CHAPTER 1 CROSS-CULTURE INTERACTION WHAT DO CULTURES CONTRIBUTE

CHAPTER 1 CROSS-CULTURE INTERACTION WHAT DO CULTURES CONTRIBUTE TO HUMANITY? 1. Every culture in the world contributes something unique to humanitya certain section in the circle of humanity and life.

2. Put all cultures together and you have all 360 degrees in the human circle. Without every culture, humanity would be worse off. 3. The more you understand and appreciate cultures, the more you know and appreciate about human beingsand being alive. The only way to really

understand your culture is to get outside Ethnocentrism: Wearing the wrong pair of cultural glasses One of the most humbling experiences in life is learning another nations

language while living in that nation. The inability to communicate clearly and competently can play havoc with ones confidence and sense of sophistication. Enduring this experience is YOU KNOW YOU ARE IN AN INSTITUTIONALIZED CULTURE WHEN: 1. There are numerous laws,

regulations, & lawyers. 2. People depend on institutions (public schools, hospitals, banks, etc.) more than family. 3. Most things are organized & efficient. 4. The main building blocks of society are singles & small nuclear families. 5. People are independent & selfsufficient. 7. Many people are high

achievers, are at work more than with family, & have careercentered identifies. 8. Life is fast-paced, competitive, & often stressful. 9. Governments are relatively stable. 10. Status is earned & based in large part on money/material wealth. YOU KNOW YOU ARE IN A

PERSONALIZED CULTURE WHEN: 1. Large extended families are the main source of power & personal identity. 2. Most people have jobs rather than careers. 3. Relationships are more important than personal productivity. 4. Organizations arent efficient & reliable. 5. Bribes are a way of life, since people control assets more than institutions.

6. People exchange favors & network to 7. People enjoy the free things of life (relationships, leisure, religion, celebrations, etc.) more than the bought things. 8. Most businesses are small & family-operated. 9. Women have a different social role than men.

10.Govenments & politics are unstable. 11. Who you know is more important than what you know. GRASS ROOTS BUSINESS THRIVES ON: 1.Personal relationships vs. contracting (savoir faire skills)

2.Hospitality (bonding) 3.Exchanging favors to build a resource base THE PERSONALIZED APPROACH TO DOING BUSINESS 1. Doing business more on the basis of who you know rather than what you know 2. Continuing networking &

relationship-building 3. Associational powerbased on your boss, family members, & others you are closely networked with 4. Hospitality (bonding) 5. Patience (people accommodated over performance) THE FOOTPRINTS OF IMPERSONAL BUSINESS

1. Legalization of business deals via contracts rather than friendships 2. Professionalism: no favoritism, anti-nepotism policies, bidding for contracts, etc. 3. Accountability via codes of professional ethics, performance reviews, financial audits, & govt. regulation.

1. In most male-dominated cultures, foreign professional women are treated as a third gender (neither male nor female). They are not treated as a culturally-traditional woman is treated in that culture, nor as a man is treated. 2. Instead, women professionals are treated with a special code of etiquette that takes males off the

hook for complying with traditional cultural expectations for treating women. 3. Thus, traditional (paternalistic) Cross-cultural business relationships should be more cooperative than

competitive: Win-win Give & take Personalized rather than bureaucratic Why are there multiple bottom lines in global business?

Because most cultures expect more o of business than profit: jobs, community service, health care, etc. UNDERSTANDING vs. EXPERIENCING REALITY 1. Ultimately you cant understand a culture by studying it, but only through experiencing it, first as an outsider, then as an insider. 2. Ironically, it is only as you

experience other cultures inside out that you begin to understand your own home culture. 3. You can tell youve been assimilated into another culture when you dream in their language & start seeing a stranger CHANGE THE EYES THAT SEE REALITY 1. "Profit is the bottom line of business." (What about

market share? Stable employment? Loyalty to business partners?) 2. "Time is money." (Time might be viewed as competitive advantage or as as a matter of fate.) 3. "The way to get ahead is through hard work." (Maybe success comes through contacts, or personal characteristics, or family background). 4. "Plan your work and work your plan." (What if God wills otherwise? What if your low social position denies you economic opportunity?)

5. "We're an equal opportunity employer." (Not in hierachical societies). 6. "Let's be practical and come up with a compromise." (What--and sell out your values and ideals?!) 7. "We hire on the basis of competence." (We hire on the basis of who you know, who you're related to, or based on your ethnic background). 8. "Professionals are punctual." (Not if they are at the top of the hierarchy or in a relational culture). THE 21

CENTURY MUSEUM OF CULTURES st 3. Corporate careers demand individualism so business professionals can work when & where they are needed by corporations. Careerists are wedded to their corporate institution, spending more time at work than with the family

unit or within the larger social community. 4. Thus, loyalty to the corporation, rather than to the family or community, is generating increased cultural institutionalism & producing a new universal culture (the UGEN culture (discussed in chapter 14) of bi-cultural professionals at home in both their traditional home culture as well as corporate culture. Over time, the

As highlighted in chapter 14 (the universal generation), cultural differences are rapidly eroding in the 21st century as the emerging universal generation develops a culture of its own. Cultural differences have been in decline for a long time due to the unavoidable & pervasive influence of the digital revolution (Internet, pop culture

icons, etc.) In the 21st century, cultural differences are most pronounced among middle-age people , but their 20th century 1. 2. 3. 4.

CULTURAL ASPECTS OF GLOBALIZATION Global consumerism spurred by the spread of capitalism and the advertising of global brand names Emergence of middle class social structure in a growing number of developing nations Greater international tourism & immigration

The emergence of a universal generation of young people who share more cultural similarities INDIVIDUALISM CULTURE SPREAD BY CAPITALISM Capitalism, the pursuit of wealth via private companies, thrives on individualism (pursuit of self-gain): entrepreneurs; investors;

advertisers and public relations professionals; financial brokers, etc. Capitalism erodes community via job mobility; employee layoffs; foreign off-shoring; mergers/acquisitions; economic EXAMPLES OF CAPITALISM-BASED CULTURAL CHANGE China, ancient bastion of community

culture, is currently undergoing a jarring shift to individualism spawned by its rapid shift to capitalism. Exporting to individualist cultures in the West has long been Japans national economic strategy. Indias thousands of call-center workers must learn English & use English first names while working.

English is the international language because capitalism is the international economic system. To a large extent, global consumerism thrives on promoting self-identity consumerism and individualistic lifestyles: fashion; women professionals; pop culture & entertainment icons; social

websites; birth control; target CHAPTER 2 CLASSIFYING CULTURES WHY DO CULTURES SEEM SO Because of COMPLEX? the outward superficial differences between cultures:

Ethnic features Language Fashion Cuisine In reality, understanding cultures is much easier than it looks. THE BIG 3 CULTURE

CLASSIFICATIONS Cul Class #1: TRAFFIC LIGHT MODEL THE TRAFFIC LIGHT MODEL OF CULTURE Green light: Go ahead Yellow light: Be careful

Red light: Stop! Green light cultures: Individualistic Behavior needs little coaching and can be fairly spontaneous Yellow light cultures: Extended family Behavior needs some coaching and moderate training in culturally-appropriate etiquette

Red light cultures: Community/group Behavior needs close coaching and extensive training in What kinds of behaviors require coaching? Business protocol, negotiating, conducting meetings, rapportbuilding, social etiquette, giving work

instructions, etc. Cul Class #2: INDIVIDUALISM EXTENDED FAMILY COMMUNITY INDIVIDUALISM CULTURES (primarily Anglo-Saxon) 1.Institutions more important

than family 2.Etiquette is optional 3.Individualism to accommodate capitalism 4.Achievement for identity & social status 5.Defining your own social responsibilities EXTENDED FAMILY CULTURE (Latin, Middle Eastern, African)

1.Extended family > institutions 2.Unconditional acceptance > achievement 3.Appreciation of the free (non-materialistic) things in life 4.Religion & traditions > COMMUNITY (Asian) CULTURES

1. Community = your interdependency network of insiders 2. Focus on ideals, esp. harmony & face 3.Mandatory social etiquette to show respect to community Individualistic culture: I

define myself (not society) The I Culture Individualism Institutions Independence Internal locus of Individualistic cultures see

society as a conglomeration of separate individuals rather than as interconnected people integrated into a holistic community. The concept of community is vague or missing all together. Surrogates for community are such things as bowling leagues, church attendance, social clubs, & especially online virtual

DEFINING YOURSELF EVERYDAY 1. Individualistic cultures necessitate that people continually define & redefine themselves through career; lifestyle decisions; how money & time are spent; external appearance; hobbies; friendships, etc.

