Soon after the end of World War II, problems between the West and the Soviet Union. Soviets: strip Germany of all industrial plantship to USSR Stalin in 1946: Communism and capitalism are incompatible; another war is inevitable.
Soviets created satellite nations (dependent on the Soviet Union (USSR) in: Poland Czechoslovakia Hungary Albania Romania Bulgaria
February 1945Yalta Conference (in Soviet Union) Churchill Roosevelt Stalin Agreed to form the United Nations, Soviet Union would enter war against Japan, and division of Europe into zones after the war. une 1945, United Nations created.
June U.S. joins USSR & 48 other nations. San Francisco; later New York General Assembly and 11member Security Council. 5 Permanent Security Council members: U.S., USSR, Great Britain, France, Nationalist China. Each had veto power. July 1945, Truman, Stalin,
and Churchill (later Clement Attlee) meet at Potsdam, near Berlin, Germany Truman informs other Big 3 members about bomb and they design postwar Germany
China erupts into major civil war in 1949 Communists under Mao-Zedong Defeat U. S.-backed Nationalists under Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi)
The Nationalists flee China and establish a government on the island of Formosa (now Taiwan) U. S. President Harry Truman: Policy of Containment Winston Churchill: Fulton, MO,
March 1946: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent (of Europe). First sites of Trumans Policy of Containment: Greece and Turkey
The Truman Doctrine: The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures. U. S. sent $400 million in aid to Greece & Turkey, 1947-1950, because they rejected
Communism. Dean Acheson and George Kennan: the Domino Theory If one nation fell to Communism, surrounding nations would fall The Marshall Plan Truman names
General George C. Marshall as Secretary of State 1947: The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. $12.5 billion
National Security Act of 1947 Created the Department o Defense Created the U. S. Air Force Created the National Security Council Created the Joint Chiefs of Staff Created the Central Intelligence Agency
Soviet British U. S. French February 1945 , Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill meet at Yalta. The 3 leaders agree to divide Germany and Berlin into occupation zones. Berlin is also divided 4-ways.
The victorious powers agree to specific corridors from the west to Berlin The first major activity of the Cold War was the Berlin Blockade in April 1948. General Lucius D. Clay solves with the Berlin Airlift
North Atlantic Treaty--1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-- a military organization to meet any attack on any NATO country Soviets respond 1955 with Warsaw Pact The Army and Navy discharged millions
of people within a few months of the end of World War II To help care for returning service people, Congress had passed the G. I. Bill of Rights in 1944 The G. I. Bill
Guaranteed a years unemployment benefits while discharged G.I.s looked for work. Provided money for education Provided low-interest, federally guaranteed loans for houses, businesses and farms
Returning service people also began to rebuild lives High divorce rate in the late 1940s Expanding womens roles Many men had changed Many other families moved to the suburbs The war had caused the economy to recover; people began to again buy luxury goods
The Fair Deal 21-point domestic program Expanded Social Security benefits Increased minimum wage $ .40 to $ .65/hr Full employment through federal spending Republicans win control of Congress in 1946 Reduce government spending and chip away at New Deal reforms Turned down most of Fair Deal
abor-Management Relations Act of 1947 The Taft-Hartley Act) Anti-union initiative by conservatives Closed shop illegal Union shop (must join a union after hiring) allowed but permitted states to pass Right to Work laws that could prohibit union shops
Unions outraged: Slave Labor Law The Election of 1948 Harry S. Truman Became president 1945 Honorable, direct, down-to-earth, selfconfident The Buck Stops Here Decisiveaccepted full responsibility for actions
1947: Brooklyn Dodgers, general manager Branch Rickey hires Jackie Robinson as the first AfricanAmerican major league baseball player The Election of 1948
Truman supported civil rights for minorities Asked Congress to take action: Anti-lynching laws Elimination of poll taxes Commission to assure fairness in hiring Congress refused The Election of 1948
July 1948: Executive Order integrating the armed forces Also ended discrimination in the hiring of government employees First president to effectively deal with race relations The Election of
1948 ruman is nominated by Democrats, ut there is a huge split in the emocratic Party Southern Democrats, or Dixiecrats, who want to protect the Southern way of life, nominate former Democrat, Governor
Strom Thurmond of South Carolina The Election of 1948 ormer liberal Democrats form a new rogressive Party and nominate ormer FDR Vice President Henry Wallace for President Major split in the Democratic Party similar to split in
Republican Party in 1912 The Election of 1948 Republicans nominate popular New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey Dewey huge lead in the polls but Truman conducts aggressive whistle stop campaign
Domestic Successes 1.Congress raised minimum wage from $.40 to $.75 2. Expansion of Social Security System benefits by 75% assed national Housing Act f 1949: 810,000 low-income ousing units and long-term rent ubsidies After World War II,
Allies divide Korea in two at the 38th ParallelSoviet Union north; U. S. south. Syngman Rhee: Leader of South North Korean leader: Kim Il-Sung
June 25, 1950, North Korean troops, using Soviet weapons and equipment invade South Korea North Koreans tear through the South Korean forces; take the South Korean capital of Seoul in 2 days. Syngman Rhee appeals to
the United Nations for help. President Truman agrees to send U. S. troops Eventually 16 nations send troops in the first U. N. military action in history; but most are from U.S. Supreme Allied Commander:
General Douglas MacArthur First troops in are U. S. troops from Japan under LTC Brad Smith Early August 1950, U.N. forces forced back into a
perimeter in the southeast corner of Taegu PusanSouth Korea. The Pusan Perimeter. Inchon Seoul
15 Sept. 1950 X Corps: Marines & Army land at Inchon. X Corps takes Seoul. Taegu Pusan Same time, 8th Army
breaks out of Pusan Perimeter. 26 Sep links w/ X Corps. Yalu River Thousands of N.K. troops are trapped in the south and caught or killed. Seoul is retaken.
