ROME AND THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY, 600 BC-500 AD CHAPTER 5 http:// WorldHistory/ AncientRome/Images/ The Rise of Rome Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans settle in Italy by 550 BC Latin herders and farmers came first to area near present city of Rome, by 1000 BC Greek colonists settled southern Italy and Sicily by 550 BC

Etruscans came from middle east area and settled north of Latins Etruscans merge with Latins and take control by 650 BC Rome becomes a city based on farm life etruscans.gif/30589536/etruscans.gif Roman Republic Begins Roman patricians (large land owners) overthrow Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC By 264 BC Romans conquer most of the

Italian peninsula Citizenship is offered to defeated people willing to accept Roman rule http:// cloacamaxima1.files.wordpress .com/2010/05/ tarquinius_superbus.jpg Romes Success Due to Four Principals Extend citizenship and allow people local rule of themselves Excel militarily Builds colonies and roads to connect them

closely Creates political institutions to deal with specific problems Images/Illus0281.jpg Political Structure of the Republic Two major groups of Roman people Patricians who control the Senate Plebeians (wealthy businessmen) who run the Plebeian Assembly

cm0910/group1/multimedia/image/ img_poc8_18.jpg Senate controls the government and passes laws by the 3rd century BC Two consuls, chosen by Senate, run the republic Praetors act as judges to enforce laws fairly Patricians and Plebeians Conflict With Each Other Early laws prohibit marriage between the two groups Position of tribune gives plebs some say

with the Senators By 287 BC, Plebeian Assembly can finally pass laws Patricians continue to direct power from the Senate tribune.jpg Roman Law Treats Conquered People Fairly Twelve Tables provide early justice for Rome Law of Nations develops

Natural law, applied universally to all citizens Many of these principles live on today Punic Wars Create an Empire Three wars against Carthage develop between 264 and 146 BC Carthage is leading power trading in the Mediterranean in 264 Rome builds a navy

and prepares to protect its interests in Sicily First Punic War War ends in 241 BC with Roman victory Carthage gives up Sicily and pays tribute to Rome for 10 years Carthaginian leader Hannibal prepares for a second war hannibal_barca_carthage_pictures_pics_images_photos_pix_photographs_g allery/hannibal_barca_carthage_second_punic_war_rome_romans_1.jpg Second Punic War Hannibal marches from Spain to Rome from the north Battle at Cannae in 216 is huge Roman loss By 206, Hannibal is pushed out of Italy Scipio Africanus wins the Battle of Zama in 202 Carthage gives up its western empire and all but a few naval ships publius_scipio_africanus_c234_hi.jpg Third Punic War For many years before 146 BC, Cato the Elder ends every speech with Carthage must be destroyed Romans defeat Carthage and destroy the city in 146 Greek supporters of Carthage face Roman attack between 146 and 129 BC Romans conquer the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, call it Mare Nostrum (Our Sea) cato_elder_234_149_bc_toga_hi.jpg The Republic Struggles Patricians take more and more land as the empire grows Small farmers, unable to compete, leave the farms Brothers Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus try to push land reform, but they are killed by angry Patrician leaders in the Senate

Army Reforms Bring Civil War Roman consul and general Marius reforms army in 107 BC Accepts poor people into the army, promising them land in return Soldiers fight for the generals, not for Rome Generals become politicians to get laws passed to make the land available to their men Marius_Glyptothek_Munich_319.jpg

Sulla Replaces Marius Senate gives him control of an army in Asia Minor Plebeian Assembly counters by offering the position to Marius Civil war develops, and Sulla controls Rome by 82 BC He restores power to the Senate, but use of military in this way signals a new era in the Roman Republic Civil Wars Recur

Over Next 50 Years Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar form the First Triumvirate in 60 BC Crassus is wealthiest man in Rome and takes control of Syria Pompey is the respected older general who takes control of Spain Caesar is the young rising general who goes to Gaul to defeat a traditional Roman rival

Confrontation Between Caesar and Pompey Crassus dies in battle in 53 BC Pompey fears the growing popularity of Caesar and recalls him to Rome in 49 Caesar illegally crosses the Rubicon River into Rome with his army Pompey flees to Greece, recreates his army, but loses civil war to Caesar by 46 BC Caesar Becomes Dictator Formerly legal only for six months Caesar fills the Senate with his friends Other Senators fear he will become dictator for life Marcus Brutus leads an assassination on the Ides of March in 44 BC, starting a new civil war Second Triumvirate Forms Brutus, Cassius, and other Senators flee to

Greece to build an army Friends of Caesar form a new leadership group Octavian (Caesars nephew and adopted son) Marc Antony (Caesars closest friend and ally) Lepidus (one of Caesars generals) Octavian and Antony Vie For Power Brutus and his soldiers face defeat at Battle of Philippi in 42 BC

Lepidus is pushed aside Octavian and Antony fight for control of the empire Antony allies with Cleopatra of Egypt Octavian wins and they die after the Battle of Actium in 31 BC giovannibattistatiepolo_the_meeting_of_anthony_and_cleopatra_detail.jpg Augustus Becomes Imperator Octavian allows Senate to continue to exist, but under his control Takes title Augustus

