Medical Terminology A Word-Building Approach Seventh Edition CHAPTER

Medical Terminology A Word-Building Approach Seventh Edition CHAPTER 8 Digestive System Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Learning Outcomes Describe the digestive system. Explain the primary functions of the organs of the digestive system. Describe the two sets of teeth with which humans are provided. Identify the three main portions of a tooth. Discuss the accessory organs of the digestive system and state their functions. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Outcomes Analyze, build, spell, and pronounce medical words. Comprehend the drugs highlighted in this chapter. Describe diagnostic and laboratory tests related to the digestive system. Identify and define selected abbreviations. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Multimedia Directory Slide 7 Slide 21 Slide 65 Slide 66 Slide 69 Slide 92 Slide 109 Slide 129

Digestive System Animation Digestion Animation Anorexia Video 1 Anorexia Video 2 Appendicitis Animation GERD Video Sigmoidscopy Video Ultrasound Video Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Anatomy and Physiology Overview General description of the digestive or gastrointestinal system: a continuous tube beginning with the mouth and ending at the anus. This tube is known as the alimentary canal and/or gastrointestinal tract and is about 30 feet long in adults. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Anatomy and Physiology Overview Digestive system contains both primary and accessory organs for the conversion of food and fluids into a semiliquid that can be absorbed for the body to use. Three main functions: Digestion Absorption Elimination Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Digestive System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation showing the digestive system. The animation may take a moment before playing. Back to Directory Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Figure 8.1 The digestive system. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 8-1 Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 8.1 (continued) Digestive System at a Glance Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Span Considerations With aging:

Digestive system becomes less motile. Glandular secretions decrease: Drier mouth Less gastric juices Nutrient absorption is mildly reduced. Teeth are mechanically worn down. Gums begin to recede. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Life Span Considerations Loss of taste buds, and food preferences change. Gastric motor activity slows: Gastric emptying is delayed. Hunger contractions diminish. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Mouth

The mouth or oral cavity is formed by: The hard and soft palates at the top or roof the cheeks the tongue the lips Contains the teeth and salivary glands. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mouth The gingivae (gums) surround the necks of the teeth. The lingual frenulum is a thin fold of mucous membrane that connects the free portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 8.2 Oral cavity: (A) sagittal section. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.2 (continued) Oral cavity: (B) anterior view as seen through the open mouth. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Mouth The tongue: is made of skeletal muscle and is covered with mucous membrane. can be divided into: the root the pointed tip a central body Papillae (elevations) and taste buds (sweet, salt, sour, and bitter) are located on the tongues surface.

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Mouth Three pairs of salivary glands secrete saliva into the oral cavity. Posterior margin of soft palate supports: the dangling uvula two pairs of muscular pharyngeal arches, which contain the palatine tonsils

The passageway between the oral cavity and the pharynx is bounded by the fauces. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Mouth Digestion begins as food is broken apart by the action of the teeth, moistened and lubricated by saliva, and formed into a bolus.

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.3 Movement of a bolus of food from the mouth to the stomach via the esophagus. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Digestion Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation on the topic of the movement of a bolus of food. Back to Directory Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Teeth Two Sets: 20 deciduous teeth, also referred to as milk teeth or baby teeth

32 permanent teeth 8 incisors 4 canines 8 premolars 12 molars Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.4 Deciduous and permanent teeth. (A) The deciduous teeth, with the age of eruption given in months.

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.4 (continued) Deciduous and permanent teeth. (B) the permanent teeth, with the age at eruption given in years. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Teeth Incisors: the four front teeth in each dental arch. Canine or cuspid teeth: larger and stronger than the incisors. Premolars or bicuspid teeth: lateral to and behind the canine teeth. Molar teeth: largest of the permanent set; broad crowns are adapted for grinding food. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Teeth Each tooth consists of three main portions: Crown Neck Root Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.5