Truman grants General MacArthur permission to advance into N.K. Yalu River 19 October: Pyongyang, the North Korean capital, is taken. 1 November, U. S.
troops within 60 miles of Yalu River, the border between N.K. and China (Manchuria) 25 November: China enters war. U.N. troops retreat. Bloody fighting at the Chosin Reservoir
U.N. troops retreat to South Korea; Chinese troops retake Seoul Jan. 4, 1951 Truman next refuses MacArthurs request to attack China, using atomic bombs. Meanwhile, the U. S. 8th Army,
under General Matthew B. Ridgway counterattacks, re-takes Seoul and drives the Chinese & North Koreans north of 38th Parallel After re-taking Seoul, MacArthur urges full-scale war against China.
Truman refuses; MacArthur vents his concerns with media April 11, 1951, Truman fires MacArthur; gives U.N. Commander-in-Chief position to Ridgway. July 1951, truce talks begin while fighting continues. Thousands of
casualties during peace talks. Finally, agree to an armistice in July 1953. It is still in effect. Railroad Workers Strike of 1951 Truman ordered the government to seize control of the railroads No effect on union demands Workers got most of what they demanded Nation-wide Steel Strike of 1952
Truman seized steel mills citing powers as Commander-in-Chief Supreme Court ruled (6-3) Truman had exceeded his authority Long, costly strike followed ouse Un-American Activities Committee (HUA ocused on the movie industry he Hollywood 10 acklisting
Richard Nixon and Alger Hiss Whittaker Chambers Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Roy Cohen Senator Joseph McCarthy (R, WI) Edward R. Murrow CBS News After his victory in 1948,
Trumans popularity sinks to all time ow: 23% in 1951 Problems with Korean War, McCarthyism, and loyalty of government workers. 1952: Truman decides not to run for re-election; Democrats nominate Governor Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois
1952 Election Republicans nominate retired General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower for President and California Senator Richard M. Nixon for Vice President
1952 Election During the campaign, Nixon is accused f illegally skimming funds. In reply, Nixon goes on national television, (58 million people) on September 23, 1952, to give the now famous Checkers Speech
irst use of television by a political andidate Behind the political campaign slogan of I like Ike, Eisenhower wins the 1952 election. Effective, behind the scenes president Ended Korean War Brought Alaska and
Hawaii into the Union as 49th and 50th states Year Loaf Gal. Gal. Bread Gas Milk Avg. Inc.
0 0 1950s: U. S. produced most of its own oil Therefore gasoline was inexpensive Leading to more cars in the U. S.
Eisenhower had noted the excellent German autobahn system during the later stages of WWII. 1956, Eisenhower signs the Interstate Highway Actauthorizing 41,000 miles of nation-wide expressways With improved highways, mericans took to the roads mericans became mobile, leading o new business opportunities.
1955, Walt Disney creates Disneyland 1950s: increases in air and noise pollution and automobile accidents With expanse of the suburbs, economic gap between inner city (urban) and suburban dwellers widened With more money in economy,
manufacturers incorporated planned obsolescenceproducts not built to last as long because Americans wanted newer and better items 1950: Diners Club issues the nations first credit card American Express follows in 1958
American private debt rises from $73 billion to $179 billion in the 1950s Prompting this surge in spending was a boom in advertisingthe Advertising Age The 1950s were the main years of the Baby Boom 1957: one baby born in the U. S. every 7
seconds (4,254,784) Many parents follow the advice of Dr. Benjamin Spock regarding child rearing: Common Sense Book of Baby And Child Care American leisure significantly affected by the emergence of elevision in the 1950s
News shows were faster with people able to see, as well as hear, what was happening in the world First great TV journalist: Edward R. Murrow of CBS News One of the key scientific
discoveries of the 1950s: Dr. Jonas Salk finds a cure for the terrible disease poliomyelitis Also, women, once again, became housewives; although many were frustrated
Sputnik Soviet Satellite 1957 First man-made satellite Americans feared Soviets had achieved superiority in technology Led to more funding for math & science education The Space Race April 12, 1961, Soviet Cosmonaut, Yuri A. Gagarin
became the first human in space, orbiting the Earth 188 miles above the planets surface for 108 minutes The Soviets had scored another major victory in the Space Race Kennedy responds
with leadership: in an address to a joint session of Congress: (the United States) should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth.
