4.1 Introduction to Covalent Bonding Covalent bonds result

4.1 Introduction to Covalent Bonding Covalent bonds result from the sharing of electrons between two atoms. A covalent bond is a two-electron bond in which the bonding atoms share valence electrons. A molecule is a discrete group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. 1

4.1 Introduction to Covalent Bonding Unshared electron pairs are called nonbonded electron pairs or lone pairs. Atoms share electrons to attain the electronic configuration of the noble gas closest to them in the periodic table. H shares 2 e. Other main group elements share e until they

reach an octet of e in their outer shell. 2 4.1 Introduction to Covalent Bonding A. Covalent Bonding and the Periodic Table Lewis structures are electron-dot structures for molecules. They show the location of all valence e .

3 4.1 Introduction to Covalent Bonding A. Covalent Bonding and the Periodic Table How many covalent bonds will a particular atom form? Hydrogen forms one bond Atoms with one, two, or three valence e form one, two, or three bonds, respectively. predicted

predicted number number of of bonds bonds = 8 number of valence e

4 4.1 Covalent Compounds A. Covalent Bonding and the Periodic Table General rule for bonding elements (except for hydrogen, H) Number Numberof

ofbonds bonds + Number Numberof of lone lonepairs pairs = 44 5

Predict The Number of Bonds the Following Atoms Can Make Br Rn I

S O P Ar Se

6 4.2 Lewis Structures A molecular formula shows the number and identity of all of the atoms in a compound, but not which atoms are bonded to each other. A Lewis structure shows the connectivity between atoms, as well as the location of all bonding and

nonbonding valence electrons. 7 4.2 Lewis Structures A. Drawing Lewis Structures General rules for drawing Lewis structures: 1) Draw only valence electrons. 2) Give every main group element (except H) an

octet of e. 3) Give each hydrogen 2 e. 8 4.2 Lewis Structures HOW TO Draw a Lewis Structure Use the common bonding patterns from Figure 4.1 to arrange the atoms (Slide 5).

9 10 11 C 2H 6O 12

4.2 Lewis Structures B. Multiple Bonds One lone pair of e can be converted into one bonding pair of e for each 2 e needed to complete an octet on a Lewis Structure. A double bond contains four electrons in two 2 e bonds. O

O A triple bond contains six electrons in three 2 e bonds. N N 13

4.2 Lewis Structures B. Multiple Bonds Example Draw the Lewis Structure for C2H4. Step [1]

Arrange the atoms. Step [2] Is Everyone happy? 14 4.2 Lewis Structures

B. Multiple Bonds Step [3] Make everyone happy by adding additional bonds 15 4.3 Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Most of the common elements generally follow the octet rule. H is a notable exception, because it needs only 2 e in bonding. Elements in group 3A do not have enough valence e to form an octet in a neutral molecule. F F

B F 16 4.3 Exceptions to the Octet Rule Elements in the third row have empty d orbitals available to accept electrons. Thus, elements such as P and S may have more

than 8 e around them. O HO P OH OH O HO

S OH O 17 18 19

Writing Lewis Structures H: Only make 1 bond Always save till the end C: 4 Bonds Likes to bond to other Cs first Likes to bond to O and N N: 3 bonds

Likes to bond to C Can bond O or N if no Cs O: 2 bonds Likes to bond to C Can bond O or N if no Cs X (Halogens): Same as H Multiple Bonds: Use to finish up octets

Can not violate bond rules (i.e. no triple bonded Os) - There are a few exceptions 20 H Planning (C3H4) Avoid adding Hs to bonds that can be completed with multiple bonds: 21

4.2 Lewis Structures B. Multiple Bonds Avoid adding Hs to bonds that can be completed with multiple bonds: Example Step [1]

Step [2] Draw the Lewis Structure for C3H4. Arrange the atoms. Is Everyone happy? 22

4.2 Lewis Structures B. Multiple Bonds Step [3] Make everyone happy by adding additional bonds 23

Degrees of Unsaturation

Unsaturation = Missing Hs Must have at least 1 C in the formula Tells you how many multiple bonds CnH2n+2 N = +1 per O = Ignore

X = -1 per Every 2 missing Hs = 1 double bond Every 4 missing Hs = 1 triple bond or 2 double bonds 24 Degrees of Unsaturation (DOU) 25

Problems 26 More Problems? 27

Structure to Formula Use subscripts to indicate how many Carbon comes first Hydrogen second