2. Your self-identity must be reinforced throughout the day as you make decisions, set priorities, INDEPENDENCE & CONTROL Controlling your life & environment is essential in individualistic (I) cultures, because how you spend your time defines who you are. As a result, I cultures tend to be technological (Control mechanisms) Cultures:

Clocks, Cars, Chemicals, Careers, Cash, Credit Cards, Choices, Channels For example, birth control has liberated (made independent) women to pursue careers as a personal alternative

to full-time domestic responsibility. Birth control opens the door for womens careers, family planning, & non- American men & women in I cultures now marry at an average age of 25 & dont have children until about 28 years of age. American nuclear families are

normally small enough to enable the mother to maintain a part-time or full-time career with the support of institutionalized child care. The high divorce rate in I cultures & rise in single-parent families may be due in part to the greater economic independence of economically selfsufficient women. What Do These Drivers Have In Common?

Both use the style of their car to express their self-identity Personal identity in individualism cultures can come not only from your career, but also from what can possibly come with it: power, social status,

achievement, recognition/awards, Play by the rules vs. Make your own rules to live by Extended Family Culture: The family is my

1.Non-institutional cultures 2.Family > Organizations 3.People > Productivity 4.Quality of life (relationships & family) > Quantity of life In nuclear family (individualism) cultures,

identity is largely selfdetermined. In extended family cultures, identity is more apt to come from outside of yourself: gender role, birth order, Community Culture: Community = interdependency

networks: family hierarchies; co-workers; permanent friends; neighbors Etiquette (ethics) = showing respect via rituals to those you depend on most Ideals = behaviors that Maintain interpersonal

harmony via ritualistic SOCIAL ETIQUETTE: Friendship bonding rituals; Bowing; Meeting/greeting rituals; Gift-giving rituals; Social behavior is complex because it is dictated by situational etiquette, not by universal rules

Meditating on company CULTURE CLASH: CAREER CULTURES vs. FAMILY CULTURES 1. Cultures with different profiles sometimes mesh, but not always. Achievement cultures (individualistic,

mastery, monochronic, quantity of life) inevitably clash with traditional cultures (extended family, adaptive, polychronic, quality of life). 2. For example, American culture during the Manifest Destiny 19th century fatally clashed with the Native American cultures, all but exterminating them in the process. The disunited Amerindian tribes were no match for the superior military technology (the product of

entrepreneurial commercial institutions) 3. One of the few times the Amerindians defeated the U.S. military was at the infamous battle of Little Big Horn (South Dakota) when a number of tribes centralized their power under Sitting Bull. But lacking the institutional infrastructure to permanently centralize power, the various Amerindian tribes were quickly wiped out by the institutional U.S. 4. A major cause of contemporary friction between

Western & Islamic nations is cultural: secularism vs. theocracy, institutional vs. extended family, gender role differences, etc. 5. The USA faces a tough political challenge in seeking to install a Western-friendly form of government in the Middle East, because the region has never known strong secular institutions, but representative government necessitates strong institutions. THE CULTURAL IMPACT OF

QUANTITY OF LIFE & ON FAMILY STRUCTURE 1. Western cultures strong emphasis on quantity-of-life productivity has led to a cycle of decreasing family size & prominence: Women in the workplace Delayed marriage Having children later in life + Fewer children Reliance on

institutional child rearing in day care centers & public schools 2. Career emphasis has also meant a huge growth in the singles culture to accommodate the intrusiveness of institutional work on private life (long work hours, commuting, team projects, GENDER ROLE CULTURE CLASH 1. The traditional nurturing role of women in Western culture underwent massive

change during the second half of the 20th century as many women sought personal identity in careers & greater social/economic independence. 2. Other women became breadwinners in order to supplement their spouses income to enable a higher material standard of living. 3. The singles & living together unmarried subcultures emerged as a new socially acceptable role for both women and men

who put career & organizational life 4. This redefined gender role of women led to domestic role overload for many supermoms who were expected to simultaneously maintain both nurturing & professional roles. 5. In addition, the new role of women as careerists in the workplace led to gender culture clashes in many organizations centering around sexual discrimination &

harassment; the glass ceiling (not promoting women into executive positions); & the discomfort of many women professionals in male-dominated organization cultures built around aggressive competitiveness instead of cooperation, & authoritarian-style management instead of participative THE SOCIAL REQUIREMENTS OF CAREERIST CULTURES

1. Social Darwinist culture (make it on your own) 2. Unisex culture (economic productivity as the primary societal role of both men & women) 3. Small families or childless marriages (to accommodate the time demands of institutions & organizations) 4. Institutional childcare (as a substitute for family care during the workday):

public school systems, daycare centers, nannies, after-school programs & extracurricular activities 5. Widespread availability of birth control 6. Civil rights legislation protecting the rights of women & ethnic minorities 7. Geographically mobile lifestyles to accommodate career opportunities 8. Separation of church & state to avoid discrimination against religious

minorities & the growing ranks of nonreligious secularists 9. Secularized values to accommodate the high materialism required by a commercial culture based on the pursuit of careers. 10.Government socialism (unemployment & welfare benefits, medical care assistance, college loans, etc.) to THE SOCIAL REQUIREMENTS OF EXTENDED FAMILY CULTURES

1. A social culture of extended families, clans (extended families connected by intermarriage) & tribes (extended clans connected by intermarriage) 2. Gender role differences 3. Large families (to provide for the relative absence of social institutions) 4. Prominent, publicly visible religion to hold the culture together at the grassroots level in the absence of of institutions

5. Communal capitalism which seeks to meet the needs of multiple people, not just financial stockholders Cul Class #3: CULTURAL DNA CODE DNA #1: MONOCHRONIC vs. POLYCHRONIC

CULTURES MonochronicPolychronic: Some rivers flow, others are dammed up (Control time vs. enjoy time) 1. Monochronic cultures control time via schedules to promote personal productivity: appointments,

deadlines, private offices, organization charts, etc. 2. Polychronic cultures put relationships before professional responsibilities & are thus less time efficient & organized. 3. Privacy is more important in monochronic cultures than polychronic, because

personal productivity & stress maintenance necessitates withdrawal from the external environment. 4. Polychronic cultures are more open & less private to facilitate relationship- 5.Work stress is high in monochronic cultures

due to the constant press to perform efficiently: A.Work deadlines B.Goals C.Performance-based pay D.Competitiveness E. Serial busyness POLYCHRONIC MARK TWAIN 1. Huck Finn & his friend Jim relax their way down the Mississippi

River (symbolizing the flow of life), never hurrying to meet deadlines like the river boat pilots. 2. Every time Huck & Jim leave the river (going into monochronic civilization), they encounter problems & arent accepted. 3. Huck & Jim want to enjoy their environment, not control it. DNA #2:

LOW vs. HIGH CONTEXT CULTURES Low vs. High Context Treat everyone the same vs. cater to background characteristics In high context cultures,

peoples background characteristics (family name, wealth, gender, age, who they know, etc.) determine their social status more than personal achievements (which define identity in low context cultures) What aspect of

American history influenced Americans to be low context? (Immigrants from all over the world had to minimize their differences in melting- DNA #3: MASTERY vs.

ADAPTATION Mastery vs. Adaptation cultures (Controlling vs. adapting to the environment) Master society via institutions, master organizations via management, & master nature via science/technology

1. Bureaucratic forms of organizational controls include job descriptions, chain of command organization charts, systems & procedures, performance reviews, etc. 2. Most managers in Western organizations prefer control to employee empowerment. 3. Business schools focus heavily on

quantitative skills as the key to controlling organizations. 4. Western culture is on the brink of ultimate control via cloning, abortion, stem cell research, HOW NON-MASTERY CULTURES ADAPT: 1. Heavy reliance on agriculture & self (non-institutional)

employment 2. Dependence on the extended family rather than institutions 3. Central role of religion rather than career-centered secularism 4. Most adaptation cultures are also quality of life cultures which emphasize the 7Fs: Free, Family, Friends, Fun, 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. THE STRENGTH OF ADAPTATION CULTURES The capacity to absorb social

change without violence & revolution Less anxiety about what the future holds Less violent crime A smaller generation gap Lasting religious traditions Stronger families & marriages Fewer people dispossessed by DNA #4:

QUALITY vs. QUANTITY OF LIFE Quantity vs. Quality of life (material vs. lifestyle wealth) Quantity of Life Materialism Wants > needs

Secularism Singles & nuclear family Technology Imperialism Workaholism Novel experiences Quality of Life

Extended family Needs-based economy Status quo Religion & social traditions Jobs > careers

Which is the only America n state that has a quality of What

enabled the biggest productivity jump in USA history? (Women becoming career- DNA #5: TOLERANCE OF

SOCIAL AMBIGUITY High vs. low tolerance of social ambiguity (diversity) Political correctness & unisex culture are natural byproducts of cultures that tolerate diversity & nonconformity. Diverse

lifestyles must be tolerated because there are so many of them & people derive their personal identity from DNA #6: POWER DISTANCE Low vs. High power distance

(shared power vs. power elites) 1. Low power distance cultures decentralize power into many different organizations & job positions. Powerful people are not that much different from everyone else. 2. High power distance cultures centralize power into a small group of power elites who

are treated with great deference. LOW POWER DISTANCE 1. First name basis 2. Participative management style 3. Informality 4. People from different levels of the hierarchy interact

frequently & comfortably. 5. Stress on personal accountability HIGH POWER DISTANCE 1.Autocratic management style 2.People from different levels of the hierarchy seldom interact.

