Safety Related Initiatives HySafe The European Network of

Safety Related Initiatives HySafe The European Network of Excellence for Hydrogen Safety Thomas Jordan Institut fr Kern- und Energietechnik Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH [email protected] ICHS Int. Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Stucturing Work Integration Planning Dissemination Motivation Hindenburg 1937 Stockholm 1984 16 injured, damaged lorry and buildings in 90 m distance end of a technology H2-Source 180 Nm3 International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Stucturing Work Integration Planning Dissemination Motivation methane propane ignition energy =1 mJ 0,15 0,1 0,1 0,05 0

hydrogen methane propane 80 laminar burning velocity 2,5 propane 20 gasoline vap. hydrogen methane propane gasoline vap. detonation sensitivity 0,1 0,08 =1 0,06 0,04 0,02 0 0 propane 30

60 0,5 methane 40 0,12 80 40 hydrogen 50 gasoline vap. heat of combustion 120 1 0 60 0 methane 1/mm 1,5 gasoline vap. 10 hydrogen MJ/kg m/s =1

propane 20 100 2 methane flammability range 70 140 3 -2,0 -3,0 hydrogen -3,5 0 gasoline vap. -1,5 gasoline vap. 0,2 0,2 -1,0 OEG-UEG (%) hydrogen 0,25 0,3 -0,5

-2,5 0,3 0,4 0,0 LuftGas(kg/m3) 2 0,35 diffusion coefficient buoyancy 0,5 3 0 0,5 cm 2/s 1,0 1 0,7 0,6 1,5 density 4 kg/m3 Safety relevant properties of

- hydrogen - methane - propane - gasoline vapour 5 hydrogen methane propane gasoline vap. International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 hydrogen methane propane gasoline vap. D Molekulare Diffusion International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 CJ-Detonationsdruck P CJ Turb. Deflagration CJ-Detonationsgeschw. D CJ Detonationszellgre AICC Schallgeschwindigkeit cAICC AICC Druck P AICC Lam. Deflagration

AICC Temperatur T AICC Potential fr Flammenbeschl. SL propane Laminare Brenngeschw. S L Volum. Verbrennungswrme Q/V mix Zndung Spez. Verbrennungswrme Q/m F methane Lschspaltweite d c Mixing Selbstznd. Temperatur T AI Zndenergie E i UFL-LFL hydrogen Brennbarkeitsgrenzen Molare stchiom. Konz. C st Release Auftrieb A F c -1/2 -sonic -turbulent -1

management needs H2 specific analyses and mitigation measures 0,01 Successful risk Strahlimpuls- laminar Differences Dichte between H2 and other burning gases ~ factor 10 in all important qualities Related to hydrogen Motivation Introduction Networking Stucturing Work Integration Planning Dissemination gasoline vapour 100 10 1 0,1 Detonation Introduction Networking Stucturing Work Integration Planning Dissemination Mission We bring it on the road and in your house - safely ! International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005

Introduction Networking Stucturing Work Integration Planning Dissemination Objectives General Goal Contributing to a safe transition to a sustainable development in Europe by facilitating the safe introduction of hydrogen technologies / applications Objectives strengthen and focus, integrate fragmented research on hydrogen safety competitive scientific and industrial community Promoting public awareness and trust in hydrogen technologies development of an excellent safety culture International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Stucturing Work Integration Planning Dissemination Details Consortium 24 partners from 12 European countries and one Canadian partner 12 public research organisations, 7 industrial partners, 5 universities Time schedule network/project start: 03/2004 subsidised max. duration: 5 years Budget Total > 13 M with a EC grant of max. 7 M International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Consortium Partners Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH DE LAir Liquide

FR Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing DE BMW Forschung und Technik GmbH DE Building Research Establishment Ltd UK Commissariat lEnergie Atomique FR Det Norske Veritas AS NO Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft ICT DE Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH DE GexCon AS NO The United Kingdoms Health and Safety Laboratory UK Foundation INASMET ES Inst. Nat. de lEnvironnement industriel et des RISques FR

Instituto Superior Technico PT European Commission - JRC - Institute for Energy NL National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos EL Norsk Hydro ASA NO Ris National Laboratory DK TNO NL University of Calgary CA University of Pisa IT Universidad Politcnica de Madrid ES University of Ulster UK VOLVO Technology Corporation SE Warsaw University of Technology