Makes Vice President Johnson the chairman of the National Space Council May 1961, Navy Commander Alan B. Shepard becomes the first American in space. 15 minute sub-orbital flight in Freedom 7. Mercury Program Late 1961, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, in Liberty Bell 7,
completes a second sub-orbital flight. February 20, 1962, Marine Corps Colonel John Glenn ecomes the first American to orbit the arth. Later becomes a U. S. Senator from Ohio, then becomes the oldest human to ravel in space (on the Space Shuttle).
Three more Mercury astronauts, Malcolm Scott Carpenter, Walter Schirra, and LeRoy Gordon Cooper also orbit the earth. he Mercury program is followed by he Gemini programtwo people in ne space capsule. Highlights include pace walks and rendezvous in space. The Gemini program is
followed by the Apollo program, culminating with 5 successful landings on the moon. The Golden Age of TV he most famous comedy show situation comedy) of the 1950s:
Love Lucy starring he husband and wife eam of Desi Arnaz nd Lucille Ball, ong with long ivienne ance and William rawley
Childrens shows included Saturday shows such as Howdy Doody and weekday afternoon shows such as the Mickey Mouse Club Afternoons also became a time for teenage TV with Dick Clarks American Bandstand
The 1950s were also the age of the prime time quiz show, until a cheating scandal on The $64,000.00 Question caused people to question the validity of TV quiz, or game, shows Did the producers give Charles Van
Doren answers? General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947 Purpose: Expand international trade by a mutual reduction of tariffs World War II set the stage for he Civil Rights Movement the
New demand for African-American, Latino and female workers 700,000 African-Americans served in the military; many in combat During the war, civil rights groups actively campaigned for AfricanAmerican voting rights and challenged Jim Crow laws Roosevelt: Executive Order prohibiting racial
discrimination by federal agencies and by all companies engaged in war work. 1948: Truman signed an Executive Order integrating the armed forces. 1938: attorney (and future first African-American
Supreme Court Justice) Thurgood Marshall begins a 23-year civil rights legal struggle National Association for The Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Won 29 of 32 Supreme Court cases Marshalls most stunning
victory: May 17, 1954: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS Oliver Brown, father of Linda Brown, sued the Topeka Board of Education for violating Lindas rights by denying her admission to an all-white elementary school 4-blocks from her house. Rather, he Board forced Linda to attend an all-Black school 21 blocks away.
The Warren Court, ed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, unanimously decided in favor of Brown (represented by Marshall), thereby striking down Plessy v Ferguson and all segregation as unconstitutional.
he Brown decision The mmediately affected 12 million schoolchildren in 21 states 955: Supreme Court handed own a second Brown ruling: dered district courts to implement hool desegregation with all deliberate eed. peed.
resident Eisenhower and Congress did ot enforce. Eisenhower believed you ould not force desegregation on people. ongressional Southern Manifesto: Congressional outhern Democrats denounced the rown decision and called on the states Brown o resist it by all lawful means. September 1957: Arkansas
Governor Orval Faubus rdered the Arkansas ordered National Guard to turn way nine African-American away tudents who had olunteered to integrate volunteered ittle Rocks Central High School.
hat afternoon, a federal That udge ordered Faubus to et the students into Central High Eisenhower federalized the Arkansas National Guard and sent in 1,000 members of the 101st Airborne Division (Hooah!) to enforce the judges order
Later, Faubus closed Central High to prevent continued ntegration Congress, under the eadership of Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957, giving the Attorney General of the United States greater power over school
desegregation. December 1, 1955, seamstress Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama public bus Parks passively accepts arrest for violating the Jim Crow law. News spreads
across the nation Led by 26-year-old Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., AfricanAmericans peacefully boycott Montgomery city buses for 381 days December 1956: Supreme Court outlawed
us segregation, in response to lawsuit led by boycotters. Dec. 21Dr. King des in front seat of Montgomery bus. r. King patterned his form f nonviolent civil disobedience fter writings of Henry David Thoreau, . Philip Randolph, and Mohandas Gandhi 957, King forms the Southern Christian eadership Conference (SCLC) to
omote civil rights protests in the South. 960, Ella Baker starts the Student onviolent Coordinating Committee NCC) to try to motivate student protests 961Freedom Riders 1961Freedom ake bus caravan from Washington, D. C. to the South
nniston, Alabama, one bus is firebombed Other freedom riders are attacked by a white mob and beatenpolice refuse to intervene
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