3.Paternalism: taking care of employees in return for loyalty & obedience DNA #7: EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIVENESS Emotionally Neutral vs. Expressive (self discipline vs. animation)

EMOTIONALLY NEUTRAL 1.Impersonal & formal 2.Inhibited about expressing feelings & poker face 3.High personal space; limited physical contact 4.Privacy (offices) & quiet 5.Avoiding personal style

or charisma EMOTIONALLY EXPRESSIVE 1.Uninhibited expression of feelings 2.High touch 3.Spontaneous 4.Opinionated & love of debate & arguing in the passionate pursuit of

life GOING POSTAL 1. People in emotionally neutral cultures are more likely to lose it emotionally than those in emotionally expressive cultures. 2. This can be caused not only by the tendency to hold in

strong emotions, but also to frustrations associated with the stresses of organizational life in institutional cultures: corporate politics, deadlines, Body languag Ritual Silence How are emotions

expressed silently? DNA #8: LOCUS OF CONTROL INTERNAL LOC 1.I am mainly responsible & in control of what happens to me in life. 2.I make myself what I am, & choose

my own identity & niche in life. 3.I run my own life, make my own decisions, set my own goals, & deserve the success I achieve. I am the pilot of my own ship. 4.I make things happen in life. EXTERNAL LOC 1.Many things control what happens to me in life. I cant do anything about

them. 2.I was born into a certain kind of life chosen for me by external factors: my gender, culture, family, religion, ethnicity, class status, past colonialism, etc. 3.There are many things in my life that I must accept. 4.Life happens to me. I must adjust & adapt.

ILOC vs. ELOC Changing Status quo Leading Following Proacting Reacting Doing Waiting Talking Listening Secular Religious CHAPTER 4 BRITISH

CULTURE The Anglo in Anglo/Saxon Individualism Extended family Community Monochronic Poychronic Low Context

High Context Social Ambiguity Social Certainty Low Power Distance High power Distance Mastery

Adaptation Emotionally Neutral Emotionally Expressive Quantity of Life Quality of life SIX KEY ANGLO-SAXON CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS

1.Rule of law & institutions 2.Capitalism (free markets) 3.Science & technology 4.Education 5.Meritocracy (rewarding INSTITUTIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS 1. British common law: innocent until

proven guilty; jury system; representative legal counsel; bail; impartial justice. Under the Napoleonic Code of France, most judges serve as rubber stamps for prosecutors--guilty until proven innocent. 2. Checks & balances on government power (the democratic institutional model) 3. Institutional/cultural imperialism

(USA, India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa) The British used their perceived cultural superiority (ethnocentrism) to justify their 3-century worldwide imperialism & empire building via transplanting democratic institutions & government to a

record number (over 60) of nations. Cultural imperialism can both direct (military subjugation) & indirect (economic & cultural systems, such as capitalism, language, religion, pop culture, Afganistn America Araba Austria

Bahrain Belize Belize Bermuda Bhutan Botswana Brunei Canada Caymans Cyprus Egypt

Falklands Lebanon Fiji Madagasc Gambia ar Ghana Malawi Gibraltar Malaysia Haiti

Malta Hawaii Montserra Hong t Kong Namibia India New Iraq Zealand Ireland

Nigeria Italy Pakistan Qatar Jamaica Scotland Kenya Sierra Kuwait Leone

South Africa Sudan Syria Tanzania Tobago Trinidad Uganda Zanzbar Zimbabwe A CULTURE OF

CONSERVATIVE, PRINCIPLED BEHAVIOR 1.Non-compromising on principle 2.Steadfast, stable, and stalwart 3.Stick with the system BEDROCK BRITISH PRINCIPLES

1.Rule of law 2.Power of institutions over men 3.Patriotism 4.Duty 5.Steadfastness THE BRITISH CULTURAL LEGACY

1.Institutional imperialism 2.Moral fiber & toughness 3.Nationalistic willpower & tenacity 4.Playing by the rules 5.Interpersonal The formal British believe that they should act a a role model for their

nations heritage through all circumstanceshence formal dress, proper grammar, & diligence in duty. WHY STICK WITH THE STATUS QUO? Because our system is the best! Change compromises

perfection. The Proverbial British Gentleman (principle over pragmatism) Cheeky (uncivilized) Americans THE BRITISH VIEW BUSINESS THE

WAY AMERICANS VIEW: Used car salesmen Pawn shops Tele-marketers Casinos Garage sales AM radio CHAPTER 3 GERMAN

CULTURE The Saxon in Anglo-Saxon GERMAN BUSINESS CULTURE THE SAXON FOUNDATION OF WESTERN PROFESSIONALISM

Low context 2. Monochronic 3. Emotionally neutral 1. 4. Institutions (Bureaucracy) 5. Organizational systems

6. Impersonal professionalism 4. Germanic-influenced American business schools prepare students to live their future lives around the needs of conform and perform corporations. 5. B-schools program students to conform via analytical courses; routinized instruction that emphasizes right answers & heavy memorization; & strict

attention to technical accuracy (accounting problem sets, finance formulas, statistical analysis, perfect resumes, etc.). 6. B-students with high grades (especially in accounting and finance) have already demonstrated their capacity to score THE GERMAN ORGANIZATIONAL

MINDSET THE GERMAN ORGANIZATIONAL MINDSET 1. Performance is all that counts 2. Micromanaging the workplace: job descriptions, systems & procedures, deadlines, etc. 3. Technical communication: Formal

letters, resumes, memos, analysis reports, statistical reports, etc. 4. Formality: Chain of command, professional dress, punctuality, Use of surnames & titles 5. All business work environment: focus, concentration, efficiency, etc. 6. Compartmentalism:

Separation of private life and professional life 7. Strong centralized authority 8. The system is the solution: All employees & activities must plug into formal plans and procedures. Plan your work 1. Germans want organizations to be like a machine: so carefully designed & crafted

that they almost run themselves (via systems & procedures, chain of command, job descriptions, etc.) 2. Germans emphasize the system over the people in the system, because people are messy (emotional, HOW PROFESSIONALIZED ORGANIZATIONS

LIMIT OUR FREEDOM & MASTER US: 1. We must run our lives around the interests of the org: work hours, dress code, job descriptions, geographical transfers, etc. 2. Separation from family & friends 3. Required college education & professional certifications 4. Internalizing org goals & mission 5. Conforming to the org culture

6. A professional is someone who devotes his/her life to helping an organization succeed. GERMAN COMMUNICATION & PRIVACY COMMUNICATION GERMAN STYLE 1. Clear communication is blunt

communicationpreferably written. German employees prefer written instructions over verbal because of their increased accuracy & they backup employee accountability. 2. Criticism doesnt have to be sugar-coated to be constructive 3. Accuracy is too important to keep quiet about mistakes 4. Formality maintains

Departments in German companies are so wedded to privacy that silo departments share little information with employees & between departments. Privacy is essential for

neutralizing nervous stress in in emotionally CHAPTER 6 Scandinavian Culture SCANDINAVIAN

EGALITARIANISM Egalitarian values: equal results, not just equal opportunity 1. It is virtually impossible to become rich in Sweden, because the taxes are so high and the income differentials are so low. Thus theres not much of a difference in the way

people live because there isnt much of a difference in spendable income. 2. Both Swedish parents are entitled to up to a year in paternity leave. If a child has a significant illness, a parent can can take up to 60 days off at 90% pay. 3. Ombudsmen are readily available to represent workers in conflicts with In contrast to Americans, most

Scandinavians believe in equal results rather than merely equal opportunity (because no society can truly provide equal opportunity for everyone) A Scandinavian millionaire paid a $174,000 speeding ticket because that equaled the same percentage of his income as a $200 fine for the common wage earner. COMMON CAREER BARRIERS FACED BY

AMERICAN WOMEN 1.Loss of workplace seniority when having or caring for children 2.Subordinating the wifes career to the husband's career, especially when job transfers are involved 3.Working in a male corporate climate based on competition

rather than cooperation & Equal opportunity doesnt exist. People arent equally intelligent & skilled. Highly imperfect & rigged economic systems dont give everyone a fair opportunity to provide for their needs.