PL International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Organisational Structure European Commission Governing Board Reporting Single Point of Contact Management Office Approval Request Advise Reporting Request Co-ordinator Advise Co-ordination Committee SubCommittee SubCommittee WP 1 WP 16 Advisory Council Coordinator STORHY

International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Coordinator HYWAYS Coordinator NATURALHY Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination External Networking CEN EC ISO IEA HFP North America HyWays StorHy NATURALHY IPHE the future European Hydrogen Safety Centre ? HyApproval International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Advisory Council Japan Russia Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination

17 Workpackages Project Management NATURALHY Technical External Projects HyGuide StorHy HyApproval Jointly Excecuted Research Activities Hydrogen Sensors Repair Shop for H2 vehicles Releases in (partially) confined spaces Technical Internal Projects WP1. (INERIS) B Report HS Disseminating Activities Supporting Activities Phenomena WP8. (NSCRD) H2 release, mixing and distribution WP5. (DNV) HIA Database WP14. (UNIPI) Int Conf. on Hydrogen Safety WP10. (FZK) Hydrogen

explosions WP17. (FZK) General Management WP13. (FZK) Website PMO WP2. (FZJ) IExperimentalF Principal CFD Exercises and Guidelines WP11. (GexCon) Mitigation WP3. (UPM) SBEP WP4. (CEA) Scenario and Phenomena Ranking WP7. (Ris) Mapping and Prioritization of Activities WP12. (DNV) Risk assessment methodologies NoE Management by Coordination Committee DJPA planning Business Plan European Hydrogen Safety Center International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 WP16. (INERIS) RC&S

Supporting Activities Risk evaluation and control Supporting Activities Tools WP6. (FZK) WP9. (HSE/HSL) Hydrogen ignition and jet fires WP15. (UU) e-Academy Management Projects Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination SPR Activity Matrix Risik Control Phenomena Application / Scenarios Distribution Fires and Explosions Mitigation Risik Analysis RC&S Production PIRT Transport Refueling Street Vehicles Other Vehicles

Portables Preliminary Ranking International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination IEF - Experimental Facilities Only 6 out of 78 ! International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination CFD Club Benchmarking SBEP V1 SBEP V2 International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Numerical Tools I Partner Code CFD/integral/other Applicability area BRE JASMINE, SOFIE, CFX CFD V2: combustion and heat transfer; V3: mitigation CEA CAST3M coupled to

integral/CFD V1: distribution/mixing V2: combustion; V3: mitigation SIDONHY Two-phase 1D V1: release from high pressure tanks FLACS, CFX CFD V1: ventilation, dispersion V2: explosion, pressure effects; V4: risk assessment Phast Integral V1: release/dispersion and V4: risk assessment CFX4 CFD V1: atmospheric spreading of H2-air-steam clouds, distribution in complex geometries V2: combustion of flammable H2-air mixtures LauV Integral V1: LH2 pool spreading and vaporisation on different grounds GASFLOW CFD V1: distribution/mixing V3: mitigation devices

DNV FZJ FZK COM3D, FLAME3D, DET3D V2: combustion at different regimes V3: combustion mitigation GexCon FLACS CFD V1: ventilation, dispersion V2: explosion, pressure effects from dispersion/premixed V3: mitigation strategies; V4 HSE/HSL Star CD, CFX, SOFIE, AutoReagas CFD CFD V1: mixing and distribution V2: combustion, V3: mitigation and V4: risk assessment Scope, Fred Integral INERIS PHOENICS, ARIARISK CFD V1: release, mixing and distribution JRC

REACFLOW CFD V2: pressure effects from H2 explosions Simulations within confined/semi-confined geometries International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Numerical Tools II Partner Code CFD/integral/other Applicability area NCSRD ADREA-HF CFD V1: release, mixing and distribution V3: mitigation (venting, water spraying) GAJET Integral V1: discharge from CGH2 system FLACS Fluent, KAMELEON CFD V1: high pressure discharges, high speed jet impingement, in- and outdoor dispersion V2: combustion and explosions PHAST

Integral GReAT REDIPHEM Integral AutoReaGas CFD V1: dispersion; V2: explosion and pressure effects CFD (2D, 3D) V2: combustion, detonation; V3: venting, pressure effects V4: simulation of accident scenarios CFX4 CFD MELCOR Integral V1: distribution, mixing, heat transfer; V2: combustion V3: mitigation (venting, recombiners) V4: methodologies for RA CINDY Integral FLUENT CFD V1: distribution/mixing: V2: accidental combustion; V3: mitigation (venting, water spraying) V4: risk assessment (modelling of consequences) ZND Detailed chemistry