Teeth. (A) Diagrammatic section through a typical adult tooth. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.5 (continued) Teeth. (B) the adult teeth. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Teeth The pulp cavity: is found in the interior of the crown and the center of each root. receives blood vessels and nerves, which enter the root canal through an opening called the apical foramen. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Teeth Root Sits in a bony socket called an alveolus. Collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament extend from the dentin of the root to the bone of the alveolus, creating a strong articulation known as a gomphosis. A layer of cementum (a thin layer of bone) covers the dentin of the root, firmly anchoring the periodontal ligament. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Teeth Dentin The solid portion of the tooth, which forms the bulk of the tooth. Enamel Covers the exposed part of the crown. Is the hardest and most compact part of the tooth. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Teeth Neck Marks the boundary between the root and the crown. The gingival sulcus is a shallow groove that surrounds the neck of each tooth. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Pharynx Pharynx a musculomembranous tube, just beyond the mouth, that becomes continuous with the esophagus at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Pharynx Nasopharynx: the upper portion of the pharynx, above the soft palate. Oropharynx: the middle portion, which lies between the palate and the hyoid bone and has an opening to the oral cavity. Laryngopharynx: the lowest portion of the pharynx. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Pharynx The pharynx is a common passageway for both respiration and digestion. Both the larynx, or voice box, and the esophagus begin in the pharynx. The epiglottis (a flap of tissue) blocks the opening of the larynx, preventing food from entering the airway leading to the trachea (windpipe). Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Esophagus A muscular tube about 10 inches long that leads from the pharynx to the stomach. The lower esophageal or cardiac sphincter is at the junction with the stomach. This sphincter: relaxes to permit passage of food. contracts to prevent the backup of stomach contents.

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Esophagus Food is carried along the esophagus by a series of wavelike muscular contractions called peristalsis. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Stomach A muscular, distensible saclike portion of the alimentary canal between the esophagus and duodenum. Fundus: upper region of the stomach. Body: the main portion. Antrum: the lower region. Rugae: folds in the mucous membrane lining the stomach that contain glands that produce digestive juices. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.6 Stomach. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Stomach

Gastric juices help convert the food to a semiliquid state called chyme, which passes through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Small Intestine About 21 feet long and 1 inch in diameter. Extends from pyloric sphincter at base of

stomach to entrance of large intestine. Divided into three parts: Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.7 Small intestine.

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Small Intestine Chyme is mixed with bile and pancreatic juice. Digestion and absorption take place chiefly in the small intestine. Tiny capillaries and lymph vessels absorb nutrients, which are transferred to body cells by the circulatory system.

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 8-2 Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Table 8-2 (continued) Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Large Intestine About 5 feet long and 2.5 inches in diameter. Divided into: Cecum Colon

Rectum Anal canal Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.8 Large intestine. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Span Considerations Meconium, the first stool, is: a mixture of amniotic fluid and secretions of the intestinal glands. thick and sticky, dark green in color. usually passed 8 to 24 hours following birth. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Life Span Considerations Stool during the first week is loose and greenish-yellow. Stool of a breast-fed baby is bright yellow, soft, and pasty. Stool of a bottle-fed baby is more solid, and color varies from yellow to brown. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Accessory Organs These organs are not actually part of the digestive tube but are closely related to the digestive process: Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Accessory Organs Salivary Glands Located in or near the mouth. Secrete saliva in response to sight, smell, taste, or mental image of food. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Accessory Organs Salivary Glands Parotid Submandibular Sublingual Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.9

Salivary glands, salivary ducts and the tongue Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Accessory Organs Liver The largest glandular organ in the body. Weighs about 3 lbs. Located in the upper right part of the abdomen. Plays an essential role in the normal

metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Accessory Organs Carbohydrate Metabolism Changes glucose to glycogen and stores it until needed by body cells. When required, glycogen is converted back to

glucose. Fat Metabolism The liver serves as a storage place and acts to desaturate fats before releasing them into the bloodstream. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Accessory Organs Protein Metabolism