How many people pay the price of your eco success? High taxes are the foundation of economic equality & social stability. You arent more important than

anyone else. (Jante law) Caring means sharing. Peoples basic needs must be met by community sacrifice. SCANDINAVIAN SECURITY ORIGINS OF SECURITY

CULTURE IN MODERN SCANDINAVIA 1. Ethnically homogeneous population (promoting a strong social conscience) 2. A class-free society 3. Geographic isolation & the hostile northern climate 4. Strong feminine influence within the culture

The (cradle to grave) welfare state Free health care, college, pregnancy leave, even euthanasia CHILD POVERTY COMPARISONS 1. Scandinavian countries have the lowest child poverty rates

in the world thanks to their welfare system; in Denmark just 2.4% of children live in poverty; 3.4% in Norway; 4.2% in Sweden 2. Mexico & the U.S. have the highest child poverty rates in the developed world: 27.7% for Mexico & 21.9% for the U.S. WHY HASNT AMERICA PURSUED

CRADLE TO GRAVE WELFARE? 1. Opposition to & the lack of communal consciousness perhaps due to Americas ethnic & religious diversity. 2. Higher income Americans have more ways to legally reduce their taxes than the middle class 3. Sales taxes, which America

strongly relies on for tax revenue, discriminate against lower income Americans (who SCANDINAVIAN vs. AMERICAN CULTURE 1. Scandinavians have a strong sense of community responsibility. There

is a willingness to make adjustments which other cultures might consider a sacrifice of individuality. 2. Violent crime rates are low throughout most Scandinavian cultures. Only 6% of Swedes report being victims of violence. 3. Despite high divorce rates, a high rate of unmarried parents, and shifting relationships, the number

WHERE THE AMERICAN EMOTIONAL PROFILE DIFFERS MOST FROM THE SCANDINAVIAN 1. Greater American propensity for risktaking & uncertainty 2. American tend to be more aggressive & competitive 3. The American cult of personality (movie stars, rock stars, etc.) 4. American social status differences are based largely on money &

conspicuous consumption (Kardashian hyper-materialism, extravagant weddings, mansions for homes, lifestyle excesses of rock stars, entertainers, & pro athletes, 5. American culture is less libertarian (no rules for morality) than Scandinavians because the JudeoChristian ethic still has some influence in America & there is also a strain of religious personal piety

left in America. 6. Americans are more Darwinian (survival of the fittest) than Scandinavians based on the success-orientation of Americans & rugged individualism. 7. Americans are more tolerant of class differences (based on wealth 8. Americas commercialized culture has generated an entire industry

of promoters, agents, PR consultants to manufacture glamorous, larger-then-life celebrities who are icons of America wealth, success, & fame. Scandinavians prefer real people to celluloid holographs. 9. Swedish-born American actress Greta Garbo (famous in the 1930s & 1940s) quit the movie business at the peak of her

popularity and became a recluse because she couldn't stand being THE ULTIMATE UNISEX CULTURE 1. Scandinavian parents share household duties more than any other culture, including childrearing. 2. Scandinavia leads the world in women elected to political office, sitting on boards, & holding

executive corporate positions. This reflects the Scandinavian tradition of androgynous (masculine/feminine blend) 3. The workplace equality of Scandinavian women is bolstered by generous paid pregnancy leave that enables women professionals not to lose their seniority level (the major reason women professionals

in many other nations are paid less even when doing the same job as male counterparts). 4. Widespread utilization of acrossthe-board pay increases (vs. merit pay, which lends itself to corporate politics) also adds to Scandinavian 1. 2. 3.

4. SCANDINVIAN LIFESTYLE PRAGMATISM The Dutch acknowledge that morals cant be legislated, as illustrated by the failure of Prohibition in the U.S., & dont want to criminalize those addicted to vices. Legalized prostitution and

pornography Government-provided drugs, abortions, and euthanasia (including babies with traumatic problems) Highest percentage of cohabitating couples CHAPTER 7 MEXICAN

CULTURE Individualism Extended family Community Monochronic Polychronic Low Context High Context Social

Ambiguity Social Certainty Low Power Distance High power Distance Mastery Adaptation Emotionally

Neutral Emotionally Expressive Quantity of Life Quality of life In most respects, Latin cultures are 180 degrees opposite of Anglo/Saxon

cultures. UNA HISTORIA DE LA DOMINACIN AUTORITARIA THE DOMINATORS Spanish French

Texicans & the Republic of Texas Dictators: Villa, Carranza, The oneparty PRI government 1929-1999

Roman Catholicism Drug lords NAFTA? THE INFLUENCE OF AUTHORITARIANISM ON LATIN CULTURE 1. Security & identity via the extended family to compensate for the absence of democratic

institutions 2. Emphasis on the free things of life which cant be taken away from you by authoritarian governments 3. Personal dignity (face) to compensate for the lack of social status opportunities in authoritarian cultures

LATIN EXTENDED FAMILY CULTURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. LAS VENTAJAS (advantages) DE LA FAMILIA EXTENDIDA Personalized, non-institutional child care Unconditional acceptance (love doesnt have to be earned)

Constant companionship Traditions Growing up with biological parents Connections between generations High touch culture (hugging, touching, breast feeding, etc.) EL TEMPERAMENT LATINO

A HIGH TOUCH CULTURE 1.Being around family 2.24-hour weddings 3.Nursing babies 4.Funeral wakes 5.Latin dancing 6.Hugs, kisses, & togetherness THE 7 Fs OF LIFE

Latins emphasize the free things of life (quality of life): Family Friends Fun Fiestas Food Faith Freedom

1. When Mexicans say they want you to understand them, they mean to see things in light of the totality of their relationships, responsibilities, & limitations in life. 2. The common Mexican attitude of no culpa (Im not at fault) stems from their external locus of control (Forces beyond my control run my life). This attitude makes it very difficult to hold Mexicans accountable for their

behavior and its consequences. 3. Mexicans place a very high value on alma (ones inner spirit & spiritual essence) & hence look down on people who strive for meaning in life through material wealth or other superficial values. Alma is whats left over after the achievement drive has been THE 3 LATIN ACCEPTS 1.Accept authority

2.Accept the status quo 3.Accept corruption THE POLYCHRONI C LATIN WORKPLACE Anglo-Saxons design

organizations to be machines. Latins want an organization to be like a family. 1. Integration of professional & personal life 2. Lower short-term productivity 3. Tolerance of workplace distractions, interruptions,

inefficiencies 4. Communal sharing of property 5. Less workaholism & worker isolation (& hence less organizational politics) 6. Office celebrations When Mexicans say maana, they dont necessarily mean they will do it tomorrow, but rather when life isnt

happeningwhen no friends or relatives are around; when the weather isnt nice; when the fiesta is over, etc. Much of the time, life is dull, menial, or unpleasant, so dont put off enjoying life when the opportunity is present. Smell the roses while they bloom. Buena Gente

(Good person boss) 1. Anglo-Saxon managers feel it is unprofessional to cater employees in a personalized manner. 2. Latins expect to be treated as unique members of the work family by a boss who is buena gente. 3. Latins wont bond with

impersonal mala gente (bad persons). They will be IMMIGRATION ESTIMATED % OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYMENT IN U.S. INDUSTRIES Agriculture: 61% Domestic housekeeping: 36% Drywall installers: 27% Landscaping: 26%

Maintenance: 26% Meat handlers: 25% Hand packers: 22% Cement finishers: 22% Roofers: 21% Animal slaughter: 20% Cleaning: 19% Laundry: 17% Apparel: 16% Hospitality: 14% Restaurants: 11%

Construction: 10% Recent efforts to heavily fine U.S. companies who employ illegal Mexicans have already caused serious disruptions in the operations of many American businesses, especially in agriculture. Many farmers have will produce only half of their normal crops due

to growing labor shortages & many farmers have chosen not SHOULD AMERICA CLOSE ITS BORDERS? 1. Those who simply want to deport all unauthorized immigrants might be surprised at the economic result. I dont think they would be very happy. It would cause a lot of dislocation in terms of trying to maintain industries such as agriculture, construction, and

hospitality. 2. Curbing the use of immigrant labor would cause the Central Texas building boom to fall flat on its back. 3. Theres just not enough raw bodies in the construction trades. I dont think that Congress recognizes the full impact of a closed border system. 4. Theres an absolute numerical decline of Anglos in the labor force nationwide

and in Texas. Without people from other cultures and origins coming here, wed actually see a decline in the American labor force. 5. The jobs immigrants take are not the jobs Americans wont do. Immigrants are doing the jobs at the prices that are offered. Roofers and cement mixers who used top make $15 an hour arent going to work for $8. 6. Were not just workers. Were not

murders or criminals. We do important work. We work faster, for less money, and we do good work. Looked at from a Christian point of view, nationalism is a very dangerous principle. The Christian understanding of who is our neighbor is not

limited to those who look like us or who have THE JADED ITALIAN CULTURE Il politicain si serve (Politicians serve

Italy is a nation where nepotism, corruption, & dishonesty are incarnate in the political leader. (For example, building & safety codes are seldom enforced in Italy due to collusion between builders & politicians.) Paralizzato governo

The government is so paralyzed that national referendums must be held in order to pass most laws. CAUSES OF ITALIAN & WESTERN GOVERNMENTAL PARALYSIS 1. Numerous splintered political factions that wont compromise (Red vs. Blue states in America & Republican-Democratic

paralysis) 2. Self-seeking politicians & lobbyists 3. Continuously re-elected Power is based on (elite) people, not institutions 6. The corrupt know each other well 7. Special interest groups know they can court Italian officials 8.Pork barrel political projects

(earmarks in America) 9. Organized corruption (the Mafia) 10. Good-ole-boy justice networks of lawyers, DAs, judges, police 5. La societ li Most Italians liken their country to a whoreused,

but not loved serve ITALIAN CULTURE TODAY Commercio della famiglia WHY THE FASHION INDUSTRY

MAKES SENSE FOR ITALIAN CULTURE 1. Family-owned & run: the ideal form of business in Latin cultures 2. Requires little start-up capital 3. Non-institutional: hard for corrupt government officials

to touch Italian family business owners practice community capitalism (multiple stakeholders): family comes before customers & quality of life before profit maximization. The family is king, not

The customer is not king in Italythe family firm runs things around the needs of the family (hours open, days off, speed of YOU HAVE TO BE AN INSIDER Want good service? Want to bargain?

