meeting. The G20 includes more African, South American and Asian countries as well as international banks, they are often big protests at the same time as these summits- people blame the leaders for not doing enough to sort out things like poverty in Africa, Global warming and HIV/Aids. TIP- THE UK IS PART OF SO MANY INTERNATIONAL ORGANISAIONS JUST MAKE SURE THAT YOU DO NOT GET YOUR UNITED NATIONS MIXED WITH YOUR NATO OR YOUR COMMONWEALTH WITH YOUR G8/G20 AND ALL WILL BE OK!

THE G20 SUMMIT 2015 Background The Antalya summit is the 10th edition of the G20 leaders' meeting. Together, the G20 members represent around 90% of global GDP, 80% of global trade and two-thirds of the worlds population. This year, Turkey holds the rotating Presidency of the G20. The G20 members are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union. The European Union thus is a full member of the G20 and is represented at G20 summits by the President of the European Commission and the President of the European Council. The G20 members have invited Spain as a permanent invitee. Additionally, Zimbabwe was invited as they are the 2015 chair of the African Union, Malaysia was invited as they are the 2015 Chair of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Senegal was representing the New Partnership for Africa's Development, and Azerbaijan and Singapore were also invited. The 11th edition of the G20 summit will be hosted by China in Hangzhou, in 2016. [6] To discuss the world's biggest political and security crises, including Syria and the mass migration of refugees. [7] Preparatory meetings[edit] World leaders at the summit. In September 2015, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Jack Lew planned to visit Turkey, as did his Chinese [8] and other G-20 finance counterparts and central bankers. Throughout the year leading up to the November summit, preparatory and regular meetings,

many in locations in Turkey this year, on Women-20, Youth-20, Energy in Sub-Saharan Africa, The silver economy, Islamic finance, tourism, agriculture and other subjects have convened or, as of September, were planned. [9] Results[edit] The G20 summit was focused on political rather than economic issues due to the terrorist attacks in Paris, in which 132 people were killed. As an organization dealing with global issues of financial and economic cooperation, the G20 decided to change the format of the session. Nevertheless, the format has always been efficient enough so we can expect success in the implementation of the decisions, taken during the summit. According to the summit results, in addition to the pre-planned communiqu, the parties adopted a declaration on fighting terrorism. "We condemn in the most serious way the heinous terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13 and in Ankara on October 10th. They are unacceptable insults to all humanity," read a joint G-20 statement. The heads of state expressed their readiness to fight terrorism in all its forms, including taking steps to resist economic terrorism. [10] "The fight against terrorism is a major priority for all of our countries and we reiterate our resolve to work together to prevent and suppress terrorist acts through increased international solidarity and cooperation," read the joint statement. "We extend our deepest condolences to the victims of terrorist attacks and their families. We reaffirm our solidarity and resolve in the fight against terrorism in all its forms and wherever it occurs." [11] MORE ON BRITISH ISSUES

ABROAD THE UK GIVES INTERNATIONAL AID TO POORER COUNTRIES Aid is money or resources (e.g. food, doctors) given by one country to another. Aid can be classes as either short term or long term depending on what is used for. The UK government is DFID (Department for International development) spend billions of pounds each year. About 10% of their money goes on humanitarian aid and the rest on development projects. International aid Types of aid What is it

Advantage to recipient Disadvantage to recipient Short term or humanitarian aid Money or resources to help recipient countries cope with emergencies eg wars, earthquakes The impact of the aid will be immediate more people will survive the emergency

The development of a country remains unchanged. It may become reliant on aid Long term or development aid Money or resources to help recipient countries become more developed e.g. to improve healthcare Countries will be less reliant on foreign aid as they become more developed