V2: combustion DL CFD (1D) DETON CFD (2D) KIVA-3V CFD (3D) NH Ris TNO UC UPM UU WUT Database structure for dispersion tests International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 V1: outdoor buoyant plume dispersion, instantaneous concentrations V4: methodologies for RA V1: release/distribution/mixing Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination HIAD - Accident database HIAD structure: Administration & Risk environment Where (application, environment,) Technical specification of the event Equipment spec, location,. Hazardous Event Specification

What happened and why Hazardous Event Consequences Specification Fatalities, injuries, property damage, International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination RC&S (Regulation Codes & Standards) International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination RC&S (Regulation Codes & Standards) Mapping and gap analysis Co-ordination of actions IPHE IEA ISO IEC UNECE GRPE WP29 Contribution to standards Production of knowledge International regulation Depends on agreement Work program CEN Mandate group

HFCTP IGRCS Funded No significant work going on Inputs or drafts possible NoE Co-ordination with IPHE Europe Could be dedicated to standards HarmonHy Europe Europe or W W through ISO, IPHE(?) Europe EIHP Draft regulation Other EC Projects National standard organisations in Europe Japanese Standard organisation + Government American Standard organisation + Government Range

IPHE Members IEA Members Workd Wide WW EC HYSAFE Edition of standards No obvious inputs Focussed on standard development Focussed on product development and not standard WW W W if particpation to ISO, ?? Mirror Committees Seem to be politically driven Development of National standards Draft proposal for international standards Funded National

Seem to be politically driven National standards Draft proposal for international standards Funded National & W W International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 National Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination SPR - Headlines Current Headlines / Thematic Foci: (Partially) Confined Releases Mitigation orientate the network on intermediate time scale (proposals for experiments, benchmarking,) have been determined by - initial PIRT - expert questionnaire - state-of-the-art survey International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Internal Project InsHyDe Investigation of realistic non-catastrophic releases in (partially) confined areas Determination of permeation and release limits Systematic assessment of mitigation (including detection) measures (sensors + venting + recombiner+...) Simulations and experiments

for critical releases Deriving Recommendations, standards, ... International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Internal Project HyTunnel Accidents in public focus Heterogenous regulations Costly and long term investments International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Internal Project HyTunnel - Selection of broadly accepted szenarios. - Review of available relevant numerical and experimental simulations - Qualitative assessment on standard mitigation measures effectiveness (benchmark) i. Experimental part (depending on financing) ii. Extension of the EC Tunnel directives Improved Tunnel Safety with H2 as the fuel of the future International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Internal Project HyTunnel Simulation of a LH2 release due to loss of thermal insulation in a

tunnel accident International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Further work with StorHy for storage in road vehicles. - Bonfire Test Standard / Impinging jet fire (EIHPII) in WP9 IgnHyd Probabilistic Ignition Modelling in WP12 Applicability of existing HZ and Q-D rules with HyApproval common work esp. WP12 Risk Assessment Methodologies assessing basic refueling station designs + verification experiments? International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination WP1: BRHS First Edition of Biennial Report on Hydrogen Safety (constituting the iteratively updated Handbook on Hydrogen Safety) Publicly accessible literature database WP15: e-Academy Design of curriculum (living document with many external contributions) Database of hydrogen industries (publicly accessible via website) Summer School on Hydrogen Safety HYCOURSE (successful application for Marie-Curie-Program) Early stage training, successful application for Marie-Curie-Program and possible clustering with HYFIRE WP16: RC&S HySafe Safety Action Plan: Guidelines for subsidised projects, safety audits and reporting templates (addressing FP7) International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination WP13: www.HySafe.org International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005

Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination WP14: ICHS http://conference.ing.unipi.it/ichs Next ICHS: September 11-14, 2007 Place tbd. International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005 Introduction Networking Structuring Work Integration Planning Dissemination Support HySafe is co-funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Programme (2002-2006); Contract n: SES6-CT-2004-502630. The network is contributing to the implementation of the Key Action "Integrating and strengthening the ERA" within the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development. International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, Pisa, Italy, 8-10 September 2005

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