Want people who treat you in a genuine way? Then youd better be an insider in Latin cultures: a member of the extended family, a long-time loyal customer or supplier, a member of the community, or least a trusted acquaintance of an insider. Latins place relationships ahead of money & top notch performance. They feel that who you do things for is more important than what you do. Working

1. 2. 3. 4. STREET-WISE ITALIANO ADVICE: Dont invest your own money in a rented houseown your own business Organizations are an abstraction;

people are concrete Profit maximization is strictly for those who dont have an extended family Business is artistic selfexpression. Dont sell your soul to an impersonal publicly-owned company that cares only about what you produce, not who you are. THE CORDATA:

GODFATHER ORGANIZATIONS The cordata at work: A way to turn the scorned corporation into a family network Semi-independent godfather bosses run their part of the company as if it were a family

business. They hire their own employees who work for the godfather exclusively. Strong mutual loyalty is maintained. The various godfathers meet periodically to cut deals between them which shapes how the FRENCH SOPHISTICATION

1. France is the lifestyle culture (the outward worldliness of sumptuous cuisine, high fashion, & intellectual sophistication) within postEnlightenment Western culture. 2. French cultural tradition is fancy: mellifluous language, escargot, snuff boxes, the Moulin Rouge,

existentialism, Impressionistic painting, fine wines & cuisine, COMMENT LA CULTURE FRANAISE EST-ELLE SOPHISTIQUE? (HOW IS FRENCH SOPHISTICATED?) Moustache wax High heel shoes Lingerie Parfume Garters

Snuff boxes French cuffs Waist coats Cravats (neckties) Hoop skirts Brassieres Hair nets Pioneered porno photos THE FRENCH DUAL

PERSONALITIES Franaise fendue (split) la personnalit: LIBERTARIANISM VS. BUREAUCRACY (Latin + Anglo-Saxon mixture) A CULTURAL LEGACY OF TWO INCOMPATIBLE CULTURES

The French have a dual personality culturally with a volatile Anglo-Saxon/ Latin blend libertarianism + Personality 1: THE FRENCH LIBERTINE 1. Liberal lifestyles &

uninhibited licentiousness (La Moulin Rouge & the infamous Can-Can dance & LA FE VERTE (absinthe) 2. Mardi Gras (vs. Lent) 3. Self-indulgent sophistication 4. Political activism, strikes, Personality 2: FRANAIS LE BUREAUCRATE

1. Code Napoleon & a pervasive Civil Service system of professional employment 2. Competitive examinations 3. Rules for hiring, promotions, raises, etc. 4. The discipline of impersonal organization structure (the strange Anglo Saxon 5. The French show the

bureaucratic/control side of their character today in their tough zerotolerance anti-terrorism policies, often in tension with human rights. 6. All religious symbols are banned from public forums. 7. Unrestrained surveillance of Muslim activity within France. 8. Offensive harassment of the Muslin community via unannounced raids on suspected gathering places for terrorists

9. Limited human rights privileges for 1. The National Razor 2. 40,000 executed (many set up politically) in the Reign of Terror 3. Dr. Guillotine didnt invent the guillotine but championed its use in the revolution on the grounds that it was quick and painless (in contrast to manual beheading with an ax)

4. 88 lb. beveled blade 5. A half second to behead, but is the head still conscious for the next 30 The French still love to protest, but without the rolling of heads! Only the Russian Bolshevik

Revolution and the Spanish Civil War tore their countries apart in so great a rage as the French Revolution. Yet only 15 years after the fall of the French Bastille (prison) Napoleon crowned himself emperor. So why was the FRENCH

SOCIAL DUALITY SIGNS THAT FRENCH CULTURE CANT ADAPT TO THE MODERN WORLD 1. Rioting in 2006 throughout France by Muslim minorities who have been excluded from the French economic system. 2. Three-fourth of young French want

to become state employees because it ensures lifetime security. 3. French unemployment has remained at high levels (around 10%) because companies hesitate to create new jobs because 4. Just 36% of the French agree that capitalism is the world's best economic system.

5. Modern French government has been unwilling to admit that French socialism (reflected by an average tax rate of 44%) has sapped national economic growth. 6. The French seem to no longer know what they want. SECULARISM

Under French law, France is a nonreligious, secular culture (which bars religious symbols in public venues) 1. For many Euro secularists, Americas religiosity is its least attractive characteristic. They cant believe that any modern person can be religious unless they

are either stupid (Britains Private Eye dubs George Bush the leader of the Latter Day Morons) or insane (a former German chancellor was known to accuse Bush of hearing voicesnamely Gods). 2. Recent European polls found that most French & Dutch, & a large number of Brits & Germans think Americans are way too religious.

The French have always been objects of admiration, hatred, pity, or terror, but never EXISTENTIALISM 1. Its no accident that the skeptical French popularized the 20th century

philosophy of Existentialism which holds that you must define truth for yourself to find some (subjective) meaning in life. Religion or philosophy wont do because they claim to be based on absolute truth. 2. For most Existentialists, meaning in life stems from secular lifestyles, social causes, Internet activism, or in just plain partying (eat, drink,

and be merryFrench libertinism) In the minds of many, modern corporate consumerism lies at the heart of post-modern illusion. Consumerism is the myth that the individual will be gratified and integrated by consuming. Selfworth is gauged by buying power. The public substitutes consumer ideals for the lost cultural traditions of family, religion, and

art. The commercial exploitation of culture and duplicity in media and advertising have become threats MODERNISM says there is no absolute truth. POST-MODERNISM holds that there is no objective truththat I have to (existentially) define what is truth for me based on my subjective feelings, tribal groups,

& way of seeing reality. Asked to define truth, high profile postmodern philosopher Richard Rorty replied simply: Its what my friends let me get away with CHAPTER 10 CHINESE CULTURE COMMUNITY

COMMUNITY COMMUNITY Community = the network of people you and your family depend on most and who depend on you. Something is an IDEAL if it enhances the community (but not necessarily individual members of the

community, who are expected to sacrifice for the good of the Forest (community) or trees (individuals)? Are people part of their community or separate from it? ECOSYSTEM:

1. Life exists interdependently within the nurturing community, but never independently. 2. Community is interdependency. REJECTING THEIR NICHE 1. The blades of grass want to be bushes;

the bushes want to be cedar trees; the cedars want to be Redwoods. 2. The steam is threatening to prosecute the grass for soaking up too much water. 3. The flowers are going on strike to demand their fair share of the bees honey profits. 4. The deer & squirrels are suing the trees for hiding hunters.

THE WESTERN CULTURE OF INDIVIDUALISM 1. About the only community most Westerners ever belong to is the nuclear family. 2. Westerners are culturally programmed for PERSONAL success, which requires putting self before community. 3. Western culture does not have a tradition of ideals (which are

community enhancers). THE PRICE PAID FOR INDIVIDUALISM STEPPING ON COMMUNITY 1.Crime 2.Divorce 3.Litigation 4.Militant special interest groups

5.Pollution 6.War COMMUNITY IS: 1.Others-before-self ritual etiquette 2.We > me 3.Occupying your social niche to maintain community stability

4.Cooperation > conflict 5.Ideals > pragmatism COMMUNALISM Asians are as selfcentered as Westerners (because thats human nature), but Asian interpersonal etiquette/expectatio

ns force Asians to Most behavior in Western culture is governed by laws vs. peer pressure in Asian cultures. Peer pressure is a more powerful human influence than laws because we internalize the etiquette reinforced by our peers (friends, work associates, etc.), while laws remain largely

external to our daily lives. Laws motivate us through fear, while peer pressure motivates us WHAT IS COMMUNITY CONSCIOUSNESS? Sensitivity toward what others expect you to do + What traditional social

etiquette says you must do = Built-in etiquette for putting the community first ETIQUETTE BUILDS COMMUNITY & CHECKS SELFISH HUMAN NATURE 1. Surface harmony sustains peaceful interactions (vs. conflict). 2. Putting others first creates cooperation and teamwork (vs. selfserving competitiveness).