It can take a while before the aid benefits a country e.g. hospitals take a long time to be built Debt relief Some or all of a countries debt is cancelled They can use money they make to develop rather than to pay back the debt Some people worry that is encourages

irresponsible borrowing or that the money will not go to help poor people. GLOBAL ISSUES Each countries economy is linked to global economy through trade. About 80% of the worlds wealth is controlled by the richest 20% of its population. PO[ULATION GROWTH AND POVERTY ARE HUGE PROBLEMS The worlds population is rising rapidly is rising rapidly, particularly in towns and cities in poorer countries. Overcrowding leads to more people living in slums. Many people have poor health because disease spreads easily in the crowded, unsanitary conditions and there's limited healthcare. most of the worlds population live in poverty they dont have money to buy enough food so they become ill, cant work and sink deeper into poverty. 340000 children die each day due to poverty

crime levels increase as people need to steal to survive. Population growth puts extra strain on the worlds resources GLOBAL ISSUES THERE ARE GLOBAL INEUALITIES OF WEALTH FOR MANY REASONS Countries can be broadly classified acforoding to how economically developed they are- richer countries are called more economically developed countries. (MEDCs) Poorer countries are classed less economically developed countries Most MEDCs tend to be found in the north of the world- USE, European countries Most LEDCs are found in the south- coutrnies in South America and Africa.

GLOBAL ISSUES There are loads of factors that might make one country poorer than another for example: GEOGRAPHICAL DIFFERENCES- every country has a different climate and different natural resources. This makes it really hard for some countries to develop e.g. Some African countries suffer from severe drought which makes farming very difficult POLITICAL INSTABILITY some counties have suffered years of unstable or corrupt governments even civil war. They often means they haven't invested money in the right things such as education so economic development is very difficult. GLOBAL ISSUES LEDCS TRADE WITH MEDCS BUT THEY ARE IN A CYCLE OF DEBT During Colonial times, most of today's LEDCs were ruled by MEDCs- the LEDCs tended to produce and supply raw materials. Whilst the MEDCs

developed new industries and markets even when LEDCs gained independence most of the trade links continued in this way many LEDCs have tried to break away from being dependent on MEDCs by borrowing money from banks in MEDCs and the World bank to pay for their own countries development when interest rates rose in the 1980s most LEDCs couldnt afford to pay interest on the loans- their debts rose and they had no money to invest in agriculture, industry , health care or education leading them to a cycle of debt. in the late 1990s many lenders stared cancelling debt on humanitarian grounds to give LEDCS a change to develop. However some people think it is unfair for on countries to borrow lots of money and never have to pay it back especially as the money has sometimes been used for things other than development such as supporting the luxurious lives of dictators. Thats so unfair- what about MY debt?= producers in poor countries often get very low prices for their goods. His means extremely poor wages and bad working conditions. The Fair Trade initiative

aims to improve things to display the FAIRTRADE mark companies must make sure workers are treated fairly (eg decent wages and safe conditions) REVISION SUMMARY QUESTIONS.. Over to you! THEME 3- THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY- THE ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT PART B THE ECONOMY PUBLIC SPENDING AND TAXATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENTAL PROBLEMS INTERDEPENDENCE REVISION SUMMARY THE ECONOMY

The economy is basically all about money and goods circulating through businesses and consumers THE ECONOMY ITS ALL ABOUT BUYING AND SELLING The economy is made up of people and organisations trading goods and services for money to make the economy work, people need to have something that other people want. Like you want a nice pit, the baker wants your moneyeasy! Sometimes people barter- exchange goods for goods or services for services but we normally hand over money for what we want. The economy is split into the public and private sector. The Private sector

The public sector The public sector includes things like the army, police force, most schools and hospitals. public means that they are owned by the government and paid for out of taxes for the benefit of everyone. The private sector contains all the businesses owned by private individuals. Private meant hat these businesses are funded privately and are run for the benefit of the people who own them as well as their customers and employees. THE ECONOMY PRIVATE BUISNEES DRIVE THE ECONOMY Private business are good for the economy both locally and nationally

1. private businesses boost local economies by providing jobs people with a steady income have more money to spend. This encourages more service industries in an area which in turn creates more jobs all businesses pay corporation tax on their profits. Corporation tax makes up about 10% of the governments revenue every year and helps to pay for public sector services. So private businesses essentially pay for the public sector. THE ECONOMY THE GOVERNMENT TRIES TO HELP THE ECONOMY DO WELL The Government is the countries main decision making organisation for the economy. It uses different policies to try and make the economy grow. The economy grows when the country produces lots of goods and services so the government can help by eg investing in businesses and training people, lowering tax rates so people and businesses have more money to spend. Eg VAT was temporarily