The liver acts as a storage place and assists in both protein anabolism and catabolism. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.10 Liver. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Accessory Organs The liver manufactures the following important substances: Bile Fibrinogen and prothrombin Heparin Blood proteins Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Accessory Organs The liver stores iron and vitamins B12, A, D, E, and K. Detoxifies many harmful substances (toxins), such as drugs and alcohol. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Accessory Organs Gallbladder A membranous sac attached to the liver in which excess bile is stored and concentrated. Concentration is accomplished by reabsorption of water. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Accessory Organs Pancreas A large, elongated gland situated behind the stomach and secreting pancreatic juice into the small intestine. Contains cells that produce digestive enzymes. Other specialized cells secrete the hormones insulin and glucagon directly into the bloodstream. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Figure 8.11 Pancreas. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Span Considerations Newborns produce very little saliva until 3 months of age, and swallowing is a reflex action.

The infants stomach is small and empties rapidly. The liver of the newborn is often immature, thereby causing jaundice. Fat absorption is poor because of a decreased level of bile production. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Absorption Amylase Anabolism Anorexia Appendectomy Appendicitis

Ascites Biliary Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Anorexia Video 1 Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of anorexia. Back to Directory Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Anorexia Video 2 Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of anorexia. Back to Directory Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 8.12 Appendectomy. The appendix and cecum are brought through the incision to the surface of the abdomen. The base of the appendix is clamped and ligated, and the appendix is then removed. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.13 McBurneys point is the common location of pain in children and adolescents with appendicitis. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Appendicitis Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation on the topic of appendicitis. Back to Directory Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Bilirubin Black hairy tongue Bowel Buccal Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Figure 8.14 Black hairy tongue. (Courtesy of Jason L. Smith, MD) Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Catabolism Celiac Cheilosis Cholecystectomy chol/e = gall, bile cyst = bladder -ectomy = surgical excision Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.15 Gallbladder with gallstones. (MartinRotker/Phototake, New York City) Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Cholecystitis Choledochotomy Chyle Cirrhosis Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 8.16 Cirrhosis. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Colectomy Colon cancer Colonic Colonoscope Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.17 Common sites of colorectal cancer.

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.18 Colonoscope Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Audio Pronunciations Colonoscopy Colostomy Constipation Crohns disease Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.19 Alternate sites used to create a new opening in the colon Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.20 Note the thickening of the intestinal wall and the erosion of the inner lining of the ileum, often seen in Crohns disease. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Span Considerations Constipation Frequent problem among older adults. Not believed to be a normal age-related change. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Span Considerations Constipation Caused by: Low fluid intake Dehydration Lack of dietary fiber Inactivity Medicines Depression Other health-related conditions

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations Defecation

Deglutition Dentalgia Dentist Dentition Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Diarrhea Digestion Diverticulitis Duodenal Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice dia- = through -rrhea = flow

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.21 Diverticulitis. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Dysentery Dyspepsia Dysphagia Emesis Enteric Enteritis Enzyme Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations Epigastric

Eructation Esophageal Feces Fibroma Flatus Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Gastrectomy Gastric Gastroenterology Gastroesophageal Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Audio Pronunciations Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Gavage gloss/o = tongue Gingivitis Glossotomy -tomy = incision

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.22 Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

GERD Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of GERD. Back to Directory Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Glycogenesis Halitosis Hematemesis Hematochezia Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Hemorrhoid Hepatitis Hepatoma Hernia Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Figure 8.23 Location of internal and external hemorrhoids. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.24 Hernias. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.24 (continued) Hernias. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Span Considerations Infants and children can also develop inguinal

hernias. Occurs when portion of peritoneum does not close properly before birth. A bulge might be seen in groin or scrotum. Hernia increases in size when coughing, bending, lifting, or straining. Herniorrhaphy pushes hernia back into abdominal cavity. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Audio Pronunciations Herniorrhaphy Hyperalimentation Hyperemesis Hypogastric Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations Ileitis Ileostomy Irritable bowel syndrome Labial

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.25 Ileostomy. Note that the cecum and colon have been surgically removed. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Audio Pronunciations Laparotomy Lavage Laxative Lingual Lipolysis

lip/o = fat -lysis = destruction; to separate Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Liver transplant Malabsorption Mastication Melena Mesentery Nausea Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations Pancreas transplant Pancreatitis Paralytic ileus