3. Accepting your niche and duties promotes social stability (vs. revolution). 4. Sacrifice brings out the best in others (while selfishness unleashes coarseness). French culture is the most sophisticated in an outward way. Asian culture is the most

inwardly sophisticated due to the many nuances of Asian etiquette built upon community ideals. ETIQUETTE IN ACTION 1. When receiving a business card from an Asian, never put it away in

their presence. Treat the card as if it were the person who gave it to you. Neither should you write on the card in their presence (which ruins the formal status of the card). 2. Avoid body contact when meeting most Asians. Use verbal greetings only. 3. Koreans are very protective of their bosss mental harmony and avoid delivering bad news until late

in the day. 4. When doing business in a Korean executives office, never put anything on his desk (violation of personal space). 5. Many Asians are very uncomfortable receiving personal praise or public notice for fear of showing up others, altering social relationships, or because they

wonder if youre trying to manipulate them. 6. Compliment the group rather than 7.When meeting Chinese, always recognize the oldest person first and inquire about his health. 8.Dont clean your plate at a Chinese banquet, since this may be

interpreted to mean that you were not served enough food. 9. To promote harmonious relationships with the Japanese, send negotiating questions well in advance of the meeting and dont be surprised if executives engage in long pauses of silence before answering questions. The

Japanese dont like surprises in social situations. 10.Yes, but means no in most Asian cultures. 11.In Asia , dont open gifts in the presence of the giver. Receive 12.If you are applauded in China, you should applaud back. 13.Seating arrangements are important, whether for business

meetings or for dining. The principal guest sits next to the host when dining. The Chinese host will lose face is this protocol is not followed. 14.The Japanese may ask you a lot of personal questions. Dont be upset, theyre merely trying to determine your social standing so they can address you with proper

1. Westerners are individualistic, independent (of community), isolated, & separated. This reflects the Western deterministic scientific mindset of analyzing discrete (separate) objects in isolation of one another (such as the zoological classifications of life). 2. Asians are communal, interdependent & connected,

reflecting the new scientific tradition of quantum physics ( a ASIAN COMMUNITY vs. WESTERN INDIVIDUALISM Community Community (Separation)

Submissive individualism Egocentric Individualism 1. In individualistic Western culture, WHAT you do is more important than HOW you do it or WHY you do it: Just do it! This is because pragmatic Westerners usually act on the basis of

what is best for them as individuals rather than what may be in the best interests of the community. Hence, how you achieve self 2. Asians feel HOW & WHY you do something is more important than what you do, because the

interests of others (the community) come first. Since how you do things affects others around you, behavioral etiquette is followed in a way that looks out for the interests of others as well as your own interests. Why you do something is also important because things must be done to benefit the community in addition to self.

Asians have no personal identity apart from the communities they have interdependencies in like a street person in the West who is separated from polite society & therefore persona non grata.

ASIAN SUBMISSIVE INDIVIDUALISM 1.Meet the expectations of your community. 2.Humbly submit to your social niche. 3. Give face (to receive face). 4. Maintain the etiquette of harmony.

AT ONE WITH THE PERFECT IDEALS OF NATURE Nature has no agenda, no goal, no purpose, except to exist as community. COMMUNAL HARMONY

1.Asian etiquette is like traffic laws: detailed rules everyone must follow to ensure a safe community. 2.Behavioral etiquette ensures harmony within the community, making it a better place for

Behavioral etiquette starts with surface harmony 1. Interacting with others in a way that produces positive feelings for everyone. 2. Telling others what they want to hear (to avoid disturbing interpersonal harmony).

3. Treating others the way they expect to be treated. 4. Read-between-the-lines subtle messages. Your daughter is such a committed piano student. Last night I could hear her practicing until midnight! Positive feelings?

Hear what they wanted to hear? Treated the way they wanted? Between-the-lines message? EASTERN vs. WESTERN PERCEPTION WESTERN SEPARATENESS vs. EASTERN COMMUNAL

INCLUSIVENSS 1. Western science views the world as a series of isolated, separate objects that must be examined apart from their natural environment (like a butterfly pinned to a display case) in order to objectively understand/control them--hence the scientists faade of emotional detachment. 2. Eastern communal inclusiveness

holds that life can be understood only in its natural community (hence, zoos are no substitute for EAST & WEST SEE REALITY DIFFERENTLY WEST: Focus on separate objects in the environment EAST: Focus on the total environment WEST: The individual shapes

society EAST: Society shapes the individual WEST: I am always the same WEST: I strive to be unique in the group EAST: I strive to fit into the group harmoniously WEST: I transmit information & must send it

clearly EAST: I receive information & must interpret it situationally COMMUNITY is the supreme ideal because it is the combination of all ideals: cooperation,

harmony, sacrifice, teamwork, justice, human dignity, etc. IDEALISM IN ASIAN ETIQUETTE: The means are just as important as the ends. HOW you

do something is as much of an ideal as what you do (because how you do things determines whether or not interpersonal harmony is achieved). 1.How gifts are wrapped 2.How food is served 3.How respect is shown to authority

4.Self-discipline as a sign of total commitment to a cause 5.Personal sacrifice as a sign of atonement for WESTERNIZED TAOISM 1. Christian Science (Mary Baker Eddy) 2. Norman Vincent Peale & positive thinking

3. Mary Kay Cosmetics, AMWAY sales rallies, & motivational speakers in business & sports 4. Jack Nicklaus Zen golf 5. Star Wars (the Force & Yoda) 6. Environmentalists & Wicans (Gaians) BUDDHISM & ASIAN METAPHYSIC

S UNDERSTANDING BUDDHISM Zen Buddhism says, be nothing, think nothing. Zen involves meditation with an empty mind, achieved by freeing the mind of earthly thoughts and attachments. This is often achieved by mediating on an object such as a rock, pool, or flower. Zen teaches nothing and

believes that only one essence exists (monismone mind). Zen uses meditation as the means of attaining salvation by virtue of inner power. Everything in the universe is connected, forming an interdependent community (spider

web of Western culture focuses on understanding reality, while Asian culture seeks to NEW SOCIAL

TRENDS IN CHINA FROM RACHEL DEWOSKIN, AUTHOR OF FOREIGN BABES IN CHINA 1. Consumerism became a religion, with companies arriving like missionaries, converting employees, testing advertising strategies, and seducing the

average Zhou Schmoe with products he had never known he needed. 2. New soap operas were offering up previous forbidden products: hard currency, the freedom to travel, 3. Privilege and its trappings had long been closely associated with Western imports, illicit movies, fancy cars, and frivolities in general. Once

considered banes of Western civilization, they have became the new playthings of the politically advantaged Chinese class. Urban China sparkled; while rural citizens remained poor, its cities were getting rich. Chinese women stalked through Chinas cities in miniskirts and heels, cell phones & pagers attached to their leather purses. They dyed their hair blond and had

4. The overall divorce rate in China soared during the 1990s, beset by the problems of modern love. There was one divorce in every 9 marriages, 4 times higher than ten years earlier. 5. Deng Xiaopings famous statement, to get rich is glorious, took effect, resonating everywhere. But some would get wealth a lot

sooner than others. This was a jarring shift for Chinese of all ages who had been deeply versed in the virtues of a communal society, where advantage and class 1. Chinglish, a hybrid of English and Chinese, is the new lingo used by hip Western foreigners in China today. Pinyin (spell sound) uses Western letters to

decode how the speak and understand Chinglish. 2. There are 77,000 known characters in traditional written Chinese. 3. Chinese small talk is not about weather; it simply acknowledges what has already THE LITTLE EMPEROR

GENERATION 1. Chinas one-child policy over the last generation prevented 300M births & unbalanced the gender ratio from a normal 105 males to 100 females to 118 males for every 100 females. 2. Boys are valued more than girls because they pass on the family lineage & brides must be paid a

large dowry. 3. The little emperor generation (of spoiled single children) is producing a new wave of 4. Fertility rate dropped from 2.29 children in 1980 to 1.69 today (2.1 is replacement rate)300M fewer births in the last 30 years 5. 118 males born for every 100 females via selective abortion (vs.

the global norm of 105 male births to 100 female) 6. Permitted exceptions to the policy: in rural areas, couples can have a second child is the first is female; in urban areas parents who are only children are allowed 2 children 7. Richer Chinese sometimes circumvent the policy by paying assessed fines; using in vitro fertilization as a means of

multiple births; having children abroad. 8. Penalties for breaking the policy: fines 310X annual income; state employees can be demoted of fired; children not allowed into better schools; forced abortion in some rural areas 9. The 4-2-1 pending future problem: 4 grandparents + 2 parents must be supported by 1 child 10.Other social problems: shortage of brides for men; incest villages; the ration of working age people to retirees

will fall from 6 today to 2 by 2040 PRACTICAL ADVICE FOR DOING BUSINESS IN CHINA From One Billion Customers, by James McGregor 1. The Chinese government uses competition from foreign companies to

reform its own companies and economic system. 2. Although China is confident about becoming a world-class competitor, it is also paranoid and insecure about the outside world. 3. China is modernizing, not Westernizing. 4. China has lots of slogans but no prominent ideology other than to become rich and powerful through international trade and business.