reduced from 17.5% to 15% in 2009 to try and boost spending. but factors like the world economy, government policy or wars can lead to economic uncertainty. This can reduce demand for goods and services so there's less money for businesses to earn. Businesses that dont make enough money to pay their labour costs have to make people unemployed. With people and businesses spending less, the economy can shrink and slump into a recession. THE ECONOMY HAVING A JOB IS GOOD FOR YOU AND FOR THE COMMUNITY earning money means you have some to spend this gives you more freedom and control over your life when you spend money the people and businesses that receive it can use it to pay wages to others you will also be able to pay taxes which helps the government to help everyone when you save money, banks can lend it to people and businesses

have a job is good for your self esteem which means you feel good about yourself. when strangers meet one of the first questions they usually ask is what do you do for a living. Being able to give an answer like mechanic, hairdresser, doctor, makes you feel like you have a clear purpose. Is it easy to think of the economy as a big complicated mess that only people in suits should know about- but it is actually not that bad- its mainly just buying and selling patterns and what affects them. PUBLIC SPENDING AND TAXATION Nobody likes having their hard earned cash taken away from them as tax. But in theory, you should see tax money again because it is supposed to be spent on public services like

schools. THE GOVERNMENT RAISES MONEY THROUGH TAXES The government needs to raise money to pay for public services and most of this comes from taxes. DIRECT TAX AND INDIRECT TAX PUBLIC SPENDING AND TAXATION DIRECT TAX - Direct tax is charged directly out of your income - Eg: INDIRECT TAX- is charged on things that you buy eg Income tax and national insurance are deducted from your salary and interest on savings. The more you

earn, the more you pay. VAT- Value Added Tax- is added to the price of many goods and services Inheritance tax- is collected from part of the amount of money left to someone in a will Excise duty is an extra tax on the price of alcohol, tobacco , petrol and diesel to try and discourage people form buying them capital gains tax- is collected from your profit when you sell stuff like buildings, land, company shares.

Corporation tax- is collected from the profits of buinsesses. Road tax- is an excise duty for using public roads- people driving low CO2 emissions cars aren't charged but those driving gas guzzlers pay a big price. PUBLIC SPENDING AND TAXATION TAXES ARE USED TO PAY FOR PUBLIC SERVICES The government spends taxes on providing important services so that they are available to everyone. Some big examples are the national health service (NHS)- free healthcare for everyone Social Security and welfare- pensions, benefits for the unemployed, people unable to work. education free education up to the age of 18

defence- like the army, navy and air force. local governments (towns and county councils) collect council tax- the more your house is worth the more tax you pay. Council tax is spend on your local services for example local schools, police services, rubbish collections, maintaining roads and footpaths, leisure facilities. local governments also get money from central government, business rates and through parking charges. PUBLIC SPENDING AND TAXATION DECIDING HOW TO SPEND TAXES IS DIFFICULT The government tries to make taxation and spending as fair as possible for everyone. But it is a tricky task. There is only so much money to go round and you cant please everyone. Eg some people think that we should spend more money on better equipment for the army to save soldiers lives but other people think that this money should be spent on health care instead of fighting wars in other parts of the world.

You need to balance between taxing people and businesses a fair amount that they can afford and providing high quality public services. the government selects a Chancellor of the Exchequer to make the difficult decisions about tax rates and spending plans. The Chancellor decides how the money from taxes will be divided up between things like health, education, defence and welfare. if the government wants to increase spending in one area say education, then more money needs to be raised. Either by raising taxes or by cutting public spending in another area such as health or money could be borrowed although interest has to be paid on ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS WE ARE USING UP THE EARTHS RESOURCES TOO FAST natural resources include fossil fuels (coal, pil, gas) minerals, (iron, ore, copper) land, and water. Many resources are running out because we are using them up faster than thy can be replaces

demand for resources as increasing as living standards rise. Eg we use more energy for air conditioners etc there are not enough resources to go round so better off people tend to end up with most of them. In fact the richest 20% of the worlds population consume 80% of the resources. competition for scarce resources can lead to conflict and war eg Angola in Africa had a 27 year long civil war because different political groups wanted to take advantage of the rich diamond resources in the country. Many people fled the country as refugees. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS EXTRA CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHPHERE CAUSES CLIMATE CHANGE Global warming and climate change are hot topics 1. the temperature of the earth is a balance between the energy it gets