Peptic Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) Periodontal Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.26 Peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice

Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations Periodontal disease Peristalsis Pharyngeal

Pilonidal cyst Postprandial Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations

Proctologist Proctoscope Pyloric Rectocele rect/o = rectum -cele = hernia Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Audio Pronunciations Sialadenitis Sigmoidoscope Splenomegaly

Stomatitis Sublingual Ulcer Ulcerative colitis Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Sigmoidoscopy Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of sigmoidoscopy. Back to Directory

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.27 Sublingual drug administration. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Audio Pronunciations Vermiform Volvulus Vomit Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.28 Volvulus. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Drug Highlights Antacids Antacid Mixtures Histamine H2-Receptor Antagonists Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. Drug Highlights Mucosal Protective Medications Gastric Acid Pump Inhibitors (ProtonPump Inhibitor) (PPI) Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Drug Highlights Other Ulcer Medications

Treatment regimen for active duodenal ulcers associated with H. pylori can involve a two- or three-drug program. Laxatives Antidiarrheal Agents Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Drug Highlights

Antiemetics Emetics Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Alcohol Toxicology (ethanol & ethyl) Test performed on blood serum or plasma to determine levels of alcohol.

Ammonia (NH4) Test performed on blood plasma to determine the level of ammonia (end product of protein breakdown). Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Barium Enema (BE) Test performed by administering barium via

the rectum to determine the condition of the colon. Bilirubin Blood Test (total) Test done on blood serum to determine whether bilirubin is conjugated and excreted in the bile. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Diagnostic and Lab Tests Bravo pH Monitor Test used to diagnose causes of heartburn and provide specific information about GERD. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Test performed on whole blood or plasma to monitor the course of cancer therapy. Cholangiography X-ray examination of the common bile duct, cystic duct, and hepatic ducts after radiopaque dye is ingested. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Cholecystography X-ray examination of the gallbladder, in which radiopaque dye is injected. Colonofiberoscopy Direct visual examination of the colon via a flexible colonoscope.

Colonoscopy Direct visual examination of the colon via a colonoscope. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) X-ray examination of the biliary and pancreatic ducts by injecting a contrast

medium. Esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy Endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)

Test performed on blood serum to determine the level of GGT. Gastric Analysis Test performed to determine quality of secretion, amount of free and combined HCl, and absence or presence of blood, bacteria, bile, and fatty acids. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Diagnostic and Lab Tests Gastrointestinal (GI) Series Fluoroscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine, in which barium is given orally and is observed as it flows through the GI system. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 8.29 Upper GI series. (Courtesy of Teresa Resch) Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Hepatitis-Associated Antigen (HAA) Test performed to determine the presence of the hepatitis B virus. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Liver Biopsy Microscopic examination of liver tissue to diagnose cirrhosis, hepatitis, and tumors. Occult Blood Test performed on feces to determine gastrointestinal bleeding that is not visible.

Ova and Parasites (O&P) Test performed on stool to identify ova and parasites. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Lab Tests Stool Culture Test performed on stool to identify the presence of organisms.

Ultrasonography, Gallbladder Test to visualize the gallbladder by using highfrequency sound waves. Ultrasonography, Liver Test to visualize the liver by using highfrequency sound waves. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 8.30 Gallbladder ultrasound. (Courtesy of Teresa Resch) Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition

Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Ultrasound Video Click on the screenshot to view video on the topic of ultrasound. Back to Directory Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Diagnostic and Lab Tests Upper Gastrointestinal Fiberoscopy Direct visual examination of the gastric mucosa via a flexible fiberscope when gastric neoplasm is suspected. Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Insert abbreviations from book

Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Combining Form Match Up Quiz 1. aden/o 2. amyl/o 3. gloss/o 4. halit/o 5. labi/o

a. tongue b. starch c. gland d. breath e. lip Medical Terminology: A Word-Building Approach, Seventh Edition Jane Rice Copyright 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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