5. Chinese negotiators are masters of making you feel that you need them more than they need you. 6. The Chinese will ask you for anything 7. The most important thing in conducting business with the Chinese is to know who you are dealing with and what they really want and need. 8. The Chinese always strive to get

concessions from you. 9. Dont take what Chinese negotiators tell you to be the actual truth. They often site nonexistent regulations or rules simply to put you in a negotiating bind or box. 10.Contracts in China are not a guarantee of anything. It is the relationship built in negotiating the contract that you build your future on.

11.Contract details matter less than personal relationships. 12.Treat Chinese partners with great respect and equality, because insults and slights are never forgotten, and retribution is certain. 13.Chinese employees want leaders and mentors, not dictators or risk-avoiding bureaucrats. 14.Chinese employees and officials are ethically confused due to the cultures rapid

conversion from community wealth to individualized capitalized wealth. 15.Officials clear the way for business; business paves the way for Chinese officials to accumulate assets. Senior Chinese officials seldom engage in direct corruption, preferring instead to use nepotism as the means of building family wealth. For the ruling elite, gathering family assets quietly is quietly accepted.

16.Choose legitimate business agents and consultants to obtain corporate licenses and approvals, and seek as little information as possible about how they are obtained. 17.Dont attempt to bribe the Chinese. Nobody stays bought and the Chinese know bribery is against American laws. Instead, build long-term, win-win relationships with your customers through training them, offering them opportunities to travel and engage in recreation.

18.At its core, todays China is all about selfinterest. It is very strong on competition but week on cooperation. 19.Never put your business in the position where you are dependent on one individual for access to government officials. 20.Inform your suppliers that they will be dropped if they try to bribe your employees. Suppliers will appreciate being let off the 21.Be tough in negotiating. The Chinese respect it.

22.Frame your negotiation arguments to show how your company is good for China, and dont emphasize what is wrong with the Chinese system or government. Dont make the Chinese look bad. 23.Enlist the help of your home government in negotiating, as well as relevant international organizations and trade associations. 24.Cultivate relationships with Chinese

officials but spend more time with the customer than with politicians. 25.You dont win in China by getting only to the top guy. You win by enlisting supporters at all levels. The most talented business professionals in China are keen human observers who know what makes people tick. Lawyers in the West look for legal loopholes; the Chinese find people who can nudge their

business interests this way or that way. 26.You cant ignore Chinese government officials but dont sit and wait for their approval. The best strategy is to avoid forcing a government decision. 27.China is not one market, but rather a collection of many local markets, each with its own practices, traditions, and methods of local protectionism. The most carefully constructed legal contracts will quickly die when politics or

28.When forced to share your technology in China, isolate any parts of the technology that are not immediately crucial. 29.Deep scars from the Cultural Revolution and the sudden upheavals of capitalism have created a get-rich atmosphere in which nobody trusts anybody. In China business, expect to be cheated. 30.The Chinese appear to be a collective

society. They eat together, travel together, and recreate together. But below that collective surface a dog-eatdog competitive drive make the Chinese among the most individualistic and selfish people. 31.Chinas rush to get rich is accompanied by deep distrust of the system, and anyone outside the circle of close CHAPTER 11 JAPANESE

CULTURE A CULTURE OF IDEALS 1. When something good comes alive, its an ideal. Ideals are the essence of life-both the ends and means of living. Westerners have little experience experiencing Asian ideas. 2. Its hard for Westerners to understand Asian culture because ideals are less

important to Westerners, who value individual freedom & independence more than community. 3. Westerners push away the ideal of community because of its emphasis on interdependency, sacrifice, duty, & etiquette, all of which detract from individual autonomy (driving fast, loud Shudan Ishiki Why do the Japanese have such a

strong group consciousness? 1.Ethnic & cultural homogeneity 2.Predictable & rigid behavioral etiquette for every social situation 3.The pursuit of IDEAL #3: WA

INTERPERSONAL HARMONY Nature has no agenda. It simply exists as a harmonious ideal. LIVING IN THE TRIANGLE OF HARMONY Internal harmony External harmony Interpersonal

harmony 1. The work environment is more important than the work itself, because the environment determines what work can be accomplished. 2. The underlying foundation of the Japanese work environment is harmony vs.

conflict in Western companies. BEHAVIOR IN JAPANESE BUSINESS DEPENDS ON: 1.The context: the occasion, the people involved, the purpose 2. The behavioral model of the employees boss--the geisha (depository) of

workplace ideals 3. Avoiding (2-way) social embarrassment by anticipating the consequences of your behavior on the community you are part of

A good leader doesnt have to work hard to get others to work hard. TELEPATHIC COMMUNICATION HARMONY

Tatemae/Honne Faade vs. reality Communicating reality through a screen of polite harmony. 1. Safe business meeting agendas 2. Criticism protocol via intermediators 3. Barbarians within the

business delegation: Dont speak before your boss does; dont disagree 5. We will give your generous offer a great deal of thinking. (No) 6. We are surprised that your

product costs so little to make. (Your products cost estimates seem unreasonably low.) 7. We know that your company will be very successful in the future. (We do not want to EXAMPLES OF SCREENED HARMONY 1. Telling people what they want to

hear, expecting them to politely drag the truth out of you. 2. Making comments that require reading between the lines: That project is very difficult to complete (Translation: Weve run into some problems) 3. Using third parties to communicate areas of disagreement or 1. Most Japanese companies are

like a balloon because there are no openings in a balloon no openings for foreigners to become part of the company. Foreigners who wish to do business with a Japanese company must have an insider champion (madoguchi) to import the outsider into the company, thus giving them face (a legitimate status to interact

Japanese companies are also like a ringed target: executives occupy the bulls-eye; middle managers occupy the middle circles; foreign business partners occupy the outer ring. Anyone the

company doesnt do business GETTING TO HOME BASE WITH THE JAPANESE 1. Getting to first base: Getting a champion in the Japanese company 2. Getting to second base: Hierarchical networking of

executives in both companies 3. Getting to third base: Interpersonal bonding via karaoke, communal baths, etc. 4. Scoring a run: Suspending etiquette (honest, straight forward business negotiations Third party representatives

Expect it to take a solid year before your company gets to first base with a Japanese Company. They dont want to work with a foreign company that is in lust rather than in love. DURING THE DATING GAME

1. Be psychologically prepared for circular (communal consensus) Japanese business practices. 2. Why do the Japanese generally ask for more and more and more information about your company? (making sure everyone saves face by knowing a lot about

who they are about to do business with) 3. Waiting patiently for the right introductory ceremonial occasion (You cant celebrate Christmas in April.) 4. The Japanese reluctance to take on new friendship

obligationssense of duty always run ahead of emotions. Karaoke (empty orchestra) Nightlife is a cultural necessity in Japan because negotiations require safe ceremonial settings where people can be

open & honest without breaking harmonysuch as drinking in a bar where you can claim you were drunk & thus not aware of what blunt/honest things you may have said. Getting drunk etiquette

IDEAL #4: MUGA THE ART OF ACHIEVING PERFECTION Dami Oshi Making doubly sure Perfection = Internal commitment +

Group pressure Not workaholics, but rather: Duty-aholics Perfection-aholics Ideal-aholics Japanese Triangulation Internalized ideals

PERFECTION Team oversight Statistics The Japanese set up a mutual accountability system to drive workers toward more perfect

performance. Individual workers dedicate themselves to numerous ideals relating to performance excellence (head work, customerorientation, sweating the details, etc.); their individual work is closely monitored/coordinated by the work team; performance statistics are used as an objective measure of everyones overall success. Performance is seen as too important to leave in the hands of

JAPANESE MANAGEMEN T STYLE Transactional vs. Transformational leadership Transactional management, characteristic of the individualistic

West, is the quid-pro-quo approach to work of Ill do this for you if you do this for me. Managers in Western companies are expected to motivate & lead workers into pursuing organizational interests in return for providing competitive wages & benefits, possible merit pay & promotions, & agreeable work conditions. The organization looks

Japanese transformational management requires that employees motivate themselves on behalf of the organization by internalizing the workplace ideals of this boss (sempai). Managers serve as role models of organizational ideals for employees to sacrificially emulate. Employees arent

promotable until they rise above self-interest, doing what the organization wants, the way it wants. Vague goals, Clear ideals CHAPTER 14

THE UNIVERSAL (UGEN) CULTURE A new generation adapted for a new world: Globalism > nationalism Digital technology

Virtual communal culture Massive institutional change Emergence of the worlds first universal generation (young people who carry little from the past & are more like one another globally

than like their UGEN culture emerged to compensate for: Loss of institutional authority & the resulting erosion of existential meaning in Western culture Growing marginalization of the nuclear family

UGEN culture is enabled by: Virtual relationships technology Rise of post-modernism (decline of external authority) Real time work environment