from the sun and the energy it radiates back our into space 2. lots of energy comes in through the atmosphere as light hits the earth and turns into heat. 3. greenhouse gases in the atmosphere like co2 and methane) naturally act as an insulting layer they bounce back some of the outgoing heat. If this didnt happen then at night they'd be nothing to keep any heat in and we would quickly get cold 4. humans release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere eg as we burn fossil fuels in power stations to make electricity or in vehicle engines there is a consensus that human activity has cause global warming according to scientists (increased earths temperature abit) 5 continued global warming is likely to cause huge problems like flooding and climate change which alters rainfall patterns and disrupts agriculture. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS AIM TO COMBAT GLOBAL WARMING countries are working together to reduce emissions- because global warming affects everyone. at the 1992 UN Earth Summit, world leaders recognised that there is a

link between industrial activity and environmental damage. And that sustainable development is needed. many countries signed up to the Kyoto Protocol at the 1997 Earth Summit. Developed countries agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, monitor climate change and protect the environment. But not all counties wanted to sign up the USE and Autrailians believe that is they met the Kyoto targets it would significantly damage their economic growth. in 2007 leaders from the G8 nations agreed to halve carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. There is also the Gothenburg Protocol which came into force in 2005- it sets emissions targets for European counties and the UAE- it aims to cut harmful gas emissions eg sulphur dioxide and ammonia by 20110 (they are not major greenhouse gases but cause pollution such as acid rain) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT It is not just the government that can do

something about environmental problems SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MEANS THINKING ABOUT THE FUTURE Sustainable development is about improving the quality of life for people now but in a way that they can continue in the future. For development to be sustainable we all need to change our behaviour and use resources in a way that can be kept going for a long time without causing harm to people or the environment. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT For development to be sustainable we all need to change our behaviour and use resources in a way that can be kept going for a long time without causing harm to people or the environment. for example

1. you can reduce your energy use by insulating your home and using energy efficient light bulbs as well as walking or cycling instead of driving 2, businesses can invest in energy efficient technologies eg ventilation that recovers heat from air going out of a building and uses it to warm up fresh air coming in businesses can also use less packaging and sustainable resources- eg wood instead of plastic (wood is renewable you can always grow another tree!) 3 organisations- can educate people about reducing energy consumption eg energy saving trust gives free advice for people wanting to save energy 4 the government can invest in energy efficient technologies an provide incentives for reducing energy use. Eg giving people with old an inefficient boilers money towards a new one. they can also use renewable energy to generate electricity instead of fossil fuels which produce carbon dioxide. Eg wind and wave power are renewable they always be there coal and oil are not. They will run out one day. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

THE RIO EARTH SUMMIT INTRODUCED AGENDA 21 The 1992 UN Earth Summit led to an agreement that action should be taken to protect the environment and deal with world poverty. more than 170 governments signed up to an agreement called agenda 21 Agenda 21 outlines actions that can be taken at local, national and international levels to combat poverty, hunger, war, environmental destruction. There is also local agenda 21 (see next part) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS CAMPAIGN FOR GREENER SOLUTIONS Environmental groups try to stop people harming the planet eg through pollution or deforestation. They try to introduce environmentally responsible solutions instead.

They do this by investigating any abuse of the environment and developing campaigns to raise awareness about what is happening and who is doing it. They try to encourages the public to support their campaigns eg by joining demonstrations, writing to their local MP or donating money to help fund campaigns. This puts pressure on the people responsible to change their ways and stop damaging the environment. Eg Greenpeace helped reduce deforestation in the Amazon by putting pressure on the biggest cattle companies to change their ways and commit to zero deforestation n their supply chains. friends of the earth campaign for carbon emission to be cut- eg by encourage people to sign a petition to get the government to give local councils more money towards cutting carbon emissions. MORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS PROBLEM- TOO MUCH RUBBIHS AND NOT ENOUGH PLACES TO PUT IT