Other elements in alphabetical order 28 29 4.4 Resonance A. Drawing Resonance Structures Resonance structures are two Lewis structures having the same arrangement of atoms but a

different arrangement of electrons. Two resonance structures of HCO3: Neither Lewis structure is the true structure of HCO3. 30 4.4 Resonance A. Drawing Resonance Structures The true structure is a hybrid of the two resonance

structures. Resonance stabilizes a molecule by spreading out lone pairs and electron pairs in multiple bonds over a larger region of space. A molecule or ion that has two or more resonance structures is resonance-stabilized. 31 32

4.5 Naming Covalent Compounds HOW TO Name a Covalent Molecule 33 4.5 Naming Covalent Compounds HOW TO Name a Covalent Molecule Example

Name each covalent molecule: (a) NO2 Step [1] (b) N2O4 Name the first nonmetal by its element

name and the second using the suffix -ide. (a) NO2 (b) N2O4 34 4.5 Naming Covalent Compounds

HOW TO Name a Covalent Molecule Step [2] Add prefixes to show the number of atoms of each element. Use a prefix from Table 4.1 for each element. The prefix mono- is usually omitted when only one atom of the first element is present,

but it is retained for the second element. If the combination would place two vowels next to each other, omit the first vowel. mono + oxide = monoxide (not monooxide) 35 4.5 Naming Covalent Compounds HOW TO Name a Covalent Molecule Example

Name each covalent molecule: (a) NO2 Step [2] (b) N2O4 Name the first nonmetal by its element

name and the second using the suffix -ide. (a) NO2 (b) N2O4 36 Name the Following Compounds

37 Name the Following Compounds 38 Degrees of Unsaturation

Unsaturation = Missing Hs

Must have at least 1 C in the formula Tells you how many multiple bonds CnH2n+2 N = +1 per O = Ignore X = -1 per Every 2 missing Hs = 1DOU = 1 double bond Every 4 missing Hs = 2 DOU = triple bond

39 42 4.5 Naming Covalent Compounds HOW TO Name a Covalent Molecule 43

4.6 Molecular Shape The Lewis structure shows connection, but nothing about actual shape. To determine the shape around a given atom, first determine how many groups surround the atom. A group is either an atom or a lone pair of electrons. Use the VSEPR theory to determine the shape.

The most stable arrangement keeps the groups as far away from each other as possible. 44 4.6 Molecular Shape A. Two Groups Around an Atom Any atom surrounded by only two groups is linear and has a bond angle of 180o.

An example is CO2: 45 4.6 Molecular Shape B. Three Groups Around an Atom Any atom surrounded by three groups is trigonal planar and has bond angles of 120o.

An example is H2CO (formaldehyde): 46 4.6 Molecular Shape C. Four Groups Around an Atom Any atom surrounded by four groups is tetrahedral and has bond angles of 109.5o.

An example is CH4 (methane): 47 4.6 Molecular Shape C. Four Groups Around an Atom If the four groups around the atom include one lone pair, the geometry is a trigonal pyramid

with bond angles of 107o, close to 109.5o. An example is NH3 (ammonia): 48 4.6 Molecular Shape C. Four Groups Around an Atom If the four groups around the atom include two lone pairs, the geometry is bent and the bond

angle is 105o (i.e., close to 109.5o). An example is H2O: 49 4.6 Molecular Shape 50

Predict the Shape of Indicated Atom(s) 51 Predict the Shape of Indicated Atom(s) 52 4.7 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

Electronegativity is a measure of an atoms attraction for e in a bond. It tells how much a particular atom wants e. 54 For Each Pair Indicate Which atom is more electronegative 55

4.7 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity If the electronegativities of two bonded atoms are equal or similar, the bond is nonpolar. The electrons in the bond are being shared equally between the two atoms. 56

4.7 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity Bonding between atoms with different electronegativities yields a polar covalent bond or dipole, a partial separation of charge. 57 4.7 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

58 Classify the following bonds as nonpolar, polar covalent, or ionic 59 4.8 Polarity of Molecules The classification of a molecule as polar or nonpolar

depends on: The polarity of the individual bonds The overall shape of the molecule Nonpolar molecules generally have: o No polar bonds Dont orient themselves in a magnet Individual bond dipoles that cancel

Polar molecules generally have: One or more polar bonds Orient in a magnet (+ faces -, - faces +) Individual bond dipoles that do not cancel 60 4.8 Polarity of Molecules To determine the polarity of a molecule with

two or more polar bonds: 1. Identify all polar bonds based on electronegativity differences. 2. Determine the shape around individual atoms by counting groups. o 3. Decide if individual dipoles cancel or reinforce.

61 Polarity 62

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