WHY A UNIVERSAL GENERATION? 1. Dissolving nationalistic barriers-nationalism replaced by tolerance of diversity 2. Acceptance/tolerance of lifestyle & spiritual diversity 3. Global networking technology is universally available 4. Emergence of an integrated global

economy 5. American exports of popular culture 1. UGENs are the first generation adapted for the work & social environments of the 21st century. 2. Over the next 50 years, world cultures will lose much of their 20th century

distinctiveness. 3. Current UGENs already have shed much of their parents traditional cultural programming. THE UGEN MATRIX The emerging universal (UGEN) culture is a combination of historical processes, identities, & power relations whose roots go back at least 6 centuries to the dawn of

the modern era of Western civilization. These historical influences have formed a 21st century matrix similar to the one humans were plugged into in the movie Matrix. The UGEN matrix consists of 4 components: secular culture, capitalism, consumerism, & individualism. Because todays industrialized cultures are programmed by the 4 quadrants of this UGEN matrix, a universal culture has

CULTURAL TRENDS DRAWING TO A CLOSE 1.The age of the scientific mindset (objective reality) 2.Nationalism & its emphasis on mastering & conquering 3.Moral certainty

GOVERNMENT: No longer trustworthy or honorable MILITARY: Imperialist & rogue CAPITALISM: Greedy HISTORY: Revisionism MEDIA: Intellectual wasteland & ideological ORGANIZED RELIGION: Irrelevant & self-serving

WOMEN: Unisex culture; same social role as men MINORITIES: Empowered; politically correct LIFESTYLES: Do your own (existentialist) thing CONSUMERISM: Ecological destruction & global warming Theres no such thing as absolute truth.

What you see varies according to what you are looking for. The story depends on who is listening and watching, as well as who is acting and Authority of (tribal) SELF

Tribal (extended cultural family) lifestyles Truth is discovered by self (tribe), not via religions, institutions, or science (which are only given consideration).

I (my tribe) know whats best for me, not an I do whats best for me, not what external authority figures may expect me to do. I act on the basis of my

wants & feelings, not AUTHORITY OF SELF LIFESTYLES C21 examples of being your own authority (1) Premarital sex-cohabitation; (2) Expecting organizations to accommodate your lifestyle; (3) Bringing your personal life into the workplace via

cell phone, email, and friendships on the job. MANIFESTATIONS OF C21 CULTURAL SUBJECTIVE REALITY Digital private worlds; tweets, Facebook, YouTube, IPODs, texting,

etc. Advertising, PR, ideological talk shows, political campaigning Entertainment/ideologydriven media Political & religious polarization Political correctness (lifestyle libertarianism) Icon worship: music,

sports, movies, politicians Single-issue social CULTURAL INTELLECTUAL

CHAOS Libertarianism Single-issue (litmus-test) politics & voters Domestic & international ideological terrorism Religious cults & institutionalized pedophilia Revisionist history THE

UGEN MATRIX Baudrillard depicts the post-modern murder of reality as the perfect crime, which has destroyed reality and replaced it with a virtual, subjective world of information, simulated experiences, and illusions. People accept illusion and appearance (the reign of the object)

and give up the quest for truth and reality. The post-modern illusions of the virtual screen world become the false truth of the object (the images, sounds, experiences, and feelings of post-modernism). POMO reality is subjective illusion. In a society where everything is a commodity that can be bought or sold, people are alienated from

community. Commodities, media, and technologies provide a universe of illusion and fantasy where individuals become overpowered by consumerism, media ideologies, and fleeting celebrity role models. This leads to a destruction of the real and negates realitythe perfect crime by the media and

The central concept of the Matrix is that the world you think you live in is not the real one. We are controlled and influenced by forces (media & technological symbols?) we dont easily see. Everyone is so firmly locked into a false consciousness that they no longer see the real world. Society is dominated by a matrix of thinking machines which humans are

connected to by cybernetic The Matrix prompts us to ask: To what extent are the 21st century media, Internet, consumer marketing, PR firms, virtual reality games, pop culture icons, advertising, political sloganing, & innertainment (such as IPODs, online gambling, online pornography, etc.) creating a

subjective world of unreality in the minds of the emerging universal generation, thereby THE UGEN PRIORITY OF HAPPINESS 1. Higher priorities than happiness common to past generations: Selfsufficiency, duty, commitment, sacrifice, religion, etc. 2. How happy would you be if you

gave serious attention to external authority figures (parents, preachers, teachers, advertisers, etc.) nagging you about the right way to live your life? 3. The only way to achieve happiness is to tune out most of these conflicting authority figures by 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. THE AUTHORITY OF FEELINGS Do what feels right: lifestyle choices, code of morality, situational ethics, etc. Does it make me happy (feel good)?

Serial lifestyles (continually remaking yourself) Vibes from popular culture Some UGENs are still religious, but in a different way from previous generations of believers. Previous generations of believers tended to say, Believe what you know; UGENs are more likely to say, Believe what you FEELINGS > FACTS

Many UGEN college students obsess over grades because they feel they are an A student even if their academic performance says otherwise. Since I feel like Im a straight A student, my grade of B in this class is obviously a mistake or unfair. UGEN often shirk mundane responsibilities (being punctual, dressing appropriately, paying bills on

time, etc.) because they didnt feel like it at the time. UGEN live in the moment & resist interrupting its flow by planning Over-scheduling fits right in with the mass consumer mentality. Im busy, therefore I am, seems to define us. In order to validate our

existence, we fill our lives with a lot of things to do and a lot The universal generation is well suited in the following ways to cope with the emerging new economic & geopolitical uncertainties of the 21st century (global warming, international terrorism, US

economic instability, natural resource scarcities, nonlinear development of technology & corresponding business 1.The UGEN spontaneity & go-withthe-flow mentality makes them more adaptable to unexpected changes & challenges. 2. The UGEN communal, dont-go-italone, temperament augers to make this generation more open to multilateral solutions to new global

problems. 3. The digital networking penchant of UGEN provides a powerful resource for creative thinking, openmindedness, collaboration, & win- UGEN PORTALS SCREEN CULTURE: FILTERING REALITY THROUGH SUBJECTIVE SCREENS

THE 3Ts: THE NEW UGEN PORTALS # 1 Technology: Transports UGEN to the virtual tribes via cell phones, IPODs, the Internet, chat groups, blogs #2 Tribes:

Transport UGENs to self-identity, communal championship #3 Travel: Transports UGEN to alternate cultural realities & FACING AN UNKNOWABLE FUTURE

1. The technology for your serial career(s) doesnt exist yet 2. The world is remaking itself faster than people can adapt to it 3. Reality is now virtual 4. The definition of life is being redefined 5. You redefine yourself

Reality is communal Experience collecting

Travel Entertainment diversity Serial lifestyles Serial jobs Serial spiritual pursuits

Serial sexual relationships Shopping (physical & digital) Job relocations Plastic surgery Recreational drugs Bisexuality UGEN LIFE IN THE

Living in the now consumes high quantities of the time & energy it takes for UGEN to network with tribal members, reacting to the ever-shifting matrix of tribal spur-of-the-moment decisions, relationships, & digital communications. Little time & energy is left

C21 REAL-TIME WORK People in C21 always have more to do than the time to do it in, so life cannot be highly planned, scheduled, and routinized. Much of C21 work has to be done in a real-time mode, because of the challenge of coordinating the radar screens of UGENs. Much of C21 work consists of crash projects (not 8:005:00 work scheduling) when employees are able to

temporarily postpone their current lifestyle priorities to give the THE UGEN COMMUNAL LIFESTYLE 3. Technology (cell phones & the Internet) supports communal interaction. Networks are the

new virtual neighborhoods of community. These networks are communities built around personal experience, selfexpression, nurturance, groupsharing, and helping others. 4. Western UGENs are less independent than previous generations (because their VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES HAVE REPLACED PHYSICAL COMMUNIITES Western culture has devolved &

fragmented into special interest/special lifestyle groups existing within physical space (mainly cities & organizations). Because people who want to align with these special agenda groups are physically separated, virtual membership exists via the Internet & pop culture (movies, TV, radio, etc.). The proliferation & cultural significance of these virtual

UGEN CONNECT TO: 1.The Internet & mass media 2.Pop culture icons 3.Global &New Age music 4.Lifestyle experiences 5.Self-expression 6.Tribal (virtual) community 7.Real-time living in the

UGENs TEND TO DISCONNECT FROM: 1. The past (history) 2. Civic involvement & voting (due to lifestyle/career mobility) 3. Current events (in lieu of tribal events) 4. Institutional participation (church denominations, political parties, public schools, Fortune

500 corporations, etc.) 5. Unpleasant realities of the world (which are simply UGEN WORK CULTURE Project-based (communal) work requires that people get

along, which requires fitting together, which requires Mutual acceptance with no agendas = a different workplace for a new Universal UGEN WORK CULTURE 1. Informality 2. Flex scheduling 3. Teamwork

4. Project-based 5. Unisex 6. Spontaneous & temporary 7. Simultaneous pursuit of professional & personal agendas

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