To try to reduce the amount of rubbish that goes to landfill (big holes in the ground) many local councils have switched to fortnightly rubbish collections- general household waste is collected one week and recycling the next this encourages people to sort their waste and recycle so that less waste goes to landfill councils have to pay landfill tax for every tonne of waste that goes to landfill. So the more they recycle the more money they save but general waste left lying around poses a health risk to residents especially in the summer because its a source of food for rats which can spread disease. So many residents aren't happy about fortnightly collections. MORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS TOO MUCH TRAFFIC ON THE ROADS different transport policies have been introduced

to try and reduce traffic on the roads which will also help to reduce pollution and global warming. congestion charges aim to reduce traffic and encourage public transport use by chargin people to drive in congested areas eg central london. The government and local councils spend money on impriving public transport creating cycle paths and making footpaths safer for pedestrians- all to encourage people to reduce their car use. MORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS BUISNESSES USE LOADS OF ENERGY AND CREATE LOTS OF WASTE WHICH IS BAD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. Businesses can reduce their impact on the environment and save money by switching off computer and lights at night to reduce the amount of wasted energy

reducing, reusing, recycling materials to reduce waste or using sustainable material there are packaging regulations which demand businesses pay towards recycling their packaging,. encouraging workers to car share or work from home to reduce the number of cars on the road. MORE ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS LOCAL COUNCILS HAVE DEVELOPED LOCAL ACTION PLANS Part of Agenda 21 is local Agenda 21 which has the slogan think globally act locally. every local council is encouraged to develop local action plan to look at the ways of conserving energy, recycling, reducing pollution and protecting countryside. as well as council action, local agenda 21 stressed the importance of the individual think globally act locally encourages everyone to consider the

environment and do their bit to work towards sustainable development. This could include using the car less, planting trees, buying local goods, recycling more, local agenda 21 helps to increase community participation , reduce energy bills, reduce waste and create a cleaner environment. INTERDEPENDENCE THINGS THAT INDIVIDUALS, COMMUNITIES, ORGANISATIONS DO IMPACT ON OTHERS THIS CAN BE A GOOD THING THOUGH GLOBALISATION IS WHEN ECONOMIES BECOME MORE INTEGRATED. Globalisation is the process of all the worlds economies becoming integrated to form a single community. it happens as countries trade with each other more and more so rely on each others resources or services. multinational companies usually base their factories in poorer countries where labour is much cheaper. Head offices tend to be in richer countries where people have business skills and better education globalisation has increased as transport links and ICT have improved making international trade

easier. GOOD POINTSGlobalisation creates jobs in loads of countries Money is spent in poorer countries eg improving transport networks countries do what they are best at eg supplying cheap labour BAD POINTS Globalisation causes job loses in countries like UK as more things are being made elsewhere Employees in poorer countries are still paid low wages even though companies make huge profits globalisation leads to increased pollution as goods and resources are transported overseas. INTERDEPENDENCE LIVING IN COMMUNITIE MEANS WE DEPEND ON EAHC OTHER A community is a group of people who have something in commoneg people who belong to a sports club, religion. Your local community is made up of everyone who lives or works in your local area. So it includes you, your family, shop workers. People within communities are interdependence- everyone is affected by the things other people do. individuals can help their community by volunteering

here are a few suggestions some areas have schemes where you can visit older people and volunteer to cut lawns or collect groceries. Many local councils run community action projects like litter picking or planting trees and flowers to make areas look pretty you can take part in fund raising events to raise money for local projects INTERDEPENDENCE INDIVIDUALS CAN HELP SOLVE PROBLES IN OTHER COMMUNITIES It is usually easiest to do this through charity or other organisations children in need, or the Royal National Institute of Blind People work at a national level. They help people all over the UK and are often more successful at fundraising than local charities because they have more resources. PLATFORM 2 is a volunteer programme funded by the UK governments department for International development. It pays for young people to fly overseas to volunteer in countries like India, Kenya, Peru.

The volunteers might help to build things like hand water pumps or play areas, teach in schools or raise awareness of HIV and AIDS. Afterwards they are expected to tell people in their communities about the work that they did. This increases awareness of the problems. charities like Oxfam and Comic relief help to tackle poverty in poorer countries. Individuals can help by donating money, ie for farming tools or for mosquito nets. To prevent the spread of malaria. HOW TO DO WELL IN YOUR EXAM- TIPS/GUIDANCE THE CONTROLLED ASSESSMENTIMPROVEMENT TIME

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