Caesar Senate names him Imperator (Emperor) He creates an army of 150,000 soldiers to protect Rome He also creates the Praetorian Guard, 9000 soldiers protecting him 1/1a/ Praetorian_GuardSoldiers_basrelief_cropped.jpg Early Empire Lasts Until 180 AD Early emperors are generally effective, with some exceptions

Corrupt emperors like Caligula and Nero create civil war by 69 AD Order restores and the Pax Romana continues The Five Good Emperors extend the empire and protect it within its borders Nero.jpg The Five Good Emperors Generally tolerant, effective rulers Expanded their power, cut that of the Senate Built many aqueducts,

bridges, and roads The Five Emperors are: Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius Empire Expands Hadrian withdraws

Romans from Mesopotamia He builds wall in England to protect against Picts and Scots He fortifies along the Danube and Rhine Rivers to keep Germanic tribes out portrait/roemisch/kaiserzeit/adoptivkaiser/hadrian/ hadrian8.jpg Unity Provides Order Latin spreads throughout the western empire, Greek in the east

All free adults become citizens by order of Caracalla in 212 Local people rule themselves Provincial cities are small and consistent throughout empire Greco-Roman civilization prospers Farming and Trade Grow Romans trade as far away as China through the Middle East Farming remains key productive area

Giant farms called latifundia develop Upper classes grow fabulously wealthy Working people find fewer and fewer jobs as slaves work everywhere The Arts in Rome Romans excel in architecture Invent the arch, domes Copy Greek use of columns First to use concrete in great amounts Build roads, bridges, aqueducts Golden Age of Roman

literature is during Augustus rule Virgils Aeneid provides epic mythology Horaces Satires attack human weaknesses Livys Early History of Rome traces its development to 9 BC 2010/108/1/4/ Roman_Architecture_by_dedeyutza.jpg Family Life and Womens Roles Father is paterfamilias Upper class children

educated, boys and girls both Children become adults at 16 Fathers arrange marriages for daughters Divorce becomes possible in Roman life Women get more rights by 100s AD, including owning and inheriting property Slavery Leads to Revolts Growth of the empire leads to worsening treatment of slaves Contractors build large works with many slave

workers and very tough conditions Famous revolt develops under Spartacus in 73 BC 70,000 men revolt Romans crucify 6000 survivors http:// blog.webexpedition18.netd uploads/2010/12/1960Spartacus.jpg Living Conditions in Rome mcxx0005.jpg Rome has a million

people at height of empire Wonderful buildings, but overcrowded noisy, dirty, unsafe living conditions Rich live in comfortable villas Poor live in six-story buildings called insulae Fire is constant threat; Rome burns in 64 AD Rising Poverty Creates Problems 200,000 people receiving free food during time of Augustus Games take place

on holidays, free to public Gladiatorial games are very popular Christianity Develops in Roman Empire Early Romans believe their gods allow them to conquer others Tolerate other religions Jews revolt in 66 AD, however, and Romans

crush the rebellion Jesus dies shortly before the revolt, and Christianity begins to split away from Judaism New Faith Spreads Around the Empire Apostles like Simon Peter and Paul spread the faith Oral stories and written letters become new basic ideas of the faith New Testament develops Romans see Christianity as a form of Judaism still Overtime, intolerance develops about the new

faith Roman Persecution of Christians Christians refuse to follow Roman gods or worship emperors Romans see this as treason, punishable by death Persecution begins during reign of

Nero when the city burns Romans Change Their Ideas Christianity starts to grow and becomes accepted Idea of salvation appeals to poor people in the empire Easy to relate to since Jesus was born a man Christian communities provide support for suffering people It pushes idea of equality Diocletian continues to persecute in the late 200s In 313 AD, Constantine issues the Edict of Milan

Makes Christianity legal Theodosius makes Christianity the official religion of the empire in 395 AD Decline and Fall of Rome Problems bedevil Rome In the 200s, emperors rule as long as armies support them 57 emperors in one 50 year period Economic problems caused by high taxes, little land for

poor & inflation of prices Plagues decimate the population Economy dries up as a result of all these things Romans allow Germanic invaders to live in empire safely but serve as soldiers Church Hierarchy Pope was on top and ruled over lower levels. Archbishops(patriarchs)

Bishops Priests Many were land owners and collected tax sending back to church-pyramid cash flow Diocletian and Constantine Try to Create Order

Diocletian creates Tetrarchyfour man rule at end of 200s-allow Christianity Constantine builds new capital in the east, Constantinople Army and the civil service get larger Taxes go up, but collection goes down Roman money loses value Diocletian orders that jobs will be hereditary-same as parents Rulers after these two men

The Fall of the West Huns enter western Europe from central Asia Germanic tribes sweep into Rome, looking for protection

Romans cant move the Visigoths out of the Danube River area The Vandals sack Rome in 410 AD Last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, loses power in 476 AD Germanic prince Odoacer declares himself emperor in the west Roman Empire continues in the east until 1453 Possible Causes of the Fall Christian influences challenge military control of empire

Roman values decline as conquered people take over large areas of land Lead poisoning leads to brain damage, weakens leadership Plague wipes out 10% of population Slavery leads to lack of technological growth Political system fails to work and Romans cannot fix it So

It is hard to say why the West falls Multiple causes make life in the West difficult Eastern life continues under the Byzantine Empire for next 1000 years Europe feels the effects of a lack of centralized power for the next 500800 years after 